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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123155, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238534

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Natural killer (NK) cells plays a pivotal role in the control of viral infections, and their function depend on the balance between their activating and inhibitory receptors. The immune dysregulation observed in COVID-19 patients was previously associated with downregulation of NK cell numbers and function, yet the mechanism of inhibition of NK cell functions and the interplay between infected cells and NK cells remain largely unknown. Methods: In this study we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection of airway epithelial cells can directly influence NK cell phenotype and functions in the infection microenvironment. NK cells were co-cultured with SARS-CoV-2 infected epithelial cells, in a direct contact with A549ACE2/TMPRSS2 cell line or in a microenvironment of the infection in a 3D ex vivo human airway epithelium (HAE) model and NK cell surface expression of a set of most important receptors (CD16, NKG2D, NKp46, DNAM-1, NKG2C, CD161, NKG2A, TIM-3, TIGIT, and PD-1) was analyzed. Results: We observed a selective, in both utilized experimental models, significant downregulation the proportion of CD161 (NKR-P1A or KLRB1) expressing NK cells, and its expression level, which was followed by a significant impairment of NK cells cytotoxicity level against K562 cells. What is more, we confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 infection upregulates the expression of the ligand for CD161 receptor, lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1, CLEC2D or OCIL), on infected epithelial cells. LLT1 protein can be also detected not only in supernatants of SARS-CoV-2 infected A549ACE2/TMPRSS2 cells and HAE basolateral medium, but also in serum of COVID-19 patients. Finally, we proved that soluble LLT1 protein treatment of NK cells significantly reduces i) the proportion of CD161+ NK cells, ii) the ability of NK cells to control SARS-CoV-2 infection in A549ACE2/TMPRSS2 cells and iii) the production of granzyme B by NK cells and their cytotoxicity capacity, yet not degranulation level. Conclusion: We propose a novel mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 inhibition of NK cell functions via activation of the LLT1-CD161 axis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Cell Surface , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 312: 120756, 2023 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309426

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed a new filtering bioaerogel based on linear polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the cationic derivative of chitosan (N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylamine) propyl] chitosan chloride, HTCC) with a potential antiviral application. A strong intermolecular network architecture was formed thanks to the introduction of linear PVA chains, which can efficiently interpenetrate the glutaraldehyde(GA)-crosslinked HTCC chains. The morphology of the obtained structures was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The aerogels and modified polymers' elemental composition (including the chemical environment) was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). New aerogels with more than twice as much developed micro- and mesopore space and BET-specific surface area were obtained concerning the starting sample chitosan aerogel crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (Chit/GA). The results obtained from the XPS analysis showed the presence of cationic 3-trimethylammonium groups on the surface of the aerogel, which can interact with viral capsid proteins. No cytotoxic effect of HTCC/GA/PVA aerogel was also observed on fibroblast cells of the NIH3T3 line. Furthermore, the HTCC/GA/PVA aerogel has been shown that efficiently traps mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) from suspension. The presented concept of aerogel filters for virus capture based on modified chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol has a high application potential.


Subject(s)
Chitosan , Viruses , Animals , Mice , Chitosan/chemistry , Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry , Glutaral/chemistry , NIH 3T3 Cells
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1512, 2023 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221867

ABSTRACT

Accurate and fast detection of viruses is crucial for controlling outbreaks of many diseases; therefore, to date, numerous sensing systems for their detection have been studied. On top of the performance of these sensing systems, the availability of biorecognition elements specific to especially the new etiological agents is an additional fundamental challenge. Therefore, besides high sensitivity and selectivity, such advantages as the size of the sensor and possibly low volume of analyzed samples are also important, especially at the stage of evaluating the receptor-target interactions in the case of new etiological agents when typically, only tiny amounts of the receptor are available for testing. This work introduces a real-time, highly miniaturized sensing solution based on microcavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (µIMZI) induced in optical fiber for SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles detection. The assay is designed to detect conserved regions of the SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in a sample with a volume as small as hundreds of picoliters, reaching the detection limit at the single ng per mL level.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Optical Fibers , SARS-CoV-2 , Interferometry , COVID-19/diagnosis
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 991991, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080153

