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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324224

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), not only infects the respiratory tract, but also other organs. About a third of the inpatients of COVID-19 have neurological symptoms and in vitro experiments revealed that SARS-CoV-2 could infect human neural progenitor cells and brain organoids. However, the traditional test often reports negative owing to the low number of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. To date, timely diagnosis of central nervous system infection of SARS-CoV-2 remains a challenge. Case presentation: On day 14 of COVID-19, seizures , maxillofacial convulsions, intractable hiccups and significant increase in intracranial pressure developed in a 56-year-old man. The RT-PCR of SARS-CoV-2 was negative. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by ultrahigh depth sequencing. The patient was successfully treated after 14 days of mechanical ventilation and treatment of pneumonia and neurological dysfunction. Conclusions: : This case suggests SARS-CoV-2 can invade the central nervous system and relevant examinations with CSF including ultrahigh depth sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 are needed among COVID-19 patients with neurological dysfunction.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315603

ABSTRACT

Background: Information regarding the clinical course of COVID-19 patients with liver injury is very limited, especially in severe and critical patients. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and clinical course of liver function in patients admitted with severe and/or critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as explore the risk factors that affect liver function in the enrolled COVID-19 patients. Methods: : Information on clinical characteristics of 63 severe and critical patients with confirmed COVID-19 were collected and analyzed. Results: : The incidence of abnormal aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin in the critical group was significantly higher than in the severe group (respectively 81.48%, 81.49%, 62.67%, and 45.71%, 63.88%, 22.86%, p<0.05). The time for liver function parameters to reach their extremes was approximately 2-3 weeks after admission. The independent factors associated with liver injury were patients with invasive ventilators, decreased percentages of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score ≥ 2 (p<0.05). Conclusions: : Abnormal liver tests are commonly observed in severe and critical patients with COVID-19. The patients with severe illness should be closely observed to monitor liver function parameters, particularly when they present with independent risk factors of liver injury.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315602

ABSTRACT

Background: The information regarding the clinical course of COVID-19 patients with liver injury is very limited, especially in severe and critical patients. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and clinical course of patients admitted with severe and/or critical SARS-CoV-2 infection in liver function, as well as explore the risk factors that affect liver function in the enrolled COVID-19 patients. Methods: : Information on clinical characteristics of 63 severe and critical patients with confirmed COVID-19 were collected and analyzed. Results: : The incidence of abnormal aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin in the critical group was obviously higher than in the severe group (81.48%, 81.49%, 62.67%, and 45.71%, 63.88%, 22.86%, respectively, p<0.05). The time for liver parameters to reach their peak or trough was approximately 2-3 weeks. No significant difference was observed in cycle threshold values of open reading frame 1ab and nucleocapsid protein gene on admission or at the peak among liver injury group, abnormal group and normal group (p>0.05). Patients with invasive ventilator, decreased percentage of neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte, and SOFA score ≥ 2 (p<0.05) were the independent factors associated with liver injury. Conclusions: : Abnormal liver tests are commonly observed in severe and critical patients with COVID-19. The time of 2-3 weeks after admission should be paid attention to patients with critical COVID-19 in case of the occurrence of liver injury. As independent risk factors for the occurrence of liver injury, regarding decreased ratio of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, the requirement of invasive ventilator, and SOFA score ≥2 , patients with these abnormal parameters should be of particular concerned during hospitalization.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315601

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed an enormous threat to public health. The use of antiviral drugs in patients with this disease have triggered people’s attentions. Whether interferon alfa-2b or Kaletra plus interferon alfa-2b treatment can against SARS-CoV-2 was unknown. Methods: : This is a retrospective cohort study of 123 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients between Jan.13 2020 and Apr. 23. All patients received standard supportive care and regular clinical monitoring , patients were assigned to standard care group (n=12), interferon alfa-2b group (n=44), and combination Kaletra plus interferon alfa-2b group (n=67) according to their therapies. The primary endpoint for this study was the duration of oxygen-support requirement and virus clearance time. The associations of therapies with these outcomes were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: : Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were similar among 3 groups (p>0.05). There was no significant association of Kaletra /interferon alfa-2b with faster SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.45–1.61];P = 0.61 in interferon alfa-2b group vs HR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.32–1.11];P = 0.10 in Kaletra plus interferon alfa-2b group). The duration of oxygen-support requirement in therapy groups similarly showed no significant association. There were no differences among 3 groups in the incidence of adverse events (p>0.05). Conclusions: : In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, no benefit was observed with interferon alfa-2b and Kaletra plus interferon alfa-2b treatment beyond standard care. Further trials in appropriately randomized design may contribute to validate the effective role and safety profile of the test drugs.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315201

ABSTRACT

The mutations make uncertain to SARS-CoV-2 disease control and vaccine development. At population-level, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) have displayed mutations for illustrating epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis of COVID-19. These mutations are to be expected by the analysis of intra-host level, which presented as intra-host variations (iSNVs). Here, we performed spatio-temporal analysis on iSNVs in 402 clinical samples from 170 patients, and observed an increase of genetic diversity along the day post symptom onset within individual patient and among subpopulations divided by gender, age, illness severity and viral shedding time, suggested a positive selection at intra-host level. The comparison of iSNVs and SNPs displayed that most of nonsynonymous mutations were not fixed suggested a purifying selection. This two-step fitness selection enforced iSNVs containing more nonsynonymous mutations, that highlight the potential characters of SARS-CoV-2 for viral infections and global transmissions.

