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1.
International Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034010

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for an acute respiratory disease designated COIVD-19, which has spread throughout the world. Despite all the struggles with this virus, still, the majority of societies are affected by COVID-19, which raises many questions such as are these ways of management enough, which is crucial in order to contain the virus spread, and which is not effective. In this systemic review, we tried to summarize the data on different ways of managing COVID-19 outbreaks. Through understanding the efficacy and downsides of different approaches to manage COVID-19, public health officials, governing bodies, and health care administrators may be better equipped with the tools necessary to best manage COVID-19 and pandemics. Methods: This systematic review was carried out by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Articles were selected using several databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar, all peer-reviewed and published articles from December 1, 2019 to April 23, 2020 that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Results: The majority of the included articles were mathematical modeling, cohort studies (n = 9), cross-sectional (n = 6), and one case series. Most articles originated from China and then Singapore. The measures that have been practiced in these articles consisted of close contact tracing and case isolation, quarantine, strict surveillance, lockdown, and travel surveillance. Conclusions: The most effective approach is at least the combination of case detection and isolation, and contact tracing or containment measures. In the literature, travel controls seem to be ineffective, personal hygiene should be tough and emphasized.

2.
International Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 13(7):1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1975096

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for an acute respiratory disease designated COIVD-19, which has spread throughout the world. Despite all the struggles with this virus, still, the majority of societies are affected by COVID-19, which raises many questions such as are these ways of management enough, which is crucial in order to contain the virus spread, and which is not effective. In this systemic review, we tried to summarize the data on different ways of managing COVID-19 outbreaks. Through understanding the efficacy and downsides of different approaches to manage COVID-19, public health officials, governing bodies, and health care administrators may be better equipped with the tools necessary to best manage COVID-19 and pandemics. Methods: This systematic review was carried out by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Articles were selected using several databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar, all peer-reviewed and published articles from December 1, 2019 to April 23, 2020 that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Results: The majority of the included articles were mathematical modeling, cohort studies (n = 9), cross-sectional (n = 6), and one case series. Most articles originated from China and then Singapore. The measures that have been practiced in these articles consisted of close contact tracing and case isolation, quarantine, strict surveillance, lockdown, and travel surveillance. Conclusions: The most effective approach is at least the combination of case detection and isolation, and contact tracing or containment measures. In the literature, travel controls seem to be ineffective, personal hygiene should be tough and emphasized. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Preventive Medicine is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970875

ABSTRACT

Background The United States Armed Forces completed their withdrawal from Afghanistan on August 30th, 2021, ending 20 years of war in Afghanistan. This rapid timeline from announcement to withdrawal and subsequent power transfer had profound consequences on the Afghan people, particularly in the domains of health and healthcare. Methods On 15 September 2021, we posted an anonymous online cross-sectional survey on social media (Twitter, Facebook, and WhatsApp groups) to collect data about respondents from Afghanistan. Questions focused on COVID-19 symptoms, concerns, and individual care with a focus on changes related to the United States (US) withdrawal from Afghanistan. The form was composed of 17 questions which included multiple choice, single choice, and numeric options. All questions were optional including demographic data. Results Our survey yielded 1,074 responses from the Farsi version and 572 responses from the Pashto version for a total of 1,646 responses. 1,286 (80%) of respondents were in Afghanistan at the time of survey submission. Concerning the US withdrawal from Afghanistan, 26% (412) respondents were extremely concerned and 12% (181) were moderately concerned. A majority of respondents report concerns regarding mental health due to the US withdrawal. 27% (418) report extreme concern, 12% (186) report moderate concern, and 15% (229) report a little concern. There is a significant difference in the proportions of concern (for US withdrawal generally, as well as physical and mental health) across gender. 49% of Female respondents report extreme concern regarding the US withdrawal compared to 22% of Male respondents (P < 0.001). With respect to physical health concerns 36% of Females report extreme concern compared to 16% of Males (P < 0.001). Finally on the mental health concerns, 54% of Females report extreme concern compared to 22% of Males (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results from this survey are susceptible to the possibility of internal validity and/or external validity. However, we are accepting of those possibilities considering this survey wasn't designed to be bulletproof, but rather serve as a voice for those who can't be heard and to inform the public of the hardships occurring across the globe due to a steadfast retraction of the US footprint from their soil. Our findings indicate salient changes and public health concerns among Afghans following the US withdrawal from the region. These concerns varied across gender and ethnic groups. Our findings may serve as the first step in addressing the health concerns of Afghans following two decades of US military presence. The results should be understood through the limitations associated with a survey study design. Future research and policy aimed at tackling short and long-term health and social concerns in Afghanistan should consider the role of US withdrawal.

4.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 2022 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To systematically review and summarize the available literature regarding the women's sexual function during COVID-19 pandemic and compare it to pre-pandemic period. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase from the inception of the databases until 15th April 2021. Data regarding the sexual function, measured by female sexual function index (FSFI), of adult sexually active women were extracted from the eligible studies and compared between the before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The secondary outcome was the frequency of intercourse during pandemic time. The random-effect model was used to pool the mean differences and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 value. RESULTS: Our search resulted in a sample of six eligible studies, which involved 1114 female participants. The total FSFI score among study participants during pandemic was 22.93 (95% CI: 19.26-26.59), which indicated a significant decrease in sexual function of women during pandemic as compared to pre-pandemic time (mean difference = -3.80, 95% CI: -6.48 to -1.12, p = 0.005, I2  = 96%). We also conducted a meta-analysis of individual FSFI domains. During pandemic, women had problems with arousal (p < 0.0001), orgasm (p = 0.0008), satisfaction (p = 0.0009), and pain (p = 0.009). No significant difference in frequency of intercourse was observed between pre- and during pandemic (p = 0.80). Furthermore, no significant publication bias was present among included studies. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was a significant decrease in sexual function of sexually active adult women during COVID-19 pandemic. The most affected areas of sexual function were arousal, orgasm, pain, and satisfaction. Physicians must be aware of COVID-19 impact on sexual life of women and provide proper counseling.

