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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306562

ABSTRACT

Background: The study analysed risk factors for bacterial and fungal co-infection in patients with COVID-19 and the impact on mortality. Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study conducted on 387 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to an Italian Tertiary-care hospital, between 21 February 2020 and 31 May 2020. Bacterial/fungal coinfection was determined by the presence of characteristic clinical features and positive culture results. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors for the development of bacterial/fungal co-infection after adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities. Thirty-day survival of the patients with or without co-infections was analysed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: In 53/387 (13.7%) patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, 67 episodes of bacterial/fungal co-infection occurred (14 presented >1 episode). Pneumonia was the most frequent co-infection (47.7%), followed by BSI (34.3%) and UTI (11.9%). S. aureus was responsible for 24 episodes (35.8%), E. coli for 7 (10.4%), P. aerugionsa and Enterococcus spp. for 5 episodes each (7.4%). Five (7.4%) pulmonary aspergillosis, 3 (4.4%) pneumocystosis and 5 (7.4%) invasive candidiases were observed. Multivariable analysis showed a higher risk of infection in patients with an age>65 years (csHR 2.680;95%CI: 1.254 - 5.727;p=0.054), with cancer (csHR 5.243;95%CI: 1.173-23.423;p=0.030), with a LOS>10 days (csHR 12.507;95%CI: 2.659 – 58.830;p=0.001), early (within 48h) admitted in ICU (csHR 11.766;95% CI: 4.353-31.804;p<0.001), and with a SOFA score>5 (csHR 3.397;95% CI: 1.091 - 10.581;p=0.035). Estimated cumulative risk of developing at least 1 bacterial/fungal co-infection episode was of 15% and 27% after 15 and 30 days from admission, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimated a higher cumulative probability of death in patients with bacterial/fungal co-infection (log-rank=0.031). Thirty-day mortality rate of patients with pneumonia was 38.7%, higher than those with BSI (30.4%). Conclusions: Bacterial and fungal infections are a serious complication affecting the survival of patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia. Some issues need to be investigated, such as the best empirical antibiotic therapy and the need for possible antifungal prophylaxis.

2.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 538-549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579085

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications after a SARS-CoV-2 infection are a phenomenon of relevant scientific interest. The aim of this study was to analyze the onset of post-COVID-19 cardiovascular events in patients hospitalized in a tertiary care center. This is a retrospective study conducted on patients hospitalized over a period of three months. The patients were older than 18 years of age and had a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection confirmed from a nasopharyngeal swab sample. Anamnestic and clinical-laboratory data were collected. Cardiovascular events at 30 days were defined as follows: arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and pulmonary embolism. Univariate analysis (Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate) and multivariate analysis (multinomial logistic regression) were applied to the data. A total of 394 patients were included; they were mostly males and had a median age of 65.5 years. Previous cardiovascular disease was present in 14.7% of patients. Oxygen therapy was required for 77.9%, and 53% received anticoagulant therapy. The overall 30-day mortality was 20.3%. A cardiovascular event developed in 15.7% of the subjects. These were mainly pulmonary embolism (9.4%), followed by arrhythmias (3.3%), myocardial infarction (2.3%), and myocarditis (0.8%). Patients who developed cardiovascular events upon univariate analysis were significantly older, with major comorbidities, a more compromised respiratory situation, and a higher mortality rate. Multivariate analysis revealed independent factors that were significantly associated with the development of cardiovascular events: hypertension, endotracheal intubation, and age older than 75 years. In patients with COVID-19, the development of a cardiovascular event occurs quite frequently and is mainly seen in elderly subjects with comorbidities (especially hypertension) in the presence of a severe respiratory picture.

