Male reproductive health depends on many factors, including whether infectious diseases occur in the reproductive system. Such changes may be reflected in the semen analysis. In the past three years, the number of individuals who fell ill with COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been growing worldwide, including in Russia. This infection causes dysfunction and a negative effect on many organs and systems, including reproductive organs, which is reflected in abnormal semen parameters. Despite the high efficacy and small number of side effects found in clinical trials, only 56% of the population in the US and 49% in the Russian Federation reported wanting the vaccine. One of the reasons for distrust of vaccines is the potential negative impact on fertility. A literature review is devoted to the study of the effect of SARS-CoV-2 and vaccination on male reproductive health. The search was carried out using Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE databases.Copyright © 2023 Authors. All rights reserved.