Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 1: 3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860405

ABSTRACT

Background: Sex has consistently been shown to affect COVID-19 mortality, but it remains unclear how each sex's clinical outcome may be distinctively shaped by risk factors. Methods: We studied a primary cohort of 4930 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a single healthcare system in New York City from the start of the pandemic till August 5, 2020, and a validation cohort of 1645 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the same healthcare system from August 5, 2020, to January 13, 2021. Results: Here we show that male sex was independently associated with in-hospital mortality, intubation, and ICU care after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. Using interaction analysis and sex-stratified models, we found that hypoxia interacted with sex to preferentially increase women's mortality risk while obesity interacted with sex to preferentially increase women's risk of intubation and intensive care in our primary cohort. In the validation cohort, we observed that male sex remained an independent risk factor for mortality, but sex-specific interactions were not replicated. Conclusions: We conducted a comprehensive sex-stratified analysis of a large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, highlighting clinical factors that may contribute to sex differences in the outcome of COVID-19.

2.
Am J Pathol ; 191(12): 2064-2071, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506649

ABSTRACT

Current understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathophysiology is limited by disease heterogeneity, complexity, and a paucity of studies assessing patient tissues with advanced molecular tools. Rapid autopsy tissues were evaluated using multiscale, next-generation RNA-sequencing methods (bulk, single-nuclei, and spatial transcriptomics) to provide unprecedented molecular resolution of COVID-19-induced damage. Comparison of infected/uninfected tissues revealed four major regulatory pathways. Effectors within these pathways could constitute novel therapeutic targets, including the complement receptor C3AR1, calcitonin receptor-like receptor, or decorin. Single-nuclei RNA sequencing of olfactory bulb and prefrontal cortex highlighted remarkable diversity of coronavirus receptors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was rarely expressed, whereas basigin showed diffuse expression, and alanyl aminopeptidase, membrane, was associated with vascular/mesenchymal cell types. Comparison of lung and lymph node tissues from patients with different symptoms (one had died after a month-long hospitalization with multiorgan involvement, and the other had died after a few days of respiratory symptoms) with digital spatial profiling resulted in distinct molecular phenotypes. Evaluation of COVID-19 rapid autopsy tissues with advanced molecular techniques can identify pathways and effectors, map diverse receptors at the single-cell level, and help dissect differences driving diverging clinical courses among individual patients. Extension of this approach to larger data sets will substantially advance the understanding of the mechanisms behind COVID-19 pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Autopsy , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Profiling , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex/virology , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , Salivary Glands/metabolism , Salivary Glands/pathology , Salivary Glands/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction/genetics
4.
Hum Pathol ; 114: 110-119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213257

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although viral infection is known to trigger inflammatory processes contributing to tissue injury and organ failure, it is unclear whether direct viral damage is needed to sustain cellular injury. An understanding of pathogenic mechanisms has been handicapped by the absence of optimized methods to visualize the presence and distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in damaged tissues. We first developed a positive control cell line (Vero E6) to validate SARS-CoV-2 detection assays. We then evaluated multiple organs (lungs, kidneys, heart, liver, brain, intestines, lymph nodes, and spleen) from fourteen COVID-19 autopsy cases using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the spike and the nucleoprotein proteins, and RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH) for the spike protein mRNA. Tissue detection assays were compared with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based detection. SARS-CoV-2 was histologically detected in the Vero E6 positive cell line control, 1 of 14 (7%) lungs, and none (0%) of the other 59 organs. There was perfect concordance between the IHC and RNA ISH results. qPCR confirmed high viral load in the SARS-CoV-2 ISH-positive lung tissue, and absent or low viral load in all ISH-negative tissues. In patients who die of COVID-19-related organ failure, SARS-CoV-2 is largely not detectable using tissue-based assays. Even in lungs showing widespread injury, SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA or proteins were detected in only a small minority of cases. This observation supports the concept that viral infection is primarily a trigger for multiple-organ pathogenic proinflammatory responses. Direct viral tissue damage is a transient phenomenon that is generally not sustained throughout disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Liver/chemistry , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Vero Cells/virology , Viral Load/methods
5.
Mod Pathol ; 34(8): 1456-1467, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164812

