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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443851

ABSTRACT

Many important questions remain regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19. These questions include the mechanisms explaining the high percentage of asymptomatic but highly infectious individuals, the wide variability in disease susceptibility, and the mechanisms of long-lasting debilitating effects. Bioinformatic analysis of four coronavirus datasets representing previous outbreaks (SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV), as well as SARS-CoV-2, revealed evidence of diverse host factors that appear to be coopted to facilitate virus-induced suppression of interferon-induced innate immunity, promotion of viral replication and subversion and/or evasion of antiviral immune surveillance. These host factors merit further study given their postulated roles in COVID-19-induced loss of smell and brain, heart, vascular, lung, liver, and gut dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(4): e0109, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-314388

ABSTRACT

This review will briefly examine the clinical presentation and important immunology of viral pneumonia with a focus on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019). DATA SOURCES STUDY SELECTION DATA EXTRACTION AND DATA SYNTHESIS: The most relevant, original and review literature were assessed for inclusion in this review. Sources included the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and PubMed. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization and death worldwide, with viral etiologies being very common. Given the rapidly emerging pandemic associated with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing coronavirus disease 2019, it is important to review the clinical presentation and immunologic changes associated with viral pneumonia. Symptoms of viral pneumonia include common respiratory tract infection symptoms of cough, fever, and shortness of breath. Immunologic changes include up-regulation of airway pro-inflammatory cytokines and pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns contributing to cytokine and genomic changes. Coronavirus disease 2019 clinical presentation is typical of viral pneumonia with an increased prevalence of early pulmonary infiltrates and lymphopenia. Principles of early coronavirus disease 2019 management and isolation as well as potential therapeutic approaches to the emerging pandemic are discussed.

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