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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(6)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192547

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a globally ubiquitous pathogen with a seroprevalence of approximately 50% in the United Kingdom. CMV infection induces expansion of immunosenescent T cell and NK cell populations, with these cells demonstrating lower responsiveness to activation and reduced functionality upon infection and vaccination. In this study, we found that CMV+ participants had normal T cell responses after a single-dose or homologous vaccination with the viral vector chimpanzee adenovirus developed by the University of Oxford (ChAdOx1). CMV seropositivity was associated with reduced induction of IFN-γ-secreting T cells in a ChAd-Modified Vaccinia Ankara (ChAd-MVA) viral vector vaccination trial. Analysis of participants receiving a single dose of ChAdOx1 demonstrated that T cells from CMV+ donors had a more terminally differentiated profile of CD57+PD1+CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells expressing less IL-2Rα (CD25) and fewer polyfunctional CD4+ T cells 14 days after vaccination. NK cells from CMV-seropositive individuals also had a reduced activation profile. Overall, our data suggest that although CMV infection enhances immunosenescence of T and NK populations, it does not affect antigen-specific T cell IFN-γ secretion or antibody IgG production after vaccination with the current ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination regimen, which has important implications given the widespread use of this vaccine, particularly in low- and middle-income countries with high CMV seroprevalence.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
2.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(5): 835-837, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958459

ABSTRACT

Vδ2+ γδT cells are unconventional T cells that can be activated by cytokines without TCR signaling. Adenovirus vaccine vectors activated Vδ2+ γδT cells in an interleukin 18-, TNF-, and type I interferon-dependent manner. This stimulatory capacity was associated with adenovirus vectors of non-species C origin, including the ChAdOx1 vaccine platform.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Adenoviridae/genetics , Cytokines , Interleukin-18 , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/genetics
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009804, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529726

ABSTRACT

Prior studies have demonstrated that immunologic dysfunction underpins severe illness in COVID-19 patients, but have lacked an in-depth analysis of the immunologic drivers of death in the most critically ill patients. We performed immunophenotyping of viral antigen-specific and unconventional T cell responses, neutralizing antibodies, and serum proteins in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, using influenza infection, SARS-CoV-2-convalescent health care workers, and healthy adults as controls. We identify mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell activation as an independent and significant predictor of death in COVID-19 (HR = 5.92, 95% CI = 2.49-14.1). MAIT cell activation correlates with several other mortality-associated immunologic measures including broad activation of CD8+ T cells and non-Vδ2 γδT cells, and elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines, including GM-CSF, CXCL10, CCL2, and IL-6. MAIT cell activation is also a predictor of disease severity in influenza (ECMO/death HR = 4.43, 95% CI = 1.08-18.2). Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals a shift from focused IFNα-driven signals in COVID-19 ICU patients who survive to broad pro-inflammatory responses in fatal COVID-19 -a feature not observed in severe influenza. We conclude that fatal COVID-19 infection is driven by uncoordinated inflammatory responses that drive a hierarchy of T cell activation, elements of which can serve as prognostic indicators and potential targets for immune intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Patient Acuity
4.
Nat Immunol ; 22(8): 1042-1051, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267375

ABSTRACT

Pathogens and vaccines that produce persisting antigens can generate expanded pools of effector memory CD8+ T cells, described as memory inflation. While properties of inflating memory CD8+ T cells have been characterized, the specific cell types and tissue factors responsible for their maintenance remain elusive. Here, we show that clinically applied adenovirus vectors preferentially target fibroblastic stromal cells in cultured human tissues. Moreover, we used cell-type-specific antigen targeting to define critical cells and molecules that sustain long-term antigen presentation and T cell activity after adenovirus vector immunization in mice. While antigen targeting to myeloid cells was insufficient to activate antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, genetic activation of antigen expression in Ccl19-cre-expressing fibroblastic stromal cells induced inflating CD8+ T cells. Local ablation of vector-targeted cells revealed that lung fibroblasts support the protective function and metabolic fitness of inflating memory CD8+ T cells in an interleukin (IL)-33-dependent manner. Collectively, these data define a critical fibroblastic niche that underpins robust protective immunity operating in a clinically important vaccine platform.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Interleukin-33/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Stromal Cells/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemokine CCL19/metabolism , Chimera/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Lung/cytology , Melanoma, Experimental/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Vaccination
6.
Science ; 371(6528): 521-526, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510029

