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3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 108, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021338

ABSTRACT

Discontinuation of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and increased antibiotic use were described during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In order to measure COVID-19 impact on ASPs in a setting of high multidrug resistance organisms (MDRO) prevalence, a qualitative survey was designed. In July 2021, eighteen ID Units were asked to answer a questionnaire about their hospital characteristics, ASPs implementation status before the pandemic and impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on ASPs after the 1st and 2nd pandemic waves in Italy. Nine ID centres (50%) reported a reduction of ASPs and in 7 cases (38.9%) these were suspended. After the early pandemic waves, the proportion of centres that restarted their ASPs was higher among the ID centres where antimicrobial stewardship was formally identified as a priority objective (9/11, 82%, vs 2/7, 28%). SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a severe impact in ASPs in a region highly affected by COVID-19 and antimicrobial resistance but weaknesses related to the pre-existent ASPs might have played a role.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy has witnessed high levels of COVID-19 deaths, mainly at the elderly age. We assessed the comorbidity and the biochemical profiles of consecutive patients ≤65 years of age to identify a potential risk profile for death. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from consecutive hospitalized-for-COVID-19 patients ≤65 years, who were died (593 patients) or discharged (912 patients) during February-December 2020. Multivariate logistic regression identified the mortality risk factors. RESULTS: Overweight (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 5.53, 95% CI 2.07-14.76), obesity (adjOR 8.58, CI 3.30-22.29), dyslipidemia (adjOR 10.02, 95% CI 1.06-94.22), heart disease (adjOR 17.68, 95% CI 3.80-82.18), cancer (adjOR 13.28, 95% CI 4.25-41.51) and male sex (adjOR 5.24, 95% CI 2.30-11.94) were associated with death risk in the youngest population. In the older population (46-65 years of age), the overweight and obesity were also associated with the death risk, however at a lower extent: the adjORs varyied from 1.49 to 2.36 for overweight patients and from 3.00 to 4.07 for obese patients. Diabetes was independently associated with death only in these older patients. CONCLUSION: Overweight, obesity and dyslipidemia had a pivotal role in increasing young individuals' death risk. Their presence should be carefully evaluated for prevention and/or prompt management of SARS-CoV2 infection in such high-risk patients to avoid the worst outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyslipidemias , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 4(3): dlac064, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961072

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients who developed secondary infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Methods: Retrospective observational study including COVID-19 patients admitted to 12 Italian hospitals from March to December 2020 who developed a superinfection by CRE. Superinfection was defined as the occurrence of documented bacterial infection >48 h from admission. Patients with polymicrobial infections were excluded. Demographic, clinical characteristics and outcome were collected. Isolates were classified as KPC, metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) and OXA-48-producing CRE. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with 30 day mortality. Results: Overall, 123 patients (median age 66 years, IQR 59-75) were included. The majority of infections occurred in the ICU (81, 65.9%), while 42 (34.1%) in medical wards. The most common types of infection were bloodstream infections (BSI) (n = 64, 52%), followed by urinary-tract infections (UTI) (n = 28, 22.8%), hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) (n = 28, 22.8%), intra-abdominal infections (n = 2, 1.6%) and skin infections (n = 1, 0.8%). Sixty-three (51.2%) infections were caused by KPC-, 54 (43.9%) by MBL-, and 6 (4.8%) by OXA-48-producing CRE. Thirty-day mortality was 33.3% (41/123). On Cox regression analysis, HAP/VAP compared with UTI (HR 7.23, 95% CI 2.09-24.97, P = 0.004), BSI compared with UTI (HR 3.96, 95% CI, 1.33-11.77, P = 0.004), lymphopenia on admission (HR 3, 95% CI 1.44-6.26, P = 0.003) and age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.002) were predictors of 30 day mortality. Conclusions: Superinfections by CRE were associated with high risk of 30 day mortality in patients with COVID-19. HAP/VAP was the strongest predictor of death in these patients.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 872667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903012

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the mean increase of anti-S IgG antibody titer between the basal, pre-booster level to the titer assessed 14 days after the booster dose of BNT162b2. Patients and Methods: The RENAISSANCE study is an observational, longitudinal, prospective, population-based study, conducted on healthcare workers of Niguarda Hospital in Milan, Italy who received a BNT162b2 booster dose at least 180 days after their second dose or after positivity for SARS-CoV-2 and accepted to take part in the study. The RENAISSANCE study was conducted from January 1, 2021 through December 28, 2021. Findings: 1,738 subjects were enrolled among healthcare workers registered for the booster administration at our hospital. Overall, 0.4% of subjects were seronegative at the pre-booster evaluation, and 1 subject had a titer equal to 50 AU/ml: none of the evaluated subjects was seronegative after the booster dose. Thus, the efficacy of the booster in our population was universal. Mean increase of pre- to post-booster titer was more significant in subjects who never had SARS-CoV-2 (44 times CI 95% 42-46) compared to those who had it, before (33 times, CI 95% 13-70) or after the first vaccination cycle (12 times, CI 95% 11-14). Differently from sex, age and pre-booster titers affected the post-booster antibody response. Nevertheless, the post-booster titer was very similar in all subgroups, and independent of a prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2, pre-booster titer, sex or age. Conclusion: Our study shows a potent universal antibody response of the booster dose of BNT162b2, regardless of pre-booster vaccine seronegativity.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; 30(8): 1985-1993, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826567

ABSTRACT

Background: Robust data on case fatality rate (CFR) among inpatients with COVID-19 are still lacking, and the role of patient characteristics in in-hospital deaths remains under-investigated. This study quantified the overall CFR and described its trend in a cohort of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 in Italy. Admission to ICU, death, or discharge were the secondary outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study is based on administrative health data and electronic case records of inpatients consecutively admitted to Niguarda Hospital between 21 February and 8 November 2020. Results: An overall CFR of 18% was observed. CFR was significantly reduced during the second wave of contagion (1 June to 30 September, 16%) compared with the first wave (21 February to 31 May, 21% p = 0.015). Such reduction was mainly observed among male inpatients between 40 and 80 years with limited comorbidities. Admission to ICU was associated with a high risk of mortality in both waves. The incidence of severe disease and the need for ICU admission were lower in the second wave. Conclusion: CFR in SARS-CoV-2 inpatients was demonstrated to decrease over time. This reduction may partly reflect the changes in hospital strategy and clinical practice. The reasons for this improvement should be further investigated to plan an exit strategy in case of future outbreaks. Key messages: What is already known on this topic Before the advent of anti-COVID-19 vaccines, a multi-wave pattern of contagion was observed, and this trend conditioned the inpatient case fatality rate (CFR), which varied over time accordingly to the waves of contagion.Only preliminary results on the in-hospital mortality trend are available, along with a partial analysis of its determinants. Consequently, robust data on CFR among inpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are still lacking, and the role of patient characteristics in in-hospital deaths remains under-investigated. What this study adds This study shows that the in-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection decreases over time.Such reduction was mainly observed among male inpatients between 40 and 80 years with limited comorbidities. Admission to ICU was invariably associated with a high risk of mortality during the whole study period (21 February to 8 November 2020), but the incidence of severe disease and the need for ICU admission were lower in the second wave of contagions (1 October to 8 November 2020). This reduction may partly reflect the impact of changes in hospital strategy and clinical practice. The reasons for this improvement should be further investigated to inform the response to future outbreaks and to plan exit strategy by prioritizing high-risk populations. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10389-021-01675-y.

8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14882, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since SARS-CoV-2 spread, evidence regarding sex differences in progression and prognosis of COVID-19 have emerged. Besides this, studies on patients' clinical characteristics have described electrolyte imbalances as one of the recurrent features of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on all patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 March to 31 May 2020 who had undergone a blood gas analysis and a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by rtPCR. We defined positive patients as cases (n = 710) and negatives as controls (n = 619), for a total number of patients of 1.329. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Area 3 Milan. Data were automatically extracted from the hospital laboratory SQL-based repository in anonymised form. We considered as outcomes potassium (K+ ), sodium (Na+ ), chlorine (Cl- ) and calcium (Ca++ ) as continuous and as categorical variables, in their relation with age, sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection status. RESULTS: We observed a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia among patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13.7% vs 6% of negative subjects). Positive patients had a higher probability to be admitted to the ED with hypokalaemia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.8-4.1, P < .0001) and women were twice as likely to be affected than men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.67-3.54, P < .001). Odds ratios for positive patients to manifest with an alteration in serum Na+ was (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.17-2.35, P < .001) and serum chlorine (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.69, P < .001). Notably, OR for positive patients to be hypocalcaemic was 7.2 (95% CI 4.8-10.6, P < .0001) with a low probability for women to be hypocalcaemic (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypochloraemia and sodium alterations. Hypokalaemia is more frequent among women and hypocalcaemia among men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrolytes , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care , COVID-19 Serotherapy
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e29504, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a huge strain on the health care system globally. The metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, was one of the regions most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. Risk prediction models developed by combining administrative databases and basic clinical data are needed to stratify individual patient risk for public health purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a stratification tool aimed at improving COVID-19 patient management and health care organization. METHODS: A predictive algorithm was developed and applied to 36,834 patients with COVID-19 in Italy between March 8 and the October 9, 2020, in order to foresee their risk of hospitalization. Exposures considered were age, sex, comorbidities, and symptoms associated with COVID-19 (eg, vomiting, cough, fever, diarrhea, myalgia, asthenia, headache, anosmia, ageusia, and dyspnea). The outcome was hospitalizations and emergency department admissions for COVID-19. Discrimination and calibration of the model were also assessed. RESULTS: The predictive model showed a good fit for predicting COVID-19 hospitalization (C-index 0.79) and a good overall prediction accuracy (Brier score 0.14). The model was well calibrated (intercept -0.0028, slope 0.9970). Based on these results, 118,804 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 25 to December 11, 2020, were stratified into low, medium, and high risk for COVID-19 severity. Among the overall study population, 67,030 (56.42%) were classified as low-risk patients; 43,886 (36.94%), as medium-risk patients; and 7888 (6.64%), as high-risk patients. In all, 89.37% (106,179/118,804) of the overall study population was being assisted at home, 9% (10,695/118,804) was hospitalized, and 1.62% (1930/118,804) died. Among those assisted at home, most people (63,983/106,179, 60.26%) were classified as low risk, whereas only 3.63% (3858/106,179) were classified at high risk. According to ordinal logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of being hospitalized or dead was 5.0 (95% CI 4.6-5.4) among high-risk patients and 2.7 (95% CI 2.6-2.9) among medium-risk patients, as compared to low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: A simple monitoring system, based on primary care data sets linked to COVID-19 testing results, hospital admissions data, and death records may assist in the proper planning and allocation of patients and resources during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(12): 2966-2979, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) anti-spike (S) IgG antibody production after vaccination with BNT162b2 and the protection from symptomatic breakthrough infections in health care workers. METHODS: This prospective observational study (RENAISSANCE) had as a primary end point the evaluation of serologic response to BNT162b2 14 days after a second dose. SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG antibodies were evaluated with LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay (DiaSorin S.p.A.), which is able to detect the presence of both binding and neutralizing antibodies for trimeric spike glycoprotein. Participants were recruited from February 1, 2021, to February 22, 2021. Occurrence of vaccine breakthrough infections was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on symptomatic and contact cases up to June 6, 2021. RESULTS: Of 2569 staff evaluated, only 4 were nonresponders (0.16%; 95% CI, 0.04% to 0.41%). All 4 nonresponders were severely immunosuppressed and receiving treatment with mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid. At 14 days after the second dose, 67.5% (1733) of staff had anti-S IgG titers of 2000 BAU/mL or higher; 19.2% (494), between 1500 and 2000 BAU/mL; 9.8% (251), between 1000 and 1500 BAU/mL; and 3.4% (87), 1000 BAU/mL or lower. Women had a higher probability of having higher titers than men (64.5% [1044/1618] vs 58.3% [410/703]; P=.005). This was confirmed after adjustment for age group (odds ratio, 1.275; 95% CI, 1.062 to 1.531; P=.009). Four months after the end of the vaccination program, only 13 participants (0.26%) had experienced a breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 1 nonresponder. This was the only participant requiring hospitalization for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The vaccination campaign among health care workers at the ASST GOM Niguarda has resulted in a marked serologic response and reduction of incident COVID-19 cases. Yet, the lack of protection should not be overlooked in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunity, Active/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunocompetence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Factors
12.
International Journal of Clinical Practice ; n/a(n/a):e14882, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1409458