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated clinical syndrome COVID-19 are causing overwhelming morbidity and mortality around the globe and disproportionately affected New York City between March and May 2020. Here, we report on the first 100 COVID-19-positive autopsies performed at the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Autopsies revealed large pulmonary emboli in six cases. Diffuse alveolar damage was present in over 90% of cases. We also report microthrombi in multiple organ systems including the brain, as well as hemophagocytosis. We additionally provide electron microscopic evidence of the presence of the virus in our samples. Laboratory results of our COVID-19 cohort disclose elevated inflammatory markers, abnormal coagulation values, and elevated cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. Our autopsy series of COVID-19-positive patients reveals that this disease, often conceptualized as a primarily respiratory viral illness, has widespread effects in the body including hypercoagulability, a hyperinflammatory state, and endothelial dysfunction. Targeting of these multisystemic pathways could lead to new treatment avenues as well as combination therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death , Cytokines/blood , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Gastroenterology ; 160(7): 2435-2450.e34, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given that gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a prominent extrapulmonary manifestation of COVID-19, we investigated intestinal infection with SARS-CoV-2, its effect on pathogenesis, and clinical significance. METHODS: Human intestinal biopsy tissues were obtained from patients with COVID-19 (n = 19) and uninfected control individuals (n = 10) for microscopic examination, cytometry by time of flight analyses, and RNA sequencing. Additionally, disease severity and mortality were examined in patients with and without GI symptoms in 2 large, independent cohorts of hospitalized patients in the United States (N = 634) and Europe (N = 287) using multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: COVID-19 case patients and control individuals in the biopsy cohort were comparable for age, sex, rates of hospitalization, and relevant comorbid conditions. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in small intestinal epithelial cells by immunofluorescence staining or electron microscopy in 15 of 17 patients studied. High-dimensional analyses of GI tissues showed low levels of inflammation, including down-regulation of key inflammatory genes including IFNG, CXCL8, CXCL2, and IL1B and reduced frequencies of proinflammatory dendritic cells compared with control individuals. Consistent with these findings, we found a significant reduction in disease severity and mortality in patients presenting with GI symptoms that was independent of sex, age, and comorbid illnesses and despite similar nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral loads. Furthermore, there was reduced levels of key inflammatory proteins in circulation in patients with GI symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the absence of a proinflammatory response in the GI tract despite detection of SARS-CoV-2. In parallel, reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19 presenting with GI symptoms was observed. A potential role of the GI tract in attenuating SARS-CoV-2-associated inflammation needs to be further examined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Immunity, Mucosal , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/blood , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/immunology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load
7.
J Endocr Soc ; 5(3): bvaa199, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To better understand the biology of COVID-19, we have explored the behavior of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), an angiogenic, vasodilating, and immune modulating peptide, in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive patients. METHODS: Levels of CGRP in the serum of 57 COVID-19 patients (24 asymptomatic, 23 hospitalized in the general ward, and 10 admitted to the intensive care unit) and healthy donors (n = 24) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, to better understand the physiological consequences of the observed variations, we investigated by immunofluorescence the distribution of receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), one of the components of the CGRP receptor, in autopsy lung specimens. RESULTS: CGRP levels were greatly decreased in COVID-19 patients (P < 0.001) when compared to controls, and there were no significant differences due to disease severity, sex, age, or comorbidities. We found that COVID-19 patients treated with proton pump inhibitors had lower levels of CGRP than other patients not taking this treatment (P = 0.001). RAMP1 immunoreactivity was found in smooth muscle cells of large blood vessels and the bronchial tree and in the airways´ epithelium. In COVID-19 samples, RAMP1 was also found in proliferating type II pneumocytes, a common finding in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: The lower levels of CGRP should negatively impact the respiratory physiology of COVID-19 patients due to vasoconstriction, improper angiogenesis, less epithelial repair, and faulty immune response. Therefore, restoring CGRP levels in these patients may represent a novel therapeutic approach for COVID-19.

8.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 45(5): 587-603, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044003

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global threat to public health. COVID-19 is more pathogenic and infectious than the prior 2002 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-1. The pathogenesis of certain disease manifestations in COVID-19 such as diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) are thought to be similar to SARS-CoV-1. However, the exact pathogenesis of COVID-19 related deaths remains poorly understood. The aim of this article was to systematically summarize the rapidly emerging literature regarding COVID-19 autopsies. A meta-analysis was also conducted based on data accrued from preprint and published articles on COVID-19 (n=241 patients) and the results compared with postmortem findings associated with SARS-CoV-1 deaths (n=91 patients). Both autopsy groups included mostly adults of median age 70 years with COVID-19 and 50 years with SARS-CoV-1. Overall, prevalence of DAD was more common in SARS-CoV-1 (100.0%) than COVID-19 (80.9%) autopsies (P=0.001). Extrapulmonary findings among both groups were not statistically significant except for hepatic necrosis (P <0.001), splenic necrosis (P<0.006) and white pulp depletion (P <0.001) that were more common with SARS-CoV-1. Remarkable postmortem findings in association with COVID-19 apart from DAD include pulmonary hemorrhage, viral cytopathic effect within pneumocytes, thromboembolism, brain infarction, endotheliitis, acute renal tubular damage, white pulp depletion of the spleen, cardiac myocyte necrosis, megakaryocyte recruitment, and hemophagocytosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Autopsy , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Global Health , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Spleen/pathology
9.
Cancer Cell ; 38(5): 594-597, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972295