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate sensors of viruses and can augment early immune responses and contribute to protection. We hypothesized that MAIT cells may have inherent adjuvant activity in vaccine platforms that use replication-incompetent adenovirus vectors. In mice and humans, ChAdOx1 (chimpanzee adenovirus Ox1) immunization robustly activated MAIT cells. Activation required plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-derived interferon (IFN)-α and monocyte-derived interleukin-18. IFN-α-induced, monocyte-derived tumor necrosis factor was also identified as a key secondary signal. All three cytokines were required in vitro and in vivo. Activation of MAIT cells positively correlated with vaccine-induced T cell responses in human volunteers and MAIT cell-deficient mice displayed impaired CD8+ T cell responses to multiple vaccine-encoded antigens. Thus, MAIT cells contribute to the immunogenicity of adenovirus vectors, with implications for vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
7.
Cell Rep ; 34(3): 108661, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472060

ABSTRACT

Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells provide key adaptive immune responses in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. However, transcriptional heterogeneity of human intestinal TRM cells remains undefined. Here, we investigate transcriptional and functional heterogeneity of human TRM cells through study of donor-derived TRM cells from intestinal transplant recipients. Single-cell transcriptional profiling identifies two transcriptional states of CD8+ TRM cells, delineated by ITGAE and ITGB2 expression. We define a transcriptional signature discriminating these populations, including differential expression of cytotoxicity- and residency-associated genes. Flow cytometry of recipient-derived cells infiltrating the graft, and lymphocytes from healthy gut, confirm these CD8+ TRM phenotypes. CD8+ CD69+CD103+ TRM cells produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) and demonstrate greater polyfunctional cytokine production, whereas ß2-integrin+CD69+CD103- TRM cells have higher granzyme expression. Analysis of intestinal CD4+ T cells identifies several parallels, including a ß2-integrin+ population. Together, these results describe the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional heterogeneity of human intestinal CD4+ and CD8+ TRM cells.


Subject(s)
Intestines/physiology , /metabolism , Humans
8.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 270-278, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335323

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused a global pandemic, and safe, effective vaccines are urgently needed1. Strong, Th1-skewed T cell responses can drive protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses2 and might reduce the potential for disease enhancement3. Cytotoxic T cells clear virus-infected host cells and contribute to control of infection4. Studies of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have suggested a protective role for both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in recovery from COVID-19 (refs. 5,6). ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine comprising a replication-deficient simian adenovirus expressing full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We recently reported preliminary safety and immunogenicity data from a phase 1/2 trial of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (NCT04400838)7 given as either a one- or two-dose regimen. The vaccine was tolerated, with induction of neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific T cells against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Here we describe, in detail, exploratory analyses of the immune responses in adults, aged 18-55 years, up to 8 weeks after vaccination with a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in this trial, demonstrating an induction of a Th1-biased response characterized by interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α cytokine secretion by CD4+ T cells and antibody production predominantly of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. CD8+ T cells, of monofunctional, polyfunctional and cytotoxic phenotypes, were also induced. Taken together, these results suggest a favorable immune profile induced by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, supporting the progression of this vaccine candidate to ongoing phase 2/3 trials to assess vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6385, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318491

ABSTRACT

The response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been hampered by lack of an effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antiviral therapy. Here we report the use of remdesivir in a patient with COVID-19 and the prototypic genetic antibody deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA). Despite evidence of complement activation and a robust T cell response, the patient developed persistent SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis, without progressing to multi-organ involvement. This unusual clinical course is consistent with a contribution of antibodies to both viral clearance and progression to severe disease. In the absence of these confounders, we take an experimental medicine approach to examine the in vivo utility of remdesivir. Over two independent courses of treatment, we observe a temporally correlated clinical and virological response, leading to clinical resolution and viral clearance, with no evidence of acquired drug resistance. We therefore provide evidence for the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir in vivo, and its potential benefit in selected patients.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Fever/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
10.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 38: 203-228, 2020 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986071

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been attracting increasing attention over the last few years as a potent unconventional T cell subset. Three factors largely account for this emerging interest. Firstly, these cells are abundant in humans, both in circulation and especially in some tissues such as the liver. Secondly is the discovery of a ligand that has uncovered their microbial targets, and also allowed for the development of tools to accurately track the cells in both humans and mice. Finally, it appears that the cells not only have a diverse range of functions but also are sensitive to a range of inflammatory triggers that can enhance or even bypass T cell receptor-mediated signals-substantially broadening their likely impact in health and disease. In this review we discuss how MAIT cells display antimicrobial, homeostatic, and amplifier roles in vivo, and how this may lead to protection and potentially pathology.


