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2.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(160)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218291

ABSTRACT

Prone positioning reduces mortality in the management of intubated patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. It allows improvement in oxygenation by improving ventilation/perfusion ratio mismatching.Because of its positive physiological effects, prone positioning has also been tested in non-intubated, spontaneously breathing patients, or "awake" prone positioning. This review provides an update on awake prone positioning for hypoxaemic respiratory failure, in both coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 patients. In non-COVID-19 acute respiratory failure, studies are limited to a few small nonrandomised studies and involved patients with different diseases. However, results have been appealing with regard to oxygenation improvement, especially when combined with noninvasive ventilation or high-flow nasal cannula.The recent COVID-19 pandemic has led to a major increase in hospitalisations for acute respiratory failure. Awake prone positioning has been used with the aim to prevent intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Prone positioning in conscious, non-intubated COVID-19 patients is used in emergency departments, medical wards and intensive care units.Several trials reported an improvement in oxygenation and respiratory rate during prone positioning, but impacts on clinical outcomes, particularly on intubation rates and survival, remain unclear. Tolerance of prolonged prone positioning is an issue. Larger controlled, randomised studies are underway to provide results concerning clinical benefit and define optimised prone positioning regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Wakefulness , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Recovery of Function , Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Treatment Outcome
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1676-1686, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128113

ABSTRACT

Non-intubated patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 could benefit from awake proning. Awake proning is an attractive intervention in settings with limited resources, as it comes with no additional costs. However, awake proning remains poorly used probably because of unfamiliarity and uncertainties regarding potential benefits and practical application. To summarize evidence for benefit and to develop a set of pragmatic recommendations for awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, focusing on settings where resources are limited, international healthcare professionals from high and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with known expertise in awake proning were invited to contribute expert advice. A growing number of observational studies describe the effects of awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in whom hypoxemia is refractory to simple measures of supplementary oxygen. Awake proning improves oxygenation in most patients, usually within minutes, and reduces dyspnea and work of breathing. The effects are maintained for up to 1 hour after turning back to supine, and mostly disappear after 6-12 hours. In available studies, awake proning was not associated with a reduction in the rate of intubation for invasive ventilation. Awake proning comes with little complications if properly implemented and monitored. Pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications were formulated and adjusted for resource-limited settings. Awake proning, an adjunctive treatment for hypoxemia refractory to supplemental oxygen, seems safe in non-intubated patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. We provide pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications for the use of awake proning in LMICs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Health Personnel , Humans , Wakefulness
4.
Am J Transplant ; 21(4): 1586-1596, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883239

ABSTRACT

It is unknown if solid organ transplant recipients are at higher risk for severe COVID-19. The management of a lung transplantation (LTx) program and the therapeutic strategies to adapt the immunosuppressive regimen and antiviral measures is a major issue in the COVID-19 era, but little is known about worldwide practice. We sent out to 180 LTx centers worldwide in June 2020 a survey with 63 questions, both regarding the management of a LTx program in the COVID-19 era and the therapeutic strategies to treat COVID-19 LTx recipients. We received a total of 78 responses from 15 countries. Among participants, 81% declared a reduction of the activity and 47% restricted LTx for urgent cases only. Sixteen centers observed deaths on waiting listed patients and eight centers performed LTx for COVID-19 disease. In 62% of the centers, COVID-19 was diagnosed in LTx recipients, most of them not severe cases. The most common immunosuppressive management included a decreased dose or pausing of the cell cycle inhibitors. Remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin were the most proposed antiviral strategies. Most of the centers have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and proposed an active therapeutic strategy to treat LTx recipients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung Transplantation , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists
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