ABSTRACT

The first line of antiviral immune response in the lungs is secured by the innate immunity. Several cell types take part in this process, but airway macrophages (AMs) are among the most relevant ones. The AMs can phagocyte infected cells and activate the immune response through antigen presentation and cytokine release. However, the precise role of macrophages in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of AMs during the SARS-CoV-2 infection using a co-culture of fully differentiated primary human airway epithelium (HAE) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs). Our results confirmed abortive SARS-CoV-2 infection in hMDMs, and their inability to transfer the virus to epithelial cells. However, we demonstrated a striking delay in viral replication in the HAEs when hMDMs were added apically after the epithelial infection, but not when added before the inoculation or on the basolateral side of the culture. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 inhibition by hMDMs seems to be driven by cell-to-cell contact and not by cytokine production. Together, our results show, for the first time, that the recruitment of macrophages may play an important role during the SARS-CoV-2 infection, limiting the virus replication and its spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Epithelium , Lung , Macrophages , Cytokines , Antiviral Agents
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9593, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984417

ABSTRACT

The replication complex (RC) of SARS-CoV-2 was recently shown to be one of the fastest RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of any known coronavirus. With this rapid elongation, the RC is more prone to incorporate mismatches during elongation, resulting in a highly variable genomic sequence. Such mutations render the design of viral protein targets difficult, as drugs optimized for a given viral protein sequence can quickly become inefficient as the genomic sequence evolves. Here, we use biochemical experiments to characterize features of RNA template recognition and elongation fidelity of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, and the role of the exonuclease, nsp14. Our study highlights the 2'OH group of the RNA ribose as a critical component for RdRp template recognition and elongation. We show that RdRp fidelity is reduced in the presence of the 3' deoxy-terminator nucleotide 3'dATP, which promotes the incorporation of mismatched nucleotides (leading to U:C, U:G, U:U, C:U, and A:C base pairs). We find that the nsp10-nsp14 heterodimer is unable to degrade RNA products lacking free 2'OH or 3'OH ribose groups. Our results suggest the potential use of 3' deoxy-terminator nucleotides in RNA-derived oligonucleotide inhibitors as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Nucleotides/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Ribose , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/pharmacology , Virus Replication/genetics
6.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911643

ABSTRACT

This study aims to characterize the intermediates, and the final product (FP) obtained during the production of human intramuscular hyperimmune gamma globulin anti-SARS-CoV-2 (hIHGG anti-SARS-CoV-2) and to determine its stability. Material and methods: hIHGG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was fractionated from 270 convalescent plasma donations with the Cohn method. Prior to fractionation, the plasma was inactivated (Theraflex MB Plasma). Samples were defined using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for anti-S1, anti-RBD S1, and anti-N antibodies, and neutralization assays with SARS-CoV-2 (VN) and pseudoviruses (PVN, decorated with SARS-CoV-2 S protein). Results were expressed as a titer (EIA) or 50% of the neutralization titer (IC50) estimated in a four-parameter nonlinear regression model. Results: Concentration of anti-S1 antibodies in plasma was similar before and after inactivation. Following fractionation, the anti-S1, anti-RBD, and anti-N (total tests) titers in FP were concentrated approximately 15-fold from 1:4 to 1:63 (1800 BAU/mL), 7-fold from 1:111 to 1:802 and from 1:13 to 1:88, respectively. During production, the IgA (anti-S1) antibody titer was reduced to an undetectable level and the IgM (anti-RBD) titer from 1:115 to 1:24. The neutralizing antibodies (nAb) titer increased in both VN (from 1:40 to 1:160) and PVN (IC50 from 63 to 313). The concentration of specific IgG in the FP did not change significantly for 14 months. Conclusions: The hIHGG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was stable, with concentration up to approximately 15-fold nAb compared to the source plasma pool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , gamma-Globulins , COVID-19 Serotherapy
7.
iScience ; 25(7): 104594, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895108

ABSTRACT

Recent studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 can infect adult human pancreas and trigger pancreatic damage. Here, using human fetal pancreas samples and 3D differentiation of human pluripotent cells into pancreatic endocrine cells, we determined that SARS-CoV-2 receptors ACE2, TMPRSS2, and NRP1 are expressed in precursors of insulin-producing pancreatic ß-cells, rendering them permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also show that SARS-CoV-2 enters and undergoes efficient replication in human multipotent pancreatic and endocrine progenitors in vitro. Moreover, we investigated mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 enters pancreatic cells, and found that ACE2 mediates the entry, while NRP1 and TMPRSS2 do not. Surprisingly, we found that in pancreatic progenitors, SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via cathepsin-dependent endocytosis, which is a different route than in respiratory tract. Therefore, pancreatic spheroids might serve as a model to study candidate drugs for endocytosis-mediated viral entry inhibition and to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect pancreas development, possibly causing lifelong health consequences.

