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Infectious Medicine ; 1(2):88-94, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2270552


Background: The therapeutic effectiveness of interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor in critically ill hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is uncertain. Methods: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the outcome as recovery or death of tocilizumab for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial in critically ill COVID-19 adult patients. The patients were randomly assigned in a 4:1 ratio to receive standard medical treatment plus the recommended dose of either tocilizumab or the placebo drug. Randomization was stratified. The primary outcome was the recovery or death after administration of tocilizumab or a placebo drug. The secondary outcomes were clinical recovery or worsening of the patients' symptoms and inflammatory markers and discharge from the hospital. Results: Of 190 patients included in this study, 152 received tocilizumab, and 38 received a placebo. The duration of hospital stay of the interventional group was 12.9 ± 9.2, while the placebo group had a more extended hospital stay (15.6 ± 8.8). The mortality ratio for the primary outcome, ie, mortality or recovery in the tocilizumab group was 17.8%;p = 0.58 by log-rank test). The mortality ratio in the placebo group was 76.3%;p = 0.32 by log-rank test). The inflammatory markers in the tocilizumab group significantly declined by day 16 compared to the placebo group. Conclusions: The use of tocilizumab was associated with decreased mortality, earlier improvement of inflammatory markers, and reduced hospital stay in patients with severe COVID-19. © 2022 The Author(s)

Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(12):249-252, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2231172


Background: Covid-19 infection appeared as rapidly spreading cases of acute respiratory disease in Wuhan city of China that became pandemic. It was brought to the notice of WHO on December 31, 2019. Diabetes mellitus is one of the biggest health problems and fast growing emergencies of the 21st century. Diabetic patients with who got infected with Covid-19 have more chance of in hospital treatment need, intensive care unit care requirement, intubation and death. Objective(s): The objective of this study was to know the severity and mortality of covid-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus. Study Design: This was a descriptive case series study. Study Setting: It was done in the Covid-19 isolation and ICU unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from May 2020 to October 2021. Method(s): Using non-probability consecutive sampling, 189 diabetic patients were enrolled. Sample included all covid-19 patients having diabetes that received indoor treatment during this period. All patients from both genders with age > 18 years were included. Patients with malignancy or on immunosuppressants for more than 1 month were excluded. Patients who were maintaining oxygen saturation at room air/facemask/nasal prongs were labelled as having non-severe disease while patient who needed CPAP or assisted ventilation were labelled as having severe covid-19 disease. All patients who died during admission were documented as covid-19 related mortality. Patients were labelled as diabetic who were known diabetic and taking diabetes treatment. Data was collected on a structured pro forma. Statistical program SPSS version 16.0 was used for the analysis of data. Result(s): In this study, mean age was 61.29 +/- 11.73 years. There were 40.2% male and 59.8% female patients. 86.2% patients were not-vaccinated, 3.7% patients were partially vaccinated and 10.1% patients were fully vaccinated. Hypertension was most common comorbidity (42.3%) and only CKD was significantly associated with increased mortality. 43.92%patients had non-severe illness while 56.08% patients had severe illness. The overall mortality of illness was 48.15% while it was 84.9% in patients with severe illness. Practical implication: These published publications provide a variety of various estimations and impact amounts due to the numerous different study designs and demographics. A comprehensive and methodical study is required because of the unpredictability of the situation. So that we conducted this study to assess the severity and mortality of covid-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus Conclusion(s): Our study concluded that severity and mortality of covid-19 was high in diabetic patients with high fasting & random sugar levels, pack smoking years and low oxygen saturation. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(1):20-25, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1151187


BACKGROUND: Many factors have been identified which can predict severe outcomes and mortality in hospitalized patients of COVID-19. This study was conducted with the objective of finding out the association of various clinical and laboratory parameters as used by International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) World Health Organization (WHO)- ISARIC/WHO 4C Mortality score in predicting high risk patients of COVID-19. Ascertaining the parameters would help in triage of patients of severe disease at the outset, and shall prove beneficial in improving the standard of care. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in COVID-19 Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. All COVID-19 patients admitted from 15th April to 15th July 2020 were included. RESULTS: A total of 347 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 56.46±15.44 years. Male patients were 225 (65%) and female 122 (35%). Diabetes (36%) was the most common co-morbidity, followed by hypertension (30.8%). Two hundred & six (63.8%) patients recovered and 117 (36.2%) patients died. Shortness of breath (80%), fever (79%) and cough (65%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Patients admitted with a 4C Mortality score of 0-3 (Low Risk Category), the patients who recovered were 36 (90%) and those who died were 4 (10.0%). In patients admitted with a 4C Mortality score of more than 14 (Very High-Risk Category), the number of patients who recovered was 1 (20%), and those who died were 4 (80%). The difference in mortality among the categories was statistically significant (p<0.001). Hypertension was a risk factor for death in patients of COVID-19 (Odds ratio=1.24, 95% CI [0.76-2.01]). Lymphopenia was not associated with statistically significant increased risk for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The ISARIC 4C mortality score can be used for stratifying and predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients on arrival in hospital. We propose that it should be used in every patient of COVID-19 presenting to the hospital. Those falling in Low and Intermediate Risk Category should be managed in ward level. Those falling in High and Very High Category should be admitted in HDU/ICU with aggressive treatment from the start.