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), like cancer, is a complex disease with clinical phases of progression. Initially conceptualized as a respiratory disease, COVID-19 is increasingly recognized as a multi-organ and heterogeneous illness. Disease staging is a method for measuring the progression and severity of an illness using objective clinical and molecular criteria. Integral to cancer staging is "metastasis," defined as the spread of a disease-producing agent, including neoplastic cells and pathogens such as certain viruses, from the primary site to distinct anatomic locations. Staging provides valuable frameworks and benchmarks for clinical decision-making in patient management, improved prognostication, and evidence-based treatment selection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955724

ABSTRACT

Given that gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a prominent extrapulmonary manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we investigated intestinal infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its effect on disease pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in small intestinal enterocytes by immunofluorescence staining or electron microscopy, in 13 of 15 patients studied. High dimensional analyses of GI tissues revealed low levels of inflammation in general, including active downregulation of key inflammatory genes such as IFNG, CXCL8, CXCL2 and IL1B and reduced frequencies of proinflammatory dendritic cell subsets. To evaluate the clinical significance of these findings, examination of two large, independent cohorts of hospitalized patients in the United States and Europe revealed a significant reduction in disease severity and mortality that was independent of gender, age, and examined co-morbid illnesses. The observed mortality reduction in COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms was associated with reduced levels of key inflammatory proteins including IL-6, CXCL8, IL-17A and CCL28 in circulation but was not associated with significant differences in nasopharyngeal viral loads. These data draw attention to organ-level heterogeneity in disease pathogenesis and highlight the role of the GI tract in attenuating SARS-CoV-2-associated inflammation with related mortality benefit. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Intestinal infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a mild inflammatory response and improved clinical outcomes.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(16): 1815-1826, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-849705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic disease is common in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). There is limited evidence on the association of in-hospital anticoagulation (AC) with outcomes and postmortem findings. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine association of AC with in-hospital outcomes and describe thromboembolic findings on autopsies. METHODS: This retrospective analysis examined the association of AC with mortality, intubation, and major bleeding. Subanalyses were also conducted on the association of therapeutic versus prophylactic AC initiated ≤48 h from admission. Thromboembolic disease was contextualized by premortem AC among consecutive autopsies. RESULTS: Among 4,389 patients, median age was 65 years with 44% women. Compared with no AC (n = 1,530; 34.9%), therapeutic AC (n = 900; 20.5%) and prophylactic AC (n = 1,959; 44.6%) were associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.62 and aHR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.57, respectively), and intubation (aHR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.94 and aHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.89, respectively). When initiated ≤48 h from admission, there was no statistically significant difference between therapeutic (n = 766) versus prophylactic AC (n = 1,860) (aHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.02; p = 0.08). Overall, 89 patients (2%) had major bleeding adjudicated by clinician review, with 27 of 900 (3.0%) on therapeutic, 33 of 1,959 (1.7%) on prophylactic, and 29 of 1,530 (1.9%) on no AC. Of 26 autopsies, 11 (42%) had thromboembolic disease not clinically suspected and 3 of 11 (27%) were on therapeutic AC. CONCLUSIONS: AC was associated with lower mortality and intubation among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Compared with prophylactic AC, therapeutic AC was associated with lower mortality, although not statistically significant. Autopsies revealed frequent thromboembolic disease. These data may inform trials to determine optimal AC regimens.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Thromboembolism , Aged , Anticoagulants/classification , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/virology
13.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1695-1698, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209968

ABSTRACT

The urgent need to implement and rapidly expand testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has led to the development of multiple assays. How these tests perform relative to one another is poorly understood. We evaluated the concordance between the Roche Diagnostics cobas 6800 SARS-CoV-2 test and a laboratory-developed test (LDT) real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction based on a modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention protocol, for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in samples submitted to the Clinical Laboratories of the Mount Sinai Health System. A total of 1006 nasopharyngeal swabs in universal transport medium from persons under investigation were tested for SARS-CoV-2 as part of routine clinical care using the cobas SARS-CoV-2 test with subsequent evaluation by the LDT. Cycle threshold values were analyzed and interpreted as either positive ("detected" or "presumptive positive"), negative (not detected), inconclusive, or invalid. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 8. The cobas SARS-CoV-2 test reported 706 positive and 300 negative results. The LDT reported 640 positive, 323 negative, 34 inconclusive, and 9 invalid results. When excluding inconclusive and invalid results, the overall percent agreement between the two platforms was 95.8%. Cohen's κ coefficient was 0.904 (95% confidence interval, 0.875-0.933), suggesting almost perfect agreement between both platforms. An overall discordance rate of 4.2% between the two systems may reflect differences in primer sequences, assay limit of detection, or other factors, highlighting the importance of comparing the performance of different testing platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL