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1.
2022 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing, COM-IT-CON 2022 ; : 469-477, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029193

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has put the majority of the world under lockdown, and one unintended effect of this response has been an improvement in global air quality. The objective of this research is to examine the correlations between pollution levels in air (carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter etc.) and their impact during COVID-19. Our findings state that air pollution can be considered as a major factor in the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. It has an effect on chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, air pollution can also be associated with the increase in COVID-19 severity and lethality. This study shows that air pollution exposure reduces immunological responses, allowing viruses to penetrate and replicate more easily. Various contaminants affected the quality of air as their effects were evaluated during COVID-19 lockdown imposed by the government with the help of different response dataset trackers. ernment response tracker dataset including daily air pollution data and weather data from several cities in the United States, India, and Switzerland. We have used data from (CAAQMS) Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations, to conduct a detailed examination of the COVID-19's effect on the quality of air and reported changes in Air Quality Index (AQI). The observation indicates certain contaminants NO2, PM2.5 other factors, too, have a considerable influence in COVID-19 infection. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):88-89, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881034

ABSTRACT

Background: Rapid and large-scale deployment of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines highlights the potential utility of developing nucleic acid vaccines (such as RNA and DNA vaccines) against infectious diseases, including HIV-1. However, as compared to SARS-CoV-2, HIV-1 pose some unique challenges-induction of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against HIV-1 (frequently a correlate of protection) requires presentation of trimeric and highly conformational epitopes to the immune system, and whether nucleic acid vaccines can enable direct in vivo production of antigens that retain critical antigenic profile has not yet been elucidated. Additionally, it was previously reported that Tier 2 NAbs cannot be induced in mice due to a lack of antibody repertoire, and vaccine studies were suggested to be performed in larger mammals such as rabbits/NHPs, inadvertently slowing down and increasing the costs of preclinical HIV-1 vaccine studies. Methods: In our study, we used the Antigen Conformation Tracing In Vivo by ELISA (ACTIVE) assay developed in house to characterize antigenic profiles of vaccines produced in vivo (from transfected muscle tissues). We analyzed induced cellular responses, using stimulation with overlapping peptides followed by intracellular cytokine staining and IFN-g ELIspot assays. We analyzed induced humoral responses by using both binding ELISA assays and TZM-BL based neutralizing assays, and attempted to map induced NAb epitopes by engineering selectively mutated pseudovirus. We performed antigen-specific B-cell sorting, and used the 10x genomics pipeline to characterize antibody sequences of proliferating B-cell clones. Results: We confirmed that in vivo produced vaccines retained key trimeric conformational epitopes and glycan profiles. Compared to protein vaccination, DNA vaccination uniquely and strongly induced both TFH, CD4+, CD8+ T-cell responses, and Tier 2 NAbs mapped to a previously unreported Env C3/V5 epitope. 5 unique NAbs were isolated, and confirmed to bind to the epitope using a Cryo-EM structure of NAb-MD39 complex at 3.8Å resolution. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that with appropriate vaccine delivery technology, murine models can be appropriately used for HIV-1 vaccine studies aimed at generating NAb responses. In addition, beyond potential functional immunity gains, DNA vaccines permit in vivo folding of structured antigens and provide significant cost and speed advantages for enabling rapid evaluation of new HIV vaccines.

4.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S387-S388, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746427

