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1.
Metabolites ; 12(6)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with iron dyshomeostasis. The latter is related to acute disease severity and COVID-19 convalescence. We herein describe iron dyshomeostasis at COVID-19 follow-up and its association with long-term pulmonary and symptomatic recovery. The prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study "Development of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) in Patients With Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection (CovILD)" encompasses serial extensive clinical, laboratory, functional and imaging evaluations at 60, 100, 180 and 360 days after COVID-19 onset. We included 108 individuals with mild-to-critical acute COVID-19, whereas 75% presented with severe acute disease. At 60 days post-COVID-19 follow-up, hyperferritinaemia (35% of patients), iron deficiency (24% of the cohort) and anaemia (9% of the patients) were frequently found. Anaemia of inflammation (AI) was the predominant feature at early post-acute follow-up, whereas the anaemia phenotype shifted towards iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and combinations of IDA and AI until the 360 days follow-up. The prevalence of anaemia significantly decreased over time, but iron dyshomeostasis remained a frequent finding throughout the study. Neither iron dyshomeostasis nor anaemia were related to persisting structural lung impairment, but both were associated with impaired stress resilience at long-term COVID-19 follow-up. To conclude, iron dyshomeostasis and anaemia are frequent findings after COVID-19 and may contribute to its long-term symptomatic outcome.

2.
Int J Sports Med ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873584

ABSTRACT

Standardized exercise therapy programs in pulmonary rehabilitation have been shown to improve physical performance and lung function parameters in post-acute COVID-19 patients. However, it has not been investigated if these positive effects are equally beneficial for both sexes. The purpose of this study was to analyze outcomes of a pulmonary rehabilitation program with respect to sex differences, in order to identify sex-specific pulmonary rehabilitation requirements. Data of 233 post-acute COVID-19 patients (40.4% females) were analyzed before and after a three-week standardized pulmonary rehabilitation program. Lung function parameters were assessed using body-plethysmography and functional exercise capacity was measured by the Six-Minute Walk Test. At post-rehabilitation, females showed a significantly smaller improvement in maximal inspiration capacity and forced expiratory volume (F=5.86, ω2=.02; p<0.05) than males. Exercise capacity improvements between men and women did not differ statistically. Females made greater progress towards reference values of exercise capacity (T(231)=-3.04; p<0.01) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (T(231)=2.83; p<0.01) than males. Sex differences in the improvement of lung function parameters seem to exist and should be considered when personalizing standardized exercise therapies in pulmonary rehabilitation.

3.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 399-419, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV­2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death; however, SARS-CoV­2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Medicine , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Elife ; 112022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675184

ABSTRACT

Background: The optimal procedures to prevent, identify, monitor, and treat long-term pulmonary sequelae of COVID-19 are elusive. Here, we characterized the kinetics of respiratory and symptom recovery following COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, multicenter observational study in ambulatory and hospitalized COVID-19 patients recruited in early 2020 (n = 145). Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) and lung function (LF) readouts, symptom prevalence, and clinical and laboratory parameters were collected during acute COVID-19 and at 60, 100, and 180 days follow-up visits. Recovery kinetics and risk factors were investigated by logistic regression. Classification of clinical features and participants was accomplished by unsupervised and semi-supervised multiparameter clustering and machine learning. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, 49% of participants reported persistent symptoms. The frequency of structural lung CT abnormalities ranged from 18% in the mild outpatient cases to 76% in the intensive care unit (ICU) convalescents. Prevalence of impaired LF ranged from 14% in the mild outpatient cases to 50% in the ICU survivors. Incomplete radiological lung recovery was associated with increased anti-S1/S2 antibody titer, IL-6, and CRP levels at the early follow-up. We demonstrated that the risk of perturbed pulmonary recovery could be robustly estimated at early follow-up by clustering and machine learning classifiers employing solely non-CT and non-LF parameters. Conclusions: The severity of acute COVID-19 and protracted systemic inflammation is strongly linked to persistent structural and functional lung abnormality. Automated screening of multiparameter health record data may assist in the prediction of incomplete pulmonary recovery and optimize COVID-19 follow-up management. Funding: The State of Tyrol (GZ 71934), Boehringer Ingelheim/Investigator initiated study (IIS 1199-0424). Clinical trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04416100.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296047