Subject(s)
Disease Susceptibility , Homeostasis , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/metabolism , Animals , Biomarkers , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Mucous Membrane/immunology , Mucous Membrane/metabolism , Mucous Membrane/microbiology , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2098: 97-124, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792818

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an abundant innate-like T cell subset in humans, enriched in mucosal tissues and the liver. MAIT cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and recognize microbial-derived riboflavin metabolites presented on the MHC Class I-like molecule MR1. In addition to activation via the TCR, MAIT cells can also be activated in response to cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-18, in contrast to conventional T cells. Here we describe TCR-dependent and -independent methods for MAIT cell activation. The TCR-dependent approaches include stimulation with microbead- or plate-bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies, and with 5-OP-RU or paraformaldehyde (PFA)-fixed E. coli in the presence of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The latter method includes a combination of TCR- and cytokine-mediated stimulation. The TCR-independent methods include direct stimulation with the recombinant cytokines IL-12 and IL-18, and indirect stimulation with TLR-4/TLR-8 agonists or influenza A virus in the presence of APCs. Finally, we outline a protocol to analyze activated MAIT cells using flow cytometry.


Subject(s)
Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/metabolism , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Escherichia coli/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Staining and Labeling , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Viruses/immunology
12.
Vaccine ; 36(46): 7011-7016, 2018 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279090

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and non-replicating adenoviral vectors can induce expanded, sustained effector-memory CD8+ T-cell responses, termed "memory inflation". During murine CMV (MCMV) infection, CD4+ Tcells maintain inflationary virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses via IL-2 but not IL-21. Adenovirus vector vaccination can induce phenotypically, functionally and transcriptionally similar inflationary responses, but it is not known how IL-21 influences the inflating memory response to adenoviral vaccination. Here, we show that IL-21 is an absolute requirement for induction and maintenance of vaccine-derived inflationary CD8+ T-cell responses. These data indicate that the induction pathway of inflationary Ad-LacZ T-cells is distinct from inflationary MCMV-specific T-cells and is highly dependent on IL-21. Our observations highlight a fundamental difference in the mechanism by which adenovirus vectors and MCMV drive inflationary T-cell responses.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interleukins/metabolism , Animals , Interleukins/genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic
13.
J Immunol ; 201(9): 2744-2752, 2018 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249811

ABSTRACT

The combined inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and the proteins of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family have recently shown therapeutic efficacy against melanoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, testicular, and lymphoma cancers in murine studies. However, in such studies, the role of the immune system in therapeutically controlling these cancers has not been explored. We sought to investigate the effect of the HDAC inhibitor romidepsin (RMD) and the BET inhibitor IBET151, both singly and in combination, on vaccine-elicited immune responses. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with differing vaccine systems (adenoviral, protein) in prime-boost regimens under treatment with RMD, IBET151, or RMD+IBET151. The combined administration of RMD+IBET151 during vaccination resulted in a significant increase in the frequency and number of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells. RMD+IBET151 treatment significantly increased the frequency of vaccine-elicited IFN-γ+ splenic CD8+ T cells and conferred superior therapeutic and prophylactic protection against B16-OVA melanoma. RNA sequencing analyses revealed strong transcriptional similarity between RMD+IBET151 and untreated Ag-specific CD8+ T cells except in apoptosis and IL-6 signaling-related genes that were differentially expressed. Serum IL-6 was significantly increased in vivo following RMD+IBET151 treatment, with recombinant IL-6 administration replicating the effect of RMD+IBET151 treatment on vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cell responses. IL-6 sufficiency for protection was not assessed. Combined HDAC and BET inhibition resulted in greater vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cell responses and enhanced therapeutic and prophylactic protection against B16-OVA melanoma. Increased IL-6 production and the differential expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes following RMD+IBET151 treatment are likely contributors to the enhanced cancer vaccine responses.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings/pharmacology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Melanoma, Experimental/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nerve Tissue Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors
14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1478, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013556

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate-like T cells that function at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. They express semi-invariant T cell receptors (TCRs) and recognize unconventional non-peptide ligands bound to the MHC Class I-like molecules MR1 and CD1d, respectively. MAIT cells and iNKT cells exhibit an effector-memory phenotype and are enriched within the liver and at mucosal sites. In humans, MAIT cell frequencies dwarf those of iNKT cells, while in laboratory mouse strains the opposite is true. Upon activation via TCR- or cytokine-dependent pathways, MAIT cells and iNKT cells rapidly produce cytokines and show direct cytotoxic activity. Consequently, they are essential for effective immunity, and alterations in their frequency and function are associated with numerous infectious, inflammatory, and malignant diseases. Due to their abundance in mice and the earlier development of reagents, iNKT cells have been more extensively studied than MAIT cells. This has led to the routine use of iNKT cells as a reference population for the study of MAIT cells, and such an approach has proven very fruitful. However, MAIT cells and iNKT cells show important phenotypic, functional, and developmental differences that are often overlooked. With the recent availability of new tools, most importantly MR1 tetramers, it is now possible to directly study MAIT cells to understand their biology. Therefore, it is timely to compare the phenotype, development, and function of MAIT cells and iNKT cells. In this review, we highlight key areas where MAIT cells show similarity or difference to iNKT cells. In addition, we discuss important avenues for future research within the MAIT cell field, especially where comparison to iNKT cells has proven less informative.