ABSTRACT

Background. DNA vaccines are safe, tolerable, elicit humoral and cellular responses, allow for repeated dosing over time, are thermostable at room temperature, and are easy to manufacture. We present a compilation of Phase 1 and Phase 2 data of Inovio's US COVID-19 DNA Vaccine (INO-4800) targeting the full-length Spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2. A South Korean Phase 2 study is ongoing. Methods. Participants in the open-label Phase 1 trial received 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg or 2.0 mg intradermally (ID) followed by electroporation (EP) at Days 0 and 28. An optional booster dose was administered >6 months post-dose 2. The Phase 2 further compared the 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg doses against placebo in a total of 401 participants randomized at a 3:3:1:1 ratio. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT04336410 and NCT04642638 Results. The majority of adverse events (AEs) related to INO-4800 across both trials were mild in severity and did not increase in frequency with age and subsequent doses. In Phase 1, 78% (14/18) and 84% (16/19) of subjects generated neutralizing antibody responses with geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 17.4 (95%CI 8.3, 36.5) and 62.3 (95% CI 36.4, 106.7) in the 1.0 and 2.0 groups, respectively (Figure 1). By week 8, 74% (14/19) and 100% (19/19) subjects generated T cell responses by Th1- associated IFNγ ELISPOT assay . Following a booster dose, neutralizing GMTs rose to 82.2 (95% CI 38.2, 176.9) and 124.7 (95% CI 62.8, 247.7) in the 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg groups, respectively, demonstrating the ability of INO-4800 to boost (Figure 2). In Phase 2, neutralizing antibody responses demonstrated GMTs of 93.6 (95%CI 77.3, 113.4) in the 1.0 mg dose group and 150.6 (95%CI 123.8, 183.1) in the 2.0 mg dose group (Figure 3). Conclusion. INO-4800 appears safe and tolerable as a primary series and as a booster with the induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition to eliciting neutralizing antibodies, INO-4800 also induced T cell immune responses as demonstrated by IFNγ ELISpot. Finally, as a homologous booster, INO-4800, when administered 6-10.5 months following the primary series, resulted in an increased immune response without increase in reactogenicity. The 2.0 mg dose was selected for Phase 3 evaluation.

5.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S390-S391, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746420

ABSTRACT

Background. Global surveillance has identified emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) associated with increased transmissibility, disease severity, and resistance to neutralization by current vaccines under emergency use authorization (EUA). Here we assessed cross-immune responses of INO-4800 vaccinated subjects against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Methods. We used a SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA and a pseudo neutralization assay to assess humoral responses, and an IFNγ ELISpot to measure cellular responses against SARS-CoV-2 VOC in subjects immunized with the DNA vaccine, INO-4800. Results. IgG binding titers were not impacted between wild-type (WT) and B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 variants. An average 1.9-fold reduction was observed for the P.1 variant in subjects tested at week 8 after receiving two doses of INO-4800 (Figure 1a). We performed a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay using sera collected from 13 subjects two weeks after administration of a third dose of either 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg of INO-4800. Neutralization was detected against WT and the emerging variants in all samples tested. The mean ID50 titers for the WT, B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1. were 643 (range: 70-729), 295 (range: 46-886), 105 (range: 25-309), and 664 (range: 25-2087), respectively. Compared to WT, there was a 2.1 and 6.9-fold reduction for B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, respectively, while there was no difference between WT and the P.1 variant (Figure 1b). Next, we compared cellular immune responses to WT and SARS-CoV-2 Spike variants elicited by INO-4800 vaccination. We observed similar cellular responses to WT (median = 82.2 IQR = 58.9-205.3), B.1.1.7 (79.4, IQR = 38.9- 179.7), B.1.351 (80, IQR = 40.0-208.6) and P.1 (78.3, IQR = 53.1-177.8) Spike peptides (Figure 2). Conclusion. INO-4800 vaccination induced neutralizing antibodies against all variants tested, with reduced levels detected against B.1.351. IFNγ T cell responses were fully maintained against all variants tested.

6.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-330416

ABSTRACT

Background: Additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that are safe and effective as primary vaccines and boosters remain urgently needed to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe the safety and durability of the immune responses following two primary doses and a homologous booster dose of an investigational DNA vaccine (INO-4800) targeting the full-length spike antigen. Methods: Three dosage strengths of INO-4800 (0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, and 2.0 mg) were evaluated in 120 age-stratified healthy adults. Intradermal injection of INO-4800 followed by electroporation at 0 and 4 weeks preceded an optional booster 6-10.5 months after the second dose. Results: INO-4800 appeared well tolerated, with no treatment-related serious adverse events. Most adverse events were mild and did not increase in frequency with age and subsequent dosing. A durable antibody response was observed 6 months following the second dose;a homologous booster dose significantly increased immune responses. Cytokine producing T cells and activated CD8+ T cells with lytic potential were significantly increased in the 2.0 mg dose group. Conclusion: INO-4800 was well tolerated in a 2-dose primary series and as a homologous booster in all adults, including the elderly. These results support further development of INO-4800 for use as a primary vaccine and as a booster.

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