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2.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(3): e572, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782603

ABSTRACT

Background: We compared the temporal changes of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleoprotein (N), spike 1 subunit (S1), and receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to understand the humoral immunity in COVID-19 patients for developing drugs and vaccines for COVID-19. Methods: A total of five confirmed COVID-19 cases in Nissan Tamagawa Hospital in early August 2020 were recruited in this study. Using a fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer, we measured the levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 N, S1, and RBD and NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients' sera acquired multiple times in individuals from 0 to 76 days after symptom onset. Results: IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins increased over time in all cases but IgM and IgA levels against SARS-CoV-2 showed different increasing trends among individuals in the early stage. In particular, we observed IgA increasing before IgG and IgM in some cases. The NAb levels were more than cut-off value in 4/5 COVID-19 patients some of whose antibodies against RBD did not exceed the cut-off value in the early stage. Furthermore, NAb levels against SARS-CoV-2 increased and kept above cut-off value more than around 70 days after symptom onset in all cases. Conclusion: Our findings indicate COVID-19 patients should be examined for IgG, IgA, and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 to analyze the diversity of patients' immune mechanisms.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317714

ABSTRACT

The accurate and prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is required for the control and treatment of the coronavirus infection disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to investigate the time courses of the anti-severe acute corona respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgM and IgG titers and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of such tests according to the specific day after the onset of COVID-19 among a patient population in Japan. We measured the titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG in sera from 100 subjects, including 26 symptomatic COVID-19 patients, using chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) methods utilizing magnetic beads coated with SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and spike protein. The results of a ROC analysis suggested the possibility that the cutoff values in Japan might be lower than the manufacturer’s reported cutoff (10 AU/mL): 1 AU/mL for IgM and 5 AU/mL for IgG. The sensitivity of the test before Day 8 after symptom onset was less than 50%;at Days 9-10, however, we obtained a much higher sensitivity of 81.8% for both IgM and IgG. At 15 days or later after symptom onset, the SARS-CoV-2 IgG test had a sensitivity of 100%. These results suggest that if the number of days since disease onset is taken into consideration, these antibody tests could be very useful for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and similar diseases.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 811952, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674342

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have suggested that the titers of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are associated with the COVID-19 severity, however, the types of antibodies associated with the disease maximum severity and the timing at which the associations are best observed, especially within one week after symptom onset, remain controversial. We attempted to elucidate the antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 that are associated with the maximum severity of COVID-19 in the early phase of the disease, and to investigate whether antibody testing might contribute to prediction of the disease maximum severity in COVID-19 patients. We classified the patients into four groups according to the disease maximum severity (severity group 1 (did not require oxygen supplementation), severity group 2a (required oxygen supplementation at low flow rates), severity group 2b (required oxygen supplementation at relatively high flow rates), and severity group 3 (required mechanical ventilatory support)), and serially measured the titers of IgM, IgG, and IgA against the nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 until day 12 after symptom onset. The titers of all the measured antibody responses were higher in severity group 2b and 3, especially severity group 2b, as early as at one week after symptom onset. Addition of data obtained from antibody testing improved the ability of analysis models constructed using a machine learning technique to distinguish severity group 2b and 3 from severity group 1 and 2a. These models constructed with non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients could not be applied to the cases of breakthrough infections. These results suggest that antibody testing might help physicians identify non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients who are likely to require admission to an intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Machine Learning , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Vaccination
5.
J Epidemiol ; 32(2): 105-111, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tokyo, the capital of Japan, is a densely populated city of >13 million people, so the population is at high risk of epidemic severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A serologic survey of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG would provide valuable data for assessing the city's SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Therefore, this cross-sectional study estimated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence in Tokyo. METHODS: Leftover serum of 23,234 hospital visitors was tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using an iFlash 3000 chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer (Shenzhen YHLO Biotech, Shenzhen, China) with an iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgG kit (YHLO) and iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgG-S1 kit (YHLO). Serum samples with a positive result (≥10 AU/mL) in either of these assays were considered seropositive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Participants were randomly selected from patients visiting 14 Tokyo hospitals between September 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021. No participants were diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and none exhibited COVID-19-related symptoms at the time of blood collection. RESULTS: The overall anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence among all participants was 1.83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-2.01%). The seroprevalence in March 2021, the most recent month of this study, was 2.70% (95% CI, 2.16-3.34%). After adjusting for population age, sex, and region, the estimated seroprevalence in Tokyo was 3.40%, indicating that 470,778 individuals had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated number of individuals in Tokyo with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 3.9-fold higher than the number of confirmed cases. Our study enhances understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Tokyo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tokyo/epidemiology
6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 791489, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581271