8.
Viruses ; 14(6):1328, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894074

ABSTRACT

This study aims to characterize the intermediates, and the final product (FP) obtained during the production of human intramuscular hyperimmune gamma globulin anti-SARS-CoV-2 (hIHGG anti-SARS-CoV-2) and to determine its stability. Material and methods: hIHGG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was fractionated from 270 convalescent plasma donations with the Cohn method. Prior to fractionation, the plasma was inactivated (Theraflex MB Plasma). Samples were defined using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for anti-S1, anti-RBD S1, and anti-N antibodies, and neutralization assays with SARS-CoV-2 (VN) and pseudoviruses (PVN, decorated with SARS-CoV-2 S protein). Results were expressed as a titer (EIA) or 50% of the neutralization titer (IC50) estimated in a four-parameter nonlinear regression model. Results: Concentration of anti-S1 antibodies in plasma was similar before and after inactivation. Following fractionation, the anti-S1, anti-RBD, and anti-N (total tests) titers in FP were concentrated approximately 15-fold from 1:4 to 1:63 (1800 BAU/mL), 7-fold from 1:111 to 1:802 and from 1:13 to 1:88, respectively. During production, the IgA (anti-S1) antibody titer was reduced to an undetectable level and the IgM (anti-RBD) titer from 1:115 to 1:24. The neutralizing antibodies (nAb) titer increased in both VN (from 1:40 to 1:160) and PVN (IC50 from 63 to 313). The concentration of specific IgG in the FP did not change significantly for 14 months. Conclusions: The hIHGG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was stable, with concentration up to approximately 15-fold nAb compared to the source plasma pool.

9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862899

ABSTRACT

Even cyanobacteria from ecosystems of low biodiversity, such as the Baltic Sea, can constitute a rich source of bioactive metabolites. Potent toxins, enzyme inhibitors, and anticancer and antifungal agents were detected in both bloom-forming species and less commonly occurring cyanobacteria. In previous work on the Baltic Pseudanabaena galeata CCNP1313, the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was documented. Here, the activity of the strain was further explored using human dermal fibroblasts, African green monkey kidney, cancer cell lines (T47D, HCT-8, and A549ACE2/TMPRSS2) and viruses (SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-OC43, and WNV). In the tests, extracts, chromatographic fractions, and the main components of the P. galeata CCNP1313 fractions were used. The LC-MS/MS analyses of the tested samples led to the detection of forty-five peptides. For fourteen of the new peptides, putative structures were proposed based on MS/MS spectra. Although the complex samples (i.e., extracts and chromatographic fractions) showed potent cytotoxic and antiviral activities, the effects of the isolated compounds were minor. The study confirmed the significance of P. galeata CCNP1313 as a source of metabolites with potent activity. It also illustrated the difficulties in assigning the observed biological effects to specific metabolites, especially when they are produced in minute amounts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyanobacteria , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromatography, Liquid , Ecosystem , Peptides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
10.
Structure ; 30(8): 1050-1054.e2, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860108

ABSTRACT

During RNA replication, coronaviruses require proofreading to maintain the integrity of their large genomes. Nsp14 associates with viral polymerase complex to excise the mismatched nucleotides. Aside from the exonuclease activity, nsp14 methyltransferase domain mediates cap methylation, facilitating translation initiation and protecting viral RNA from recognition by the innate immune sensors. The nsp14 exonuclease activity is modulated by a protein co-factor nsp10. While the nsp10/nsp14 complex structure is available, the mechanistic basis for nsp10-mediated modulation remains unclear in the absence of the nsp14 structure. Here, we provide a crystal structure of nsp14 in an apo-form. Comparative analysis of the apo- and nsp10-bound structures explain the modulatory role of the co-factor protein and reveal the allosteric nsp14 control mechanism essential for drug discovery. Further, the flexibility of the N-terminal lid of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nsp14 structure presented in this study rationalizes the recently proposed idea of nsp14/nsp10/nsp16 ternary complex.