15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 756, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740432

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells abundant in humans that can be activated in a TCR-independent manner by inflammatory and antiviral cytokines. In humans, the capacity for TCR-independent activation is functionally linked to a transcriptional program that can be identified by the expression of the C-type lectin receptor, CD161. In addition to MAIT cells, it has been demonstrated that a subset of γδT cells expresses CD161 and can be activated by TCR-independent cytokine stimulation. In this study, we sought to clarify the nature of cytokine-responsive human γδT cells. We could link CD161 expression on Vδ2+ versus Vδ1+ γδT cells to the observation that Vδ2+ γδT cells, but not Vδ1+ γδT cells, robustly produced IFN-γ upon stimulation with a variety of cytokine combinations. Interestingly, both CD161+ and CD161- Vδ2+ γδT cells responded to these stimuli, with increased functionality within the CD161+ subset. This innate-like responsiveness corresponded to high expression of PLZF and IL-18Rα, analogous to MAIT cells. Vδ2+ γδT cells in human duodenum and liver maintained a CD161+ IL-18Rα+ phenotype and produced IFN-γ in response to IL-12 and IL-18 stimulation. In contrast to MAIT cells, we could not detect IL-17A production but observed higher steady-state expression of Granzyme B by Vδ2+ γδT cells. Finally, we investigated the frequency and functionality of γδT cells in the context of chronic hepatitis C virus infection, as MAIT cells are reduced in frequency in this disease. By contrast, Vδ2+ γδT cells were maintained in frequency and displayed unimpaired IFN-γ production in response to cytokine stimulation. In sum, human Vδ2+ γδT cells are a functionally distinct population of cytokine-responsive innate-like T cells that is abundant in blood and tissues with similarities to human MAIT cells.


Subject(s)
Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Female , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology
16.
J Virol ; 92(11)2018 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563285

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are being investigated as vaccine candidates, but baseline antivector immunity exists in human populations to both human Ad (HuAd) and chimpanzee Ad (ChAd) vectors. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of a panel of recently described rhesus adenoviral (RhAd) vectors. RhAd vectors elicited T cells with low exhaustion markers and robust anamnestic potential. Moreover, RhAd vector immunogenicity was unaffected by high levels of preexisting anti-HuAd immunity. Both HuAd/RhAd and RhAd/RhAd prime-boost vaccine regimens were highly immunogenic, despite a degree of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) between phylogenetically related RhAd vectors. We observed extensive vector-specific cross-reactive CD4 T cell responses and more limited CD8 T cell responses between RhAd and HuAd vectors, but the impact of vector-specific cellular responses was far less than that of vector-specific NAbs. These data suggest the potential utility of RhAd vectors and define novel heterologous prime-boost strategies for vaccine development.IMPORTANCE To date, most adenoviral vectors developed for vaccination have been HuAds from species B, C, D, and E, and human populations display moderate to high levels of preexisting immunity. There is a clinical need for new adenoviral vectors that are not hindered by preexisting immunity. Moreover, the development of RhAd vector vaccines expands our ability to vaccinate against multiple pathogens in a population that may have received other HuAd or ChAd vectors. We evaluated the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of RhAd vectors, which belong to the poorly described adenovirus species G. These vectors induced robust cellular and humoral immune responses and were not hampered by preexisting anti-HuAd vector immunity. Such properties make RhAd vectors attractive as potential vaccine vectors.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/immunology , Adenoviruses, Simian/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Adoptive Transfer , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Gene Products, gag/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Viral Vaccines/immunology
17.
mSphere ; 2(6)2017.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242831

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented challenges of developing effective vaccines against intracellular pathogens such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis have resulted in more rational approaches to vaccine development. Apart from the recent advances in the design and selection of improved epitopes and adjuvants, there are also ongoing efforts to optimize delivery platforms. Viral vectors are the best-characterized delivery tools because of their intrinsic adjuvant capability, unique cellular tropism, and ability to trigger robust adaptive immune responses. However, a known limitation of viral vectors is preexisting immunity, and ongoing efforts are aimed at developing novel vector platforms with lower seroprevalence. It is also becoming increasingly clear that different vectors, even those derived from phylogenetically similar viruses, can elicit substantially distinct immune responses, in terms of quantity, quality, and location, which can ultimately affect immune protection. This review provides a summary of the status of viral vector development for HIV vaccines, with a particular focus on novel viral vectors and the types of adaptive immune responses that they induce.