3.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex 1 co-infections in patients with COVID-19 are considered relatively uncommon; some reports on re-activations in patients in intensive-care units were published. The aim of the study was to analyze herpetic re-activations and their clinical manifestations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, performing HSV-1 PCR on plasma twice a week. METHODS: we conducted a prospective, observational, single-center study involving 70 consecutive patients with severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia tested for HSV-1 hospitalized at Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Modena. RESULTS: of these 70 patients, 21 (30.0%) showed detectable viremia and 13 (62%) had clinically relevant manifestations of HSV-1 infection corresponding to 15 events (4 pneumonia, 5 herpes labialis, 3 gingivostomatitis, one encephalitis and two hepatitis). HSV-1 positive patients were more frequently treated with steroids than HSV-1 negative patients (76.2% vs. 49.0%, p = 0.036) and more often underwent mechanical ventilation (IMV) (57.1% vs. 22.4%, p = 0.005). In the unadjusted logistic regression analysis, steroid treatment, IMV, and higher LDH were significantly associated with an increased risk of HSV1 re-activation (odds ratio 3.33, 4.61, and 16.9, respectively). The association with the use of steroids was even stronger after controlling for previous use of both tocilizumab and IMV (OR = 5.13, 95% CI:1.36-19.32, p = 0.016). The effect size was larger when restricting to participants who were treated with high doses of steroids while there was no evidence to support an association with the use of tocilizumab Conclusions: our study shows a high incidence of HSV-1 re-activation both virologically and clinically in patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia, especially in those treated with steroids.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0251378, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The benefit of tocilizumab on mortality and time to recovery in people with severe COVID pneumonia may depend on appropriate timing. The objective was to estimate the impact of tocilizumab administration on switching respiratory support states, mortality and time to recovery. METHODS: In an observational study, a continuous-time Markov multi-state model was used to describe the sequence of respiratory support states including: no respiratory support (NRS), oxygen therapy (OT), non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), OT in recovery, NRS in recovery. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-one consecutive adult patients were included in the analyses contributing to 695 transitions across states. The prevalence of patients in each respiratory support state was estimated with stack probability plots, comparing people treated with and without tocilizumab since the beginning of the OT state. A positive effect of tocilizumab on the probability of moving from the invasive and non-invasive mechanical NIV/IMV state to the OT in recovery state (HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-5.2) was observed. Furthermore, a reduced risk of death was observed in patients in NIV/IMV (HR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) or in OT (HR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.0-0.8) treated with tocilizumab. CONCLUSION: To conclude, we were able to show the positive impact of tocilizumab used in different disease stages depicted by respiratory support states. The use of the multi-state Markov model allowed to harmonize the heterogeneous mortality and recovery endpoints and summarize results with stack probability plots. This approach could inform randomized clinical trials regarding tocilizumab, support disease management and hospital decision making.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Markov Chains , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab283, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324646

ABSTRACT

We compared 90-90-90 targets in 2020, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with the targets across the period 2017-2019 in people with HIV. We observed a significant loss in the 90-90-90 objectives in 2020 when compared with 2017-2019 that might be attributable to the COVID-19 crisis.

6.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(2): 231-240, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of within-day sCr variation serum creatinine variation is unknown in the setting of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the prognostic significance of 24-hour serum creatinine variation in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective analysis was conducted in COVID-19 patients not admitted to the intensive care unit. Three groups were subdivided based on 24 hours serum creatinine variation from admission. In the stable kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation ranged from +0.05 to -0.05 mg/dL; in the decreased kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation was >0.05 mg/dL; in the improved kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation was <-0.05 mg/dL. RESULTS: The study population included 224 patients with a median age of 66.5 years and a predominance of males (72.3%). Within 24 hours of admission, renal function remained stable in 37.1% of the subjects, whereas it displayed improved and deteriorated patterns in 45.5% and 17.4%, respectively. Patients with decreased kidney function were older and had more severe COVID-19 symptoms than patients with stable or improved kidney function. About half of patients with decreased kidney function developed an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization. Decreased kidney function was significantly associated with AKI during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-10.8; p < 0.001) and was an independent risk factor for 30-day in-hospital mortality (HR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.1-28; p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with decreased kidney function within 24 hours of admission were at high risk of AKI and 30-day in-hospital mortality.

7.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(11): 1203-1214, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to evaluate incidence, risk factors and case-fatality rate of AKI in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed the health medical records of 307 consecutive patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at the University Hospital of Modena, Italy. RESULTS: AKI was diagnosed in 69 out of 307 (22.4%) COVID-19 patients. Stages 1, 2, or 3 AKI accounted for 57.9%, 24.6% and 17.3%, respectively. AKI patients had a mean age of 74.7 ± 9.9 years. These patients showed higher serum levels of the main markers of inflammation and higher rate of severe pneumonia than non-AKI patients. Kidney injury was associated with a higher rate of urinary abnormalities including proteinuria (0.44 ± 0.85 vs 0.18 ± 0.29 mg/mg; P = < 0.0001) and microscopic hematuria (P = 0.032) compared to non-AKI patients. Hemodialysis was performed in 7.2% of the subjects and 33.3% of the survivors did not recover kidney function after AKI. Risk factors for kidney injury were age, male sex, CKD and higher non-renal SOFA score. Patients with AKI had a mortality rate of 56.5%. Adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that COVID-19-associated AKI was independently associated with in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.82; CI 95%, 1.36-17.08) compared to non-AKI patients. CONCLUSION: AKI was a common and harmful consequence of COVID-19. It manifested with urinary abnormalities (proteinuria, microscopic hematuria) and conferred an increased risk for death. Given the well-known short-term sequelae of AKI, prevention of kidney injury is imperative in this vulnerable cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hematuria/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
8.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(4): 401-409, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 experience multiple clinical conditions that may cause electrolyte imbalances. Hypokalemia is a concerning electrolyte disorder closely associated with severe complications. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, risk factors and outcome of hypokalemia in a cohort of patients with confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 290 non-ICU admitted patients with COVID-19 at the tertiary teaching hospital of Modena, Italy, from February 16 to April 14, 2020. RESULTS: Hypokalemia was detected in 119 out of 290 patients (41%) during hospitalization. Mean serum potassium was 3.1 ± 0.1 meq/L. The majority of patients (90.7%) patients experienced only a mild decrease in serum potassium level (3-3.4 mEq/L). Hypokalemia was associated with hypocalcemia, which was detected in 50% of subjects. Urine potassium-to-creatinine ratio, measured in a small number of patients (n = 45; 36.1%), revealed an increase of urinary potassium excretion in most cases (95.5%). Risk factors for hypokalemia were female sex (odds ratio (OR) 2.44; 95% CI 1.36-4.37; P 0.003) and diuretic therapy (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.08-3.48; P 0.027). Hypokalemia, adjusted for sex, age and SOFA score, was not associated with ICU transfer (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.228-1.212; P = 0.131), in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.47; 95% CI 0.170-1.324; P = 0.154) and composite outcome of ICU transfer or in-hospital mortality (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.222-1.047; P = 0.065) in our cohort of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hypokalemia was a frequent disorder in subjects with COVID-19. Female sex and diuretic therapy were identified as risk factors for low serum potassium levels. Hypokalemia was unrelated to ICU transfer and death in this cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypokalemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diuretics/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypokalemia/drug therapy , Hypokalemia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium/blood , Potassium/urine , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239172, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922701