6.
Cell Rep ; 38(2): 110205, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588142

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous mutations introduce uncertainty into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control procedures and vaccine development. Here, we perform a spatiotemporal analysis on intra-host single-nucleotide variants (iSNVs) in 402 clinical samples from 170 affected individuals, which reveals an increase in genetic diversity over time after symptom onset in individuals. Nonsynonymous mutations are overrepresented in the pool of iSNVs but underrepresented at the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level, suggesting a two-step fitness selection process: a large number of nonsynonymous substitutions are generated in the host (positive selection), and these substitutions tend to be unfixed as SNPs in the population (negative selection). Dynamic iSNV changes in subpopulations with different gender, age, illness severity, and viral shedding time displayed a varied fitness selection process among populations. Our study highlights that iSNVs provide a mutational pool shaping the rapid global evolution of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Young Adult
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 885, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed an enormous threat to public health. The use of antiviral drugs in patients with this disease have triggered people's attentions. Whether interferon alfa-2b or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus interferon alfa-2b treatment can against SARS-CoV-2 was unknown. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa-2b and LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b for SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 123 patients confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR on nasopharyngeal swab and symptoms between Jan. 13 and Apr. 23, 2020. All patients received standard supportive care and regular clinical monitoring. Patients were assigned to standard care group (n = 12), interferon alfa-2b group (n = 44), and combination LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b group (n = 67). The primary endpoints were duration of required oxygen support and virus clearance time. Associations between therapies and these outcomes were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different among the three groups (P > 0.05). No significant associations were observed between LPV/r/interferon alfa-2b and faster SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance (HR, 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.61]; P = 0.61 in interferon alfa-2b group vs HR, 0.59 [95% CI 0.32-1.11]; P = 0.10 in LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b group). Individual therapy groups also showed no significant association with duration of required oxygen support. There were no significant differences among the three groups in the incidence of adverse events (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, no benefit was observed from interferon alfa-2b or LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b treatment. The findings may provide references for treatment guidelines of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Interferon alpha-2 , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 629828, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127988

ABSTRACT

We reported that the complete genome sequence of SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was obtained from a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample by ultrahigh-depth sequencing. Fourteen days after onset, seizures, maxillofacial convulsions, intractable hiccups and a significant increase in intracranial pressure developed in an adult coronavirus disease 2019 patient. The complete genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can invade the central nervous system. In future, along with nervous system assessment, the pathogen genome detection and other indicators are needed for studying possible nervous system infection of SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Microbes Infect ; 23(4-5): 104806, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120151

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the frequency and characteristics of respiratory co-infections in COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). In this retrospective observational study, pathogens responsible for potential co-infections were detected by the bacterial culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or serological fungal antigen tests. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as microbial results, were analyzed. Bacterial culture identified 56 (58.3%) positive samples for respiratory pathogens, with the most common bacteria being Burkholderia cepacia (18, 18.8%). RT-PCR detected 38 (76.0%) and 58 (87.9%) positive results in the severe and critical groups, respectively. Most common pathogens detected were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (28.0%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.0%) in the severe group and S. maltophilia (45.5%) in the critical group. P. aeruginosa was detected more during the early stage after ICU admission. Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were more frequently identified during late ICU admission. Fungal serum antigens were more frequently positive in the critical group than in the severe group, and the positive rate of fungal serum antigens frequency increased with prolonged ICU stay. A high frequency of respiratory co-infections presented in ICU COVID-19 patients. Careful examinations and necessary tests should be performed to exclude these co-infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/microbiology , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 634266, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110322