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Since SARS-CoV-2 spread, evidences regarding sex differences in progression and prognosis of COVID-19 have emerged. Besides this, studies on patients? clinical characteristics have described electrolyte imbalances as one of the recurrent features of COVID-19. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on all patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1st March to 31st May 2020 who had undergone a blood gas analysis and a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by rtPCR. We defined positive patients as cases (n. 710) and negatives as controls (n. 619), for a total number of patients of 1.329. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Area 3 Milan. Data were automatically extracted from the hospital laboratory SQL-based repository in anonymized form. We considered as outcomes potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), chlorine (Cl-) and calcium (Ca++) as continuous and as categorical variables, in their relation with age, sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Results We observed a higher prevalence of hypokalemia among patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13.7% vs 6% of negative subjects). Positive patients had a higher probability to be admitted to the ED with hypokalemia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.8-4.1 p<0.0001) and women were twice as likely to be affected than men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.67-3.54 p<0.001). Odds ratios for positive patients to manifest with an alteration in serum Na+ was (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.17-2.35 p<0.001) and serum chlorine (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.69 p<0.001). Notably, OR for positive patients to be hypocalcemic was 7.2 (95% CI 4.8-10.6 p<0.0001) with a low probability for women to be hypocalcemic (OR 0.63, 95% IC 0.4-0.8 p=0.005). Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher prevalence of hypokalemia, hypocal- cemia, hypochloremia and sodium alterations. Hypokalemia is more frequent among women and hypocal- cemia among men.

14.
Gut ; 70(10): 1914-1924, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore the impact of COVID-19 on patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT) and on their post-LT course. DESIGN: Data from consecutive adult LT candidates with COVID-19 were collected across Europe in a dedicated registry and were analysed. RESULTS: From 21 February to 20 November 2020, 136 adult cases with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 33 centres in 11 European countries were collected, with 113 having COVID-19. Thirty-seven (37/113, 32.7%) patients died after a median of 18 (10-30) days, with respiratory failure being the major cause (33/37, 89.2%). The 60-day mortality risk did not significantly change between first (35.3%, 95% CI 23.9% to 50.0%) and second (26.0%, 95% CI 16.2% to 40.2%) waves. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed Laboratory Model for End-stage Liver Disease (Lab-MELD) score of ≥15 (Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score 15-19, HR 5.46, 95% CI 1.81 to 16.50; MELD score≥20, HR 5.24, 95% CI 1.77 to 15.55) and dyspnoea on presentation (HR 3.89, 95% CI 2.02 to 7.51) being the two negative independent factors for mortality. Twenty-six patients underwent an LT after a median time of 78.5 (IQR 44-102) days, and 25 (96%) were alive after a median follow-up of 118 days (IQR 31-170). CONCLUSIONS: Increased mortality in LT candidates with COVID-19 (32.7%), reaching 45% in those with decompensated cirrhosis (DC) and Lab-MELD score of ≥15, was observed, with no significant difference between first and second waves of the pandemic. Respiratory failure was the major cause of death. The dismal prognosis of patients with DC supports the adoption of strict preventative measures and the urgent testing of vaccination efficacy in this population. Prior SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infection did not affect early post-transplant survival (96%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Liver Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Transplant Recipients , Cause of Death , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Waiting Lists
15.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224249

ABSTRACT

To complement RT-qPCR testing for diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, many countries have introduced the use of rapid antigen tests. As they generally display lower real-life performances than expected, their correct positioning as frontline screening is still controversial. Despite the lack of data from daily clinical use, third generation microfluidic assays (such as the LumiraDx SARS-CoV-2 Ag test) have recently been suggested to have similar performances to RT-qPCR and have been proposed as alternative diagnostic tools. By analyzing 960 nasopharyngeal swabs from 960 subjects at the emergency department admissions of a tertiary COVID-19 hospital, LumiraDx assay demonstrated a specificity of 97% (95% CI: 96-98), and a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI: 82-89) in comparison with RT-qPCR, which increases to 91% (95% CI: 86-95) for samples with a cycle threshold ≤ 29. Fifty false-negative LumiraDx-results were confirmed by direct quantification of genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA through droplet-digital PCR (median (IQR) load = 5880 (1657-41,440) copies/mL). Subgenomic N and E RNAs were detected in 52% (n = 26) and 56% (n = 28) of them, respectively, supporting the presence of active viral replication. Overall, the LumiraDx test complies with the minimum performance requirements of the WHO. Yet, the risk of a misrecognition of patients with active COVID-19 persists, and the need for confirmatory RT-qPCR should not be amended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(6): 677-681, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213138