Subject(s)
Exoribonucleases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins , Exonucleases , Exoribonucleases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Protein Folding , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 140, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815517
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 209: 114222, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778011

ABSTRACT

The 21st century has already brought us a plethora of new threats related to viruses that emerge in humans after zoonotic transmission or drastically change their geographic distribution or prevalence. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first spotted at the end of 2019 to rapidly spread in southwest Asia and later cause a global pandemic, which paralyzes the world since then. We have designed novel immunosensors targeting conserved protein sequences of the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 based on lab-produced and purified anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies that are densely grafted onto various surfaces (diamond/gold/glassy carbon). Titration of antibodies shows very strong reactions up to 1:72 900 dilution. Next, we showed the mechanism of interactions of our immunoassay with nucleocapsid N protein revealing molecular recognition by impedimetric measurements supported by hybrid modeling results with both density functional theory and molecular dynamics methods. Biosensors allowed for a fast (in less than 10 min) detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus with a limit of detection from 0.227 ng/ml through 0.334 ng/ml to 0.362 ng/ml for glassy carbon, boron-doped diamond, and gold surfaces, respectively. For all tested surfaces, we obtained a wide linear range of concentrations from 4.4 ng/ml to 4.4 pg/ml. Furthermore, our sensor leads to a highly specific response to SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples versus other upper respiratory tract viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, or Epstein-Barr virus. All clinical samples were tested simultaneously on biosensors and real-time polymerase chain reactions.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Antibodies, Viral , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Boron , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carbon , Diamond , Gold , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Nucleocapsid , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(3): 451.e1-451.e4, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to analyse possible zoonotic spill-over of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report the spill-over of mink-adapted SARS-CoV-2 from farmed mink to humans after adaptation that lasted at least 3 months. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing and a bioinformatic approach were applied to analyse the data. RESULTS: In an isolate obtained from an asymptomatic patient testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, we found four distinguishing mutations in the S gene that gave rise to the mink-adapted variant (G75V, M177T, Y453F, and C1247F) and others. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic spill-over of SARS-CoV-2 can occur from mink to human.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Farms , Humans , Mink , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses
14.
Cell Chem Biol ; 29(5): 774-784.e8, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616412

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been socially and economically devastating. Despite an unprecedented research effort and available vaccines, effective therapeutics are still missing to limit severe disease and mortality. Using high-throughput screening, we identify acriflavine (ACF) as a potent papain-like protease (PLpro) inhibitor. NMR titrations and a co-crystal structure confirm that acriflavine blocks the PLpro catalytic pocket in an unexpected binding mode. We show that the drug inhibits viral replication at nanomolar concentration in cellular models, in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human airway epithelia, with broad range activity against SARS-CoV-2 and other betacoronaviruses. Considering that acriflavine is an inexpensive drug approved in some countries, it may be immediately tested in clinical trials and play an important role during the current pandemic and future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Acriflavine , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics
15.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512139

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the recently emerged virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic disease and mild respiratory tract infection to severe disease with lung injury, multiorgan failure, and death. SARS-CoV-2 is the third animal coronavirus to emerge in humans in the 21st century, and coronaviruses appear to possess a unique ability to cross borders between species and infect a wide range of organisms. This is somewhat surprising as, except for the requirement of host cell receptors, cell-pathogen interactions are usually species-specific. Insights into these host-virus interactions will provide a deeper understanding of the process of SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide a means for the design and development of antiviral agents. In this study, we describe a complex analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knock-out system in HeLa cells overexpressing entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This platform allows for the identification of factors required for viral replication. This study was designed to include a high number of replicates (48 replicates; 16 biological repeats with 3 technical replicates each) to prevent data instability, remove sources of bias, and allow multifactorial bioinformatic analyses in order to study the resulting interaction network. The results obtained provide an interesting insight into the replication mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Computational Biology , Genome, Human/genetics , HeLa Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 732998, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506502

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains a major epidemic threat since the beginning of 2020. Efforts to combat the virus and the associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease are being undertaken worldwide. To facilitate the research on the virus itself, a number of surrogate systems have been developed. Here, we report the efficient production of SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells. Contrary to widely used pseudovirus particles, where only one coronaviral protein is displayed within a heterologous scaffold, developed VLPs are structurally similar to the native virus and allow for more throughput studies on the biology of the infection. On the other hand, being devoid of the viral genome, VLPs are unable to replicate and thus safe to work with. Importantly, this is the first report showing that SARS-CoV-2 VLPs can be efficiently produced in insect cells and purified using scalable affinity chromatography.

17.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463770

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak prompts an urgent need for efficient therapeutics, and repurposing of known drugs has been extensively used in an attempt to get to anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents in the shortest possible time. The glycoside rutin shows manifold pharmacological activities and, despite its use being limited by its poor solubility in water, it is the active principle of many pharmaceutical preparations. We herein report our in silico and experimental investigations of rutin as a SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor and of its water solubility improvement obtained by mixing it with l-arginine. Tests of the rutin/l-arginine mixture in a cellular model of SARS-CoV-2 infection highlighted that the mixture still suffers from unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, but nonetheless, the results of this study suggest that rutin might be a good starting point for hit optimization.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Rutin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Solubility
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20012, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462029

ABSTRACT

There are currently no cures for coronavirus infections, making the prevention of infections the only course open at the present time. The COVID-19 pandemic has been difficult to prevent, as the infection is spread by respiratory droplets and thus effective, scalable and safe preventive interventions are urgently needed. We hypothesise that preventing viral entry into mammalian nasal epithelial cells may be one way to limit the spread of COVID-19. Here we show that N-palmitoyl-N-monomethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycolchitosan (GCPQ), a positively charged polymer that has been through an extensive Good Laboratory Practice toxicology screen, is able to reduce the infectivity of SARS-COV-2 in A549ACE2+ and Vero E6 cells with a log removal value of - 3 to - 4 at a concentration of 10-100 µg/ mL (p < 0.05 compared to untreated controls) and to limit infectivity in human airway epithelial cells at a concentration of 500 µg/ mL (p < 0.05 compared to untreated controls). In vivo studies using transgenic mice expressing the ACE-2 receptor, dosed nasally with SARS-COV-2 (426,000 TCID50/mL) showed a trend for nasal GCPQ (20 mg/kg) to inhibit viral load in the respiratory tract and brain, although the study was not powered to detect statistical significance. GCPQ's electrostatic binding to the virus, preventing viral entry into the host cells, is the most likely mechanism of viral inhibition. Radiolabelled GCPQ studies in mice show that at a dose of 10 mg/kg, GCPQ has a long residence time in mouse nares, with 13.1% of the injected dose identified from SPECT/CT in the nares, 24 h after nasal dosing. With a no observed adverse effect level of 18 mg/kg in rats, following a 28-day repeat dose study, clinical testing of this polymer, as a COVID-19 prophylactic is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nasal Sprays , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Male , Methylation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surface-Active Agents/administration & dosage , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
19.
Euro Surveill ; 26(39)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448681

ABSTRACT

Routine genomic surveillance on samples from COVID-19 patients collected in Poland during summer 2021 revealed the emergence of a SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant with a large 872 nt deletion. This change, confirmed by Sanger and deep sequencing, causes complete loss of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8 genes. The index case carrying the deletion is unknown. The standard pipeline for sequencing may mask this deletion with a long stretch of N's. Effects of this deletion on phenotype or immune evasion needs further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Poland
20.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408381

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 caused a worldwide crisis, highlighting the importance of preventive measures in infectious diseases control. SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious on surfaces for up to several weeks; therefore, proper disinfection is required to mitigate the risk of indirect virus spreading. Gaseous ozone treatment has received particular attention as an easily accessible disinfection tool. In this study, we evaluated the virucidal effectiveness of gaseous ozone treatment (>7.3 ppm, 2 h) on murine hepatitis virus (MHV)-contaminated stainless-steel surface and PBS-suspended virus under field conditions at ambient (21.8%) and high (49.8-54.2%) relative humidity. Surficial virus was soiled with 0.3 g/L of BSA. Parallelly, a half-hour vaporization with 7.3% hydrogen peroxide was performed on contaminated carriers. The obtained results showed that gaseous ozone, whilst quite effective against suspended virus, was insufficient in sanitizing coronavirus contaminated surfaces, especially under low RH. Increased humidity created more favorable conditions for MHV inactivation, resulting in 2.1 log titre reduction. Vaporization with 7.3% hydrogen peroxide presented much better virucidal performance than ozonation in a similar experimental setup, indicating that its application may be more advantageous regarding gaseous disinfection of surfaces contaminated with other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.

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