6.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 40, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322923

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, as a global public health emergency, has come with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications. In this study, we present a unique complication of this disease. PRESENTATION OF CASES: (A) A 65-year-old woman with a known case of COVID-19; on the second day of admission, the patient presented sudden tachycardia and hypogastric pain; on abdomen physical examination, a huge lower abdominal tender mass was noticed. (B) A 50-year-old woman with COVID-19, 4 days after admission, started complaining of tachycardia, pain, and mass in the lower abdomen. On abdomen physical examination, a huge lower abdominal tender mass was noticed. Both of the patients underwent an abdomen CT scan which confirmed a huge rectus sheath hematoma (RSH). Both of the patients underwent angioembolization of the inferior epigastric artery. The patient recovered completely and no evidence of further expansion was seen after 2 weeks of follow-up. DISCUSSION: Hemorrhagic issues in COVID-19 patients remain poorly understood. Physicians should discuss risks of RSH in patients where continuous anticoagulation therapy will be reinstated. With increased clinician awareness of the need for RSH screening in COVID-19 patients with acute abdominal pain, the interprofessional team of healthcare providers can maximize patient safety and reduce hospitalization time, especially in high-risk patients at risk for unnecessary surgery. CONCLUSIONS: These two reports and literature review demonstrate the need of active surveillance for possible hemorrhagic complications in patients with COVID-19 infection.

8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Community responses are important for the management of early-phase outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Perceived susceptibility and severity are considered key elements that motivate people to adopt nonpharmaceutical interventions. This study aimed to (i) explore perceived susceptibility and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, (ii) examine the practice of nonpharmaceutical interventions, and (iii) assess the potential association of perceived COVID-19 susceptibility and severity with the practice of nonpharmaceutical interventions among people living in Afghanistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used, using online surveys disseminated from April to May 2020. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants of this study. The previously developed scales were used to assess the participants' demographic information, perceived risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and perceived severity of COVID-19. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the potential association of perceived COVID-19 susceptibility and severity with the practice of nonpharmaceutical interventions. RESULTS: The Internet was the main source for obtaining COVID-19 information among participants in this study. While 45.8% of the participants believed it was "very unlikely" for them to get infected with COVID-19, 76.7% perceived COVID-19 as a severe disease. Similarly, 37.5% believed the chance of being cured if infected with COVID-19 is "unlikely/very unlikely." The majority of participants (95.6%) perceived their health to be in "good" and "very good" status. Overall, 74.2% mentioned that they stopped visiting public places, 49.7% started using gloves, and 70.4% started wearing a mask. Participants who believed they have a low probability of survival if infected with COVID-19 were more likely to wear masks and practice hand washing. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that communities' psychological and behavioral responses were affected by the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Afghanistan, especially among young Internet users. The findings gained from a timely behavioral assessment of the community might be useful to develop interventions and risk communication strategies in epidemics within and beyond COVID-19.

10.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 2: 100097, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117525
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1979-1986, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Given the limited information describing the connection between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), we aimed to assess the impact of MetS on morbidity and mortality among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was performed from 1st April to May 3, 2020 on 157 ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients in Shahid Modarres Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients' clinical, laboratory and radiological findings, and subsequent complications, were collected and compared between MetS and non-MetS groups. RESULTS: 74 of all cases had MetS. Among the MetS components, waist circumference (p-value = 0.006 for men; p-value<0.0001 for women), Triglycerides (p-value = 0.002), and Fasting Blood Sugar (p-value = 0.007) were significantly higher in MetS group; with no statistical difference found in HDL levels (p-value = 0.21 for men; p-value = 0.13 for women), systolic blood pressure(p-value = 0.07), and diastolic blood pressure (p-value = 0.18) between two groups. Length of ICU admission (p-value = 0.009), the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (p-value = 0.0001), respiratory failure (p-value = 0.0008), and pressure ulcers (p-value = 0.02) were observed significantly more in MetS group. The Odds Ratio (OR) of mortality with 0(OR = 0.3660), 1(OR = 0.5155), 2(OR = 0.5397), 3(OR = 1.9511), 4(OR = 5.7018), and 5(OR = 8.3740) MetS components showed an increased mortality risk as the components' count increased. The patient with BMI>40 (OR = 6.9368) had more odds of fatality comparing to those with BMI>35 (OR = 4.0690) and BMI>30 (OR = 2.5287). Furthermore, the waist circumference (OR = 8.31; p-value<0.0001) and fasting blood sugar (OR = 2.4588; p-value = 0.0245) were obtained by multivariate logistic regression as independent prognostic factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest a strong relationship between having MetS and increased risk of severe complications and mortality among COVID-19 ICU-admitted patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Intensive Care Units/trends , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/mortality , Patient Admission/trends , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Middle Aged , Morbidity/trends , Mortality/trends , Retrospective Studies
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