ABSTRACT

The vaccination campaign against Sars-CoV-2 commenced in Italy at the end of December 2020. The first ones to receive the immunization against the virus were the health workers and the residents of nursing homes, following which the vaccine would be available for the entire population, beginning with the most vulnerable individuals. SARS-CoV2 vaccines have been demonstrated to be safe for the general population, although no data for patients with liver diseases or those having undergone liver transplantation are available so far. The present position statement AISF is an attempt to suggest, based on the published data on the impact of Sars-Cov-2 infection in patients with chronic liver disease, a possible priority for vaccination for this category of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Liver Diseases , Risk Adjustment/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Transplantation , Patient Safety , Patient Selection , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this secondary analysis of the TESEO cohort is to identify, early in the course of treatment with tocilizumab, factors associated with the risk of progressing to mechanical ventilation and death and develop a risk score to estimate the risk of this outcome according to patients' profile. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 severe pneumonia receiving standard of care + tocilizumab who were alive and free from mechanical ventilation at day 6 after treatment initiation were included in this retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify predictors of mechanical ventilation or death by day-28 from treatment initiation and ß-coefficients were used to develop a risk score. Secondary outcome was mortality. Patients with the same inclusion criteria as the derivation cohort from 3 independent hospitals were used as validation cohort. RESULTS: 266 patients treated with tocilizumab were included. By day 28 of hospital follow-up post treatment initiation, 40 (15%) underwent mechanical ventilation or died [26 (10%)]. At multivariable analysis, sex, day-4 PaO2/FiO2 ratio, platelets and CRP were independently associated with the risk of developing the study outcomes and were used to generate the proposed risk score. The accuracy of the score in AUC was 0.80 and 0.70 in internal validation and test for the composite endpoint and 0.92 and 0.69 for death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our score could assist clinicians in identifying, early after tocilizumab administration, patients who are likely to progress to mechanical ventilation or death, so that they could be selected for eventual rescue therapies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
19.
Eur J Neurosci ; 53(8): 2912-2922, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096760

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2 infection is a systemic disease that may involve multiple organs, including the central nervous system (CNS). Aims of our study are to describe prevalence and clinical features of neurological manifestations, mortality and hospital discharge in subjects hospitalized with COVID-19. All individuals admitted for to our hospital COVID-19 were retrospectively included. Patients were classified according to the symptoms at hospital entry in (1) isolated respiratory, (2) combined respiratory and neurologic, (3) isolated neurologic and (4) stroke manifestations. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests to compare the groups were calculated. Kaplan Meier probability curves and multivariable Cox regression models for survival and hospital discharge were applied. The analysis included 901 patients: 42.6% showed a severe or critical disease with an overall mortality of 21.2%. At least one neurological symptom or disease was observed in 30.2% of subjects ranging from dysgeusia/anosmia (9.1%) to postinfective diseases (0.8%). Patients with respiratory symptoms experienced a more severe disease and a higher in-hospital mortality compared to those who showed only neurologic symptoms. Kaplan Meier estimates displayed a statistically significant different survival among groups (p = 0.003): subjects with stroke had the worst. After adjusting for risk factors such as age, sex and comorbidity, individuals with isolated neurologic manifestations exhibited a better survival (aHR 0.398, 95% CI [0.206, 0.769], p = 0.006). Neurologic manifestations in COVID-19 are common but heterogeneous and mortality in subjects with isolated neurologic manifestations seems lower than in those with respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 184, 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA seems to be associated with worse COVID-19 outcome. However, whether specific population can be at higher risk of viremia are to date unexplored. METHODS: This cross-sectional proof-of-concept study included 41 SARS-CoV-2-positive adult individuals (six affected by haematological malignancies) hospitalized at two major hospital in Milan, for those demographic, clinical and laboratory data were available. SARS-CoV-2 load was quantified by ddPCR in paired plasma and respiratory samples. To assess significant differences between patients with and patients without viremia, Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS: Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in 8 patients (19.5%), with a median (IQR) value of 694 (209-1023) copies/mL. Viremic patients were characterized by an higher mortality rate (50.0% vs 9.1%; p = 0.018) respect to patients without viremia. Viremic patients were more frequently affected by haematological malignancies (62.5% vs. 3.0%; p < 0.001), and had higher viral load in respiratory samples (9,404,000 [586,060-10,000,000] vs 1560 [312-25,160] copies/mL; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Even if based on a small sample population, this proof-of-concept study poses the basis for an early identification of patients at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 viremia, and therefore likely to develop severe COVID-19, and supports the need of a quantitative viral load determination in blood and respiratory samples of haematologic patients with COVID-19 in order to predict prognosis and consequently to help their further management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , Viral Load , Viremia/virology
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