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to estimate a 48 hour prediction of moderate to severe respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was an observational prospective study that comprised consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to hospital from 21 February to 6 April 2020. The patients' medical history, demographic, epidemiologic and clinical data were collected in an electronic patient chart. The dataset was used to train predictive models using an established machine learning framework leveraging a hybrid approach where clinical expertise is applied alongside a data-driven analysis. The study outcome was the onset of moderate to severe respiratory failure defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio <150 mmHg in at least one of two consecutive arterial blood gas analyses in the following 48 hours. Shapley Additive exPlanations values were used to quantify the positive or negative impact of each variable included in each model on the predicted outcome. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients contributed to generate 1068 usable observations which allowed to build 3 predictive models based respectively on 31-variables signs and symptoms, 39-variables laboratory biomarkers and 91-variables as a composition of the two. A fourth "boosted mixed model" included 20 variables was selected from the model 3, achieved the best predictive performance (AUC = 0.84) without worsening the FN rate. Its clinical performance was applied in a narrative case report as an example. CONCLUSION: This study developed a machine model with 84% prediction accuracy, which is able to assist clinicians in decision making process and contribute to develop new analytics to improve care at high technology readiness levels.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(8): e474-e484, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No therapy is approved for COVID-19 pneumonia. The aim of this study was to assess the role of tocilizumab in reducing the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation and death in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received standard of care treatment. METHODS: This retrospective, observational cohort study included adults (≥18 years) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to tertiary care centres in Bologna and Reggio Emilia, Italy, between Feb 21 and March 24, 2020, and a tertiary care centre in Modena, Italy, between Feb 21 and April 30, 2020. All patients were treated with the standard of care (ie, supplemental oxygen, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, antiretrovirals, and low molecular weight heparin), and a non-randomly selected subset of patients also received tocilizumab. Tocilizumab was given either intravenously at 8 mg/kg bodyweight (up to a maximum of 800 mg) in two infusions, 12 h apart, or subcutaneously at 162 mg administered in two simultaneous doses, one in each thigh (ie, 324 mg in total), when the intravenous formulation was unavailable. The primary endpoint was a composite of invasive mechanical ventilation or death. Treatment groups were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis after adjusting for sex, age, recruiting centre, duration of symptoms, and baseline Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. FINDINGS: Of 1351 patients admitted, 544 (40%) had severe COVID-19 pneumonia and were included in the study. 57 (16%) of 365 patients in the standard care group needed mechanical ventilation, compared with 33 (18%) of 179 patients treated with tocilizumab (p=0·41; 16 [18%] of 88 patients treated intravenously and 17 [19%] of 91 patients treated subcutaneously). 73 (20%) patients in the standard care group died, compared with 13 (7%; p<0·0001) patients treated with tocilizumab (six [7%] treated intravenously and seven [8%] treated subcutaneously). After adjustment for sex, age, recruiting centre, duration of symptoms, and SOFA score, tocilizumab treatment was associated with a reduced risk of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (adjusted hazard ratio 0·61, 95% CI 0·40-0·92; p=0·020). 24 (13%) of 179 patients treated with tocilizumab were diagnosed with new infections, versus 14 (4%) of 365 patients treated with standard of care alone (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Treatment with tocilizumab, whether administered intravenously or subcutaneously, might reduce the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation or death in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. FUNDING: None.

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