ABSTRACT

Background: Yindan Jiedu Granules (YDJDG) have been newly prescribed as a Chinese herbal formula. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of YDJDG and lopinavir-ritonavir in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Overall, 131 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. In addition to standard care, 60 of these patients received YDJDG (YDJDG group) and 71 received lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir-ritonavir group). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match the characteristics of individuals in the two groups, while the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the proportion recovery observed. Results: Cox analysis revealed that YDJDG and CD4 ≥ 660 cells/µL were independent predictive factors of proportion recovery. At baseline, disease types differed between the YDJDG and lopinavir-ritonavir treatment groups. Furthermore, no significant adverse effects or toxicities relevant to YDJDG were observed. The median recovery time was 21 days in the YDJDG group and 27 days in the lopinavir-ritonavir group. After PSM (1:1), 50 patient pairs, YDJDG vs. lopinavir-ritonavir, were analyzed. In the YDJDG group, the proportion of recovered patients was remarkably higher than that observed in the lopinavir-ritonavir group (p = 0.0013), especially for those presenting mild/moderate disease type and CD4 < 660 cells/µL. In the YDJDG group, the mean duration of fever and pulmonary exudative lesions was significantly shorter than that observed in the lopinavir-ritonavir group (p = 0.0180 and p = 0.0028, respectively). Conclusion: YDJDG reveals the potential to hasten the recovery period in COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate disease type or CD4 < 660 cells/µL by shortening the mean duration of fever and pulmonary exudative lesions.

12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 617-628, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the first epicentre of COVID-19 in the world, accounting for 80% of cases in China during the first wave. We aimed to assess household transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection in Wuhan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included the households of all laboratory-confirmed or clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases and laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections identified by the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention between Dec 2, 2019, and April 18, 2020. We defined households as groups of family members and close relatives who did not necessarily live at the same address and considered households that shared common contacts as epidemiologically linked. We used a statistical transmission model to estimate household secondary attack rates and to quantify risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection, accounting for individual-level exposure history. We assessed how intervention policies affected the household reproductive number, defined as the mean number of household contacts a case can infect. FINDINGS: 27 101 households with 29 578 primary cases and 57 581 household contacts were identified. The secondary attack rate estimated with the transmission model was 15·6% (95% CI 15·2-16·0), assuming a mean incubation period of 5 days and a maximum infectious period of 22 days. Individuals aged 60 years or older were at a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 than all other age groups. Infants aged 0-1 years were significantly more likely to be infected than children aged 2-5 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·20, 95% CI 1·40-3·44) and children aged 6-12 years (1·53, 1·01-2·34). Given the same exposure time, children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age were more likely to infect others than were adults aged 60 years or older (1·58, 1·28-1·95). Asymptomatic individuals were much less likely to infect others than were symptomatic cases (0·21, 0·14-0·31). Symptomatic cases were more likely to infect others before symptom onset than after (1·42, 1·30-1·55). After mass isolation of cases, quarantine of household contacts, and restriction of movement policies were implemented, household reproductive numbers declined by 52% among primary cases (from 0·25 [95% CI 0·24-0·26] to 0·12 [0·10-0·13]) and by 63% among secondary cases (from 0·17 [0·16-0·18] to 0·063 [0·057-0·070]). INTERPRETATION: Within households, children and adolescents were less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but were more infectious than older individuals. Presymptomatic cases were more infectious and individuals with asymptomatic infection less infectious than symptomatic cases. These findings have implications for devising interventions for blocking household transmission of SARS-CoV-2, such as timely vaccination of eligible children once resources become available. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Science Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
13.
Cathrine Axfors; Andreas M Schmitt; Perrine Janiaud; Janneke van 't Hooft; Sherief Abd-Elsalam; Ehab F Abdo; Benjamin S Abella; Javed Akram; Ravi K Amaravadi; Derek C Angus; Yaseen M Arabi; Shehnoor Azhar; Lindsey R Baden; Arthur W Baker; Leila Belkhir; Thomas Benfield; Marvin A H Berrevoets; Cheng-Pin Chen; Tsung-Chia Chen; Shu-Hsing Cheng; Chien-Yu Cheng; Wei-Sheng Chung; Yehuda Z Cohen; Lisa N Cowan; Olav Dalgard; Fernando F de Almeida e Val; Marcus V G de Lacerda; Gisely C de Melo; Lennie Derde; Vincent Dubee; Anissa Elfakir; Anthony C Gordon; Carmen M Hernandez-Cardenas; Thomas Hills; Andy I M Hoepelman; Yi-Wen Huang; Bruno Igau; Ronghua Jin; Felipe Jurado-Camacho; Khalid S Khan; Peter G Kremsner; Benno Kreuels; Cheng-Yu Kuo; Thuy Le; Yi-Chun Lin; Wu-Pu Lin; Tse-Hung Lin; Magnus Nakrem Lyngbakken; Colin McArthur; Bryan McVerry; Patricia Meza-Meneses; Wuelton M Monteiro; Susan C Morpeth; Ahmad Mourad; Mark J Mulligan; Srinivas Murthy; Susanna Naggie; Shanti Narayanasamy; Alistair Nichol; Lewis A Novack; Sean M O'Brien; Nwora Lance Okeke; Lena Perez; Rogelio Perez-Padilla; Laurent Perrin; Arantxa Remigio-Luna; Norma E Rivera-Martinez; Frank W Rockhold; Sebastian Rodriguez-Llamazares; Robert Rolfe; Rossana Rosa; Helge Rosjo; Vanderson S Sampaio; Todd B Seto; Muhammad Shehzad; Shaimaa Soliman; Jason E Stout; Ireri Thirion-Romero; Andrea B Troxel; Ting-Yu Tseng; Nicholas A Turner; Robert J Ulrich; Stephen R Walsh; Steve A Webb; Jesper M Weehuizen; Maria Velinova; Hon-Lai Wong; Rebekah Wrenn; Fernando G Zampieri; Wu Zhong; David Moher; Steven N Goodman; John P A Ioannidis; Lars G Hemkens.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20194571

ABSTRACT

Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aimed to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We conducted a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf.io/QESV4/). We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality was extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses included patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; I2=0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, I2=0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine was associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there was no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities.

14.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20148841

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveIn this study, we evaluated the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) via a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a retrospective study. MethodsSubjects admitted to 11 designated public hospitals in Taiwan between April 1 and May 31, 2020, with COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed by pharyngeal real-time RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, were randomized at a 2:1 ratio and stratified by mild or moderate illness. HCQ 400 mg twice for 1 d and HCQ 200 mg twice daily for 6 days were administered. Both study group and controlled group received standard of care (SOC). Pharyngeal swabs and sputum were collected every other day. The proportion and time to negative viral PCR were assessed on day 14. In the retrospective study, medical records were reviewed for patients admitted before March 31, 2020. ResultsThere were 33 and 37 cases in the RCT and retrospective study, respctively. In the RCT, the median times to negative rRT-PCR from randomization to hospital day 14 were 5 days (95% CI; 1-9 days) and 10 days (95% CI; 2-12 days) for the HCQ and SOC groups, respectively (p = 0.40). On day 14, 81.0% (17/21) and 75.0% (9/12) of the subjects in the HCQ and SOC groups, respectively, had undetected virus (p = 0.36). In the retrospective study, 12 (42.9%) in the HCQ group and 5 (55.6%) in the control group had negative rRT-PCR results on hospital day 14 (p = 0.70). ConclusionsNeither study demonstrated that HCQ shortened viral shedding in mild to moderate COVID-19 subjects.

15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(5): ofaa169, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is currently a lack of nonspecific laboratory indicators as a quantitative standard to distinguish between the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and an influenza A or B virus infection. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish a nomogram to detect COVID-19. METHODS: A nomogram was established using data collected from 457 patients (181 with COVID-19 and 276 with influenza A or B infection) in China. The nomogram used age, lymphocyte percentage, and monocyte count to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza. RESULTS: Our nomogram predicted probabilities of COVID-19 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.913 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.883-0.937), greater than that of the lymphocyte:monocyte ratio (0.849; 95% CI, 0.812-0.880; P = .0007), lymphocyte percentage (0.808; 95% CI, 0.768-0.843; P < .0001), monocyte count (0.780; 95% CI, 0.739-0.817; P < .0001), or age (0.656; 95% CI, 0.610-0.699; P < .0001). The predicted probability conformed to the real observation outcomes of COVID-19, according to the calibration curves. CONCLUSIONS: We found that age, lymphocyte percentage, and monocyte count are risk factors for the early-stage prediction of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus. As such, our research provides a useful test for doctors to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza.

16.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 206, 2020 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with critical illness due to infection with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) show rapid disease progression to acute respiratory failure. The study aimed to screen the most useful predictive factor for critical illness caused by COVID-19. METHODS: The study prospectively involved 61 patients with COVID-19 infection as a derivation cohort, and 54 patients as a validation cohort. The predictive factor for critical illness was selected using LASSO regression analysis. A nomogram based on non-specific laboratory indicators was built to predict the probability of critical illness. RESULTS: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was identified as an independent risk factor for critical illness in patients with COVID-19 infection. The NLR had an area under receiver operating characteristic of 0.849 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707 to 0.991) in the derivation cohort and 0.867 (95% CI 0.747 to 0.944) in the validation cohort, the calibration curves fitted well, and the decision and clinical impact curves showed that the NLR had high standardized net benefit. In addition, the incidence of critical illness was 9.1% (1/11) for patients aged ≥ 50 and having an NLR < 3.13, and 50% (7/14) patients with age ≥ 50 and NLR ≥ 3.13 were predicted to develop critical illness. Based on the risk stratification of NLR according to age, this study has developed a COVID-19 pneumonia management process. CONCLUSIONS: We found that NLR is a predictive factor for early-stage prediction of patients infected with COVID-19 who are likely to develop critical illness. Patients aged ≥ 50 and having an NLR ≥ 3.13 are predicted to develop critical illness, and they should thus have rapid access to an intensive care unit if necessary.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Lymphocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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