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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820168

ABSTRACT

Patients with severely impaired antibody responses represent a group at-risk in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic due to the lack of Spike-specific neutralizing antibodies. The main objective of this paper was to assess, by a longitudinal prospective study, COVID-19 infection and mortality rates, and disease severity in the first two years of the pandemic in a cohort of 471 Primary Antibody Defects adult patients. As secondary endpoints, we compared SARS-CoV-2 annual mortality rate to that observed over a 10-year follow-up in the same cohort, and we assessed the impact of interventions done in the second year, vaccination and anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies administration on the disease outcome. Forty-one and 84 patients were infected during the first and the second year, respectively. Despite a higher infection and reinfection rate, and a higher COVID-19-related mortality rate compared to the Italian population, the pandemic did not modify the annual mortality rate for any cause in our cohort compared to that registered over the last ten years in the same cohort. PADs patients who died from COVID-19 had an underlying end-stage lung disease. We showed a beneficial effect of MoAbs administration on the likelihood of hospitalization and development of severe disease. In conclusion, COVID-19 did not cause excess mortality in Severe Antibody Deficiencies.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802997

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 manifestations range from asymptomatic to life-threatening infections. The outcome in different inborn errors of immunity (IEI) is still a matter of debate. In this retrospective study, we describe the experience of the of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiencies Network (IPINet). Sixteen reference centers for adult or pediatric IEI were involved. One hundred fourteen patients were enrolled including 35 pediatric and 79 adult patients. Median age was 32 years, and male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common IEI were 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in children (26%) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in adults (65%). Ninety-one patients did not require hospital admission, and among these, 33 were asymptomatic. Hospitalization rate was 20.17%. Older age (p 0.004) and chronic lung disease (p 0.0008) represented risk factors for hospitalization. Hospitalized patients mainly included adults suffering from humoral immunodeficiencies requiring immunoglobulin replacement therapy and as expected had lower B cell counts compared to non-hospitalized patients. Infection fatality rate in the whole cohort was 3.5%. Seroconversion was observed is 86.6% of the patients evaluated and in 83.3% of CVID patients. 16.85% of the patients reported long-lasting COVID symptoms. All but one patient with prolonged symptoms were under IgRT. The fatality rate observed in IEI was slightly similar to the general population. The age of the patients who did not survive was lower compared to the general population, and the age stratified mortality in the 50-60 age range considerable exceeded the mortality from 50 to 60 age group of the Italian population (14.3 vs 0.6%; p < 0.0001). We hypothesize that this is due to the fact that comorbidities in IEI patients are very common and usually appear early in life.

3.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with primary antibody deficiencies are at risk in the current COVID-19 pandemic due to their impaired response to infection and vaccination. Specifically, patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) generated poor spike-specific antibody and T cell responses after immunization. METHODS: Thirty-four CVID convalescent patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection, 38 CVID patients immunized with two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine, and 20 SARS-CoV-2 CVID convalescents later and immunized with BNT162b2 were analyzed for the anti-spike IgG production and the generation of spike-specific memory B cells and T cells. RESULTS: Spike-specific IgG was induced more frequently after infection than after vaccination (82% vs. 34%). The antibody response was boosted in convalescents by vaccination. Although immunized patients generated atypical memory B cells possibly by extra-follicular or incomplete germinal center reactions, convalescents responded to infection by generating spike-specific memory B cells that were improved by the subsequent immunization. Poor spike-specific T cell responses were measured independently from the immunological challenge. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection primed a more efficient classical memory B cell response, whereas the BNT162b2 vaccine induced non-canonical B cell responses in CVID. Natural infection responses were boosted by subsequent immunization, suggesting the possibility to further stimulate the immune response by additional vaccine doses in CVID.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/complications , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111369, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263036

ABSTRACT

Importance: Chilblain-like lesions have been one of the most frequently described cutaneous manifestations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their etiopathogenesis, including the role of SARS-CoV-2, remains elusive. Objective: To examine the association of chilblain-like lesions with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective case series enrolled 17 adolescents who presented with chilblain-like lesions from April 1 to June 30, 2020, at a tertiary referral academic hospital in Italy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Macroscopic (clinical and dermoscopic) and microscopic (histopathologic) analysis contributed to a thorough understanding of the lesions. Nasopharyngeal swab, serologic testing, and in situ hybridization of the skin biopsy specimens were performed to test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Laboratory tests explored signs of systemic inflammation or thrombophilia. Structural changes in peripheral microcirculation were investigated by capillaroscopy. Results: Of the 17 adolescents (9 [52.9%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 13.2 [12.5-14.3] years) enrolled during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 16 (94.1%) had bilaterally localized distal erythematous or cyanotic lesions. A triad of red dots (16 [100%]), white rosettes (11 [68.8%]), and white streaks (10 [62.5%]) characterized the dermoscopic picture. Histologic analysis revealed a remodeling of the dermal blood vessels with a lobular arrangement, wall thickening, and a mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. SARS-CoV-2 infection was excluded by molecular and serologic testing. In situ hybridization did not highlight the viral genome in the lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: This study delineated the clinical, histologic, and laboratory features of chilblain-like lesions that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic, and its findings do not support their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The lesions occurred in otherwise healthy adolescents, had a long but benign course to self-resolution, and were characterized by a microvascular remodeling with perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate but no other signs of vasculitis. These results suggest that chilblain-like lesions do not imply a concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ongoing studies will help clarify the etiopathogenic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin/pathology , Toes/pathology , Vascular Remodeling , Adolescent , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/pathology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Toes/blood supply
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