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 is associated with long-term pulmonary symptoms and may result in chronic pulmonary impairment. The optimal procedures to prevent, identify, monitor, and treat these pulmonary sequelae are elusive. Research question To characterize the kinetics of pulmonary recovery, risk factors and constellations of clinical features linked to persisting radiological lung findings after COVID-19. Study design and methods A longitudinal, prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study including COVID-19 patients (n = 108). Longitudinal pulmonary imaging and functional readouts, symptom prevalence, clinical and laboratory parameters were collected during acute COVID-19 and at 60-, 100- and 180-days follow-up visits. Recovery kinetics and risk factors were investigated by logistic regression. Classification of clinical features and study participants was accomplished by k-means clustering, the k-nearest neighbors (kNN), and naive Bayes algorithms. Results At the six-month follow-up, 51.9% of participants reported persistent symptoms with physical performance impairment (27.8%) and dyspnea (24.1%) being the most frequent. Structural lung abnormalities were still present in 45.4% of the collective, ranging from 12% in the outpatients to 78% in the subjects treated at the ICU during acute infection. The strongest risk factors of persisting lung findings were elevated interleukin-6 (IL6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) during recovery and hospitalization during acute COVID-19. Clustering analysis revealed association of the lung lesions with increased anti-S1/S2 antibody, IL6, CRP, and D-dimer levels at the early follow-up suggesting non-resolving inflammation as a mechanism of the perturbed recovery. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of risk class assignment and prediction of individual risk of delayed lung recovery employing clustering and machine learning algorithms. Interpretation Severity of acute infection, and systemic inflammation is strongly linked to persistent post-COVID-19 lung abnormality. Automated screening of multi-parameter health record data may assist the identification of patients at risk of delayed pulmonary recovery and optimize COVID-19 follow-up management. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04416100

6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21259316

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCOVID-19 is associated with long-term pulmonary symptoms and may result in chronic pulmonary impairment. The optimal procedures to prevent, identify, monitor, and treat these pulmonary sequelae are elusive. Research questionTo characterize the kinetics of pulmonary recovery, risk factors and constellations of clinical features linked to persisting radiological lung findings after COVID-19. Study design and methodsA longitudinal, prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study including COVID-19 patients (n = 108). Longitudinal pulmonary imaging and functional readouts, symptom prevalence, clinical and laboratory parameters were collected during acute COVID-19 and at 60-, 100- and 180-days follow-up visits. Recovery kinetics and risk factors were investigated by logistic regression. Classification of clinical features and study participants was accomplished by k-means clustering, the k-nearest neighbors (kNN), and naive Bayes algorithms. ResultsAt the six-month follow-up, 51.9% of participants reported persistent symptoms with physical performance impairment (27.8%) and dyspnea (24.1%) being the most frequent. Structural lung abnormalities were still present in 45.4% of the collective, ranging from 12% in the outpatients to 78% in the subjects treated at the ICU during acute infection. The strongest risk factors of persisting lung findings were elevated interleukin-6 (IL6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) during recovery and hospitalization during acute COVID-19. Clustering analysis revealed association of the lung lesions with increased anti-S1/S2 antibody, IL6, CRP, and D-dimer levels at the early follow-up suggesting non-resolving inflammation as a mechanism of the perturbed recovery. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of risk class assignment and prediction of individual risk of delayed lung recovery employing clustering and machine learning algorithms. InterpretationSeverity of acute infection, and systemic inflammation is strongly linked to persistent post-COVID-19 lung abnormality. Automated screening of multi-parameter health record data may assist the identification of patients at risk of delayed pulmonary recovery and optimize COVID-19 follow-up management. Clinical Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04416100

7.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(2): 189-198, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increases the demand for postacute care in patients after a severe disease course. Various long-term sequelae are expected and rehabilitation medicine is challenged to support physical and cognitive recovery. AIM: We aimed to explore the dysfunctions and outcome of COVID-19 survivors after early postacute rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: This study evaluated the postacute sequelae of patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed rehabilitative outcomes of a subgroup of patients included in the prospective observational multicenter CovILD study. RESULTS: A total of 23 subjects discharged after severe to critical COVID-19 infection underwent an individualized, multiprofessional rehabilitation. At the start of postacute rehabilitation, impairment of pulmonary function (87%), symptoms related to postintensive care syndrome, and neuropsychological dysfunction (85%) were frequently found, whereas cardiac function appeared to be largely unaffected. Of interest, multi-disciplinary rehabilitation resulted in a significant improvement in lung function, as reflected by an increase of forced vital capacity (P=0.007) and forced expiratory volume in one second (P=0.014), total lung capacity (P=0.003), and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P=0.002). Accordingly, physical performance status significantly improved as reflected by a mean increase of six-minute walking distance by 176 (SD±137) meters. Contrarily, a considerable proportion of patients still had limited diffusion capacity (83%) or neurological symptoms including peripheral neuropathy at the end of rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals discharged after a severe course of COVID-19 frequently present with persisting physical and cognitive dysfunctions after hospital discharge. Those patients significantly benefit from multi-disciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Our data demonstrated the highly promising effects of early postacute rehabilitation in survivors of severe or critical COVID-19. This findings urge further prospective evaluations and may impact future treatment and rehabilitation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Subacute Care/methods , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
8.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(2): 189-198, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increases the demand for postacute care in patients after a severe disease course. Various long-term sequelae are expected and rehabilitation medicine is challenged to support physical and cognitive recovery. AIM: We aimed to explore the dysfunctions and outcome of COVID-19 survivors after early postacute rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: This study evaluated the postacute sequelae of patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed rehabilitative outcomes of a subgroup of patients included in the prospective observational multicenter CovILD study. RESULTS: A total of 23 subjects discharged after severe to critical COVID-19 infection underwent an individualized, multiprofessional rehabilitation. At the start of postacute rehabilitation, impairment of pulmonary function (87%), symptoms related to postintensive care syndrome, and neuropsychological dysfunction (85%) were frequently found, whereas cardiac function appeared to be largely unaffected. Of interest, multi-disciplinary rehabilitation resulted in a significant improvement in lung function, as reflected by an increase of forced vital capacity (P=0.007) and forced expiratory volume in one second (P=0.014), total lung capacity (P=0.003), and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P=0.002). Accordingly, physical performance status significantly improved as reflected by a mean increase of six-minute walking distance by 176 (SD±137) meters. Contrarily, a considerable proportion of patients still had limited diffusion capacity (83%) or neurological symptoms including peripheral neuropathy at the end of rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals discharged after a severe course of COVID-19 frequently present with persisting physical and cognitive dysfunctions after hospital discharge. Those patients significantly benefit from multi-disciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Our data demonstrated the highly promising effects of early postacute rehabilitation in survivors of severe or critical COVID-19. This findings urge further prospective evaluations and may impact future treatment and rehabilitation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Subacute Care/methods , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
9.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(13-14): 365-386, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996394

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a challenge worldwide. In Austria, a crisis within the healthcare system has so far been prevented. The treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including SARS-CoV­2 infections, should continue to be based on evidence-based CAP guidelines during the pandemic; however, COVID-19 specific adjustments are useful. The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases has to be adapted during the pandemic but must still be guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Lung Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Medicine , Adolescent , Adult , Austria , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 276, 2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with hyperinflammation and hyperferritinemia. The latter is related to increased mortality in COVID-19. Still, it is not clear if iron dysmetabolism is mechanistically linked to COVID-19 pathobiology. METHODS: We herein present data from the ongoing prospective, multicentre, observational CovILD cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04416100), which systematically follows up patients after COVID-19. 109 participants were evaluated 60 days after onset of first COVID-19 symptoms including clinical examination, chest computed tomography and laboratory testing. RESULTS: We investigated subjects with mild to critical COVID-19, of which the majority received hospital treatment. 60 days after disease onset, 30% of subjects still presented with iron deficiency and 9% had anemia, mostly categorized as anemia of inflammation. Anemic patients had increased levels of inflammation markers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and survived a more severe course of COVID-19. Hyperferritinemia was still present in 38% of all individuals and was more frequent in subjects with preceding severe or critical COVID-19. Analysis of the mRNA expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a correlation of increased ferritin and cytokine mRNA expression in these patients. Finally, persisting hyperferritinemia was significantly associated with severe lung pathologies in computed tomography scans and a decreased performance status as compared to patients without hyperferritinemia. DISCUSSION: Alterations of iron homeostasis can persist for at least two months after the onset of COVID-19 and are closely associated with non-resolving lung pathologies and impaired physical performance. Determination of serum iron parameters may thus be a easy to access measure to monitor the resolution of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04416100.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Homeostasis , Iron/metabolism , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Anemia/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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