18.
Sci Immunol ; 1(5)2016 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239679

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vaccine vectors elicit robust CD8+ T cell responses, but these responses typically exhibit a partially exhausted phenotype. However, the immunologic mechanism by which Ad5 vectors induce dysfunctional CD8+ T cells has not previously been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that, following immunization of B6 mice, Ad5 vectors elicit antigen-specific IL-10+CD4+ T cells with a distinct transcriptional profile in a dose-dependent fashion. In rhesus monkeys, we similarly observed upregulated expression of IL-10 and PD-1 by CD4+ T cells following Ad5 vaccination. These cells markedly suppressed vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cell responses in vivo and IL-10 blockade increased the frequency and functionality of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells as well as improved protective efficacy against challenge with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Moreover, induction of these inhibitory IL-10+CD4+ T cells correlated with IL-27 expression and IL-27 blockade substantially improved CD4+ T cell functionality. These data highlight a role for IL-27 in the induction of inhibitory IL-10+CD4+ T cells, which suppress CD8+ T cell magnitude and function following Ad5 vector immunization. A deeper understanding of the cytokine networks and transcriptional profiles induced by vaccine vectors should lead to strategies to improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of viral vector-based vaccines.

19.
Vaccine ; 35(1): 1-9, 2017 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899229

ABSTRACT

An important focus in vaccine research is the design of vaccine vectors with low seroprevalence and high immunogenicity. Replication-incompetent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors do not elicit vector-neutralizing antibody responses, and homologous prime-boost regimens with rLCMV vectors induce boostable and protective T cell responses to model antigens in mice. However, cellular and humoral immune responses following homologous rLCMV vaccine regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in non-human primates (NHPs). To test whether rLCMV vectors constitute an effective vaccine platform in NHPs, we developed rLCMV vectors expressing SIVmac239 Env and Gag antigens and assessed their immunogenicity in mice and cynomolgus macaques. Immunization with rLCMV vaccine vectors expressing SIV Env and Gag was effective at generating SIV-specific T cell and antibody responses in both mice and NHPs. Epitope mapping using SIV Env in C57BL/6 mice demonstrated that rLCMV vectors induced sustained poly-functional responses to both dominant and subdominant epitopes. Our results suggest the potential of rLCMV vectors as vaccine candidates. Future SIV challenge experiments in rhesus macaques will be needed to assess immune protection by these vaccine vectors.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Drug Carriers , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/genetics , SAIDS Vaccines/immunology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Macaca fascicularis , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SAIDS Vaccines/administration & dosage , SAIDS Vaccines/genetics , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
20.
Vaccine ; 34(41): 4955-4963, 2016 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566899

ABSTRACT

T cells are an important component of immune responses, and their function is influenced by their expression of inhibitory receptors. Immunization with alternative serotype adenovirus (Ad) vectors induces highly functional T cell responses with lower programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression and increased boostability relative to Ad5 vectors. However, a detailed phenotypic characterization of other inhibitory receptors is lacking, and it is unknown whether Ad5-induced CD8 T cells eventually recover function with time. In this report, we measure the expression of various inhibitory receptors and memory markers during early and late time points following vaccination with Ad5 and alternative serotype Ad vectors. CD8 T cells induced by Ad5 exhibited increased expression of the inhibitory receptor Tim-3 and showed decreased central memory differentiation as compared with alternative serotype Ad vectors, even a year following immunization. Moreover, relative to Ad5-primed mice, Ad26-primed mice exhibited substantially improved recall of SIV Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses following heterologous boosting with MVA or Ad35 vectors. We also demonstrate that low doses of Ad5 priming resulted in more boostable immune responses with lower PD-1 expression as compared to high Ad5 doses, suggesting a role for vector dose in influencing immune dysfunction following Ad5 vaccination. These data suggest that Ad5 vectors induce a long-term pattern of immune exhaustion that can be partly overcome by lowering vector dose and modulating inhibitory signals.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Genetic Vectors , Immunologic Memory , Animals , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Immunization , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism
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