ABSTRACT

Background: Several types of laboratory tests for COVID-19 have been established to date; however, the clinical significance of the serum SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigen levels remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the usefulness and clinical significance of the serum N antigen levels. Methods: We measured the serum N antigen levels in 391 serum samples collected from symptomatic patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and 96 serum samples collected from patients with non-COVID-19, using a fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer. Results: Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the optimal cutoff value of the serum N antigen level (cutoff index, based on Youden's index) as 0.255, which yielded a sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of COVID-19 of 91.0 and 81.3%, respectively. The serum N antigen levels were significantly higher in the patient groups with moderate and severe COVID-19 than with mild disease. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between the serum N antigen levels and the SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers, especially in patients with severe COVID-19. Conclusion: Serum N antigen testing might be useful both for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and for obtaining a better understanding of the clinical features of the disease.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 103: 108491, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587489

ABSTRACT

To better understand the immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with COVID-19, it is important to investigate the kinetics of the antibody responses and their associations with the clinical course in different populations, since there seem to be considerable differences between Western and Asian populations in the clinical features and spread of COVID-19. In this study, we serially measured the serum titers of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies generated against the nucleocapsid protein (NCP), S1 subunit of the spike protein (S1), and receptor-binding domain in the S1 subunit (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in Japanese individuals with COVID-19. Among the IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies, IgA antibodies against all of the aforementioned viral proteins were the first to appear after the infection, and IgG and/or IgA seroconversion often preceded IgM seroconversion. In regard to the timeline of the antibody responses to the different viral proteins (NCP, S1 and RBD), IgA against NCP appeared than IgA against S1 or RBD, while IgM and IgG against S1 appeared earlier than IgM/IgG against NCP or RBD. The IgG responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to S1 and RBD were sustained for longer durations than the IgA/IgM responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to NCP, respectively. The seroconversion of IgA against NCP occurred later and less frequently in patients with mild COVID-19. These results suggest possible differences in the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens between the Japanese and Western populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , Asians , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Japan/epidemiology , Japan/ethnology , Seroconversion , Viral Proteins/immunology
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 256, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351932

ABSTRACT

We collected blood from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals and investigated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity in these discharged patients. Follow-up analysis in a cohort of 171 patients at 4-11 months after the onset revealed high levels of IgG antibodies. A total of 78.1% (164/210) of the specimens tested positive for neutralizing antibody (NAb). SARS-CoV-2 antigen peptide pools-stimulated-IL-2 and -IFN-γ response can distinguish COVID-19 convalescent individuals from healthy donors. Interestingly, NAb survival was significantly affected by the antigen peptide pools-stimulated-IL-2 response, -IL-8 response, and -IFN-γ response. The antigen peptide pools-activated CD8+ T cell counts were correlated with NAb. The antigen peptide pools-activated natural killer (NK) cell counts in convalescent individuals were correlated with NAb and disease severity. Our data suggested that the development of NAb is associated with the activation of T cells and NK cells. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of the protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and for understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19. It also has implications for the development of an effective vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Convalescence , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247711, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117485

ABSTRACT

PCR methods are presently the standard for the diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but additional methodologies are needed to complement PCR methods, which have some limitations. Here, we validated and investigated the usefulness of measuring serum antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using the iFlash3000 CLIA analyzer. We measured IgM and IgG titers against SARS-CoV-2 in sera collected from 26 PCR-positive COVID-19 patients, 53 COVID-19-suspected but PCR-negative patients, and 20 and 100 randomly selected non-COVID-19 patients who visited our hospital in 2020 and 2017, respectively. The repeatability and within-laboratory precision were obviously good in validations, following to the CLSI document EP15-A3. Linearity was also considered good between 0.6 AU/mL and 112.7 AU/mL for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and between 3.2 AU/mL and 55.3 AU/mL for SARS-CoV-2 IgG, while the linearity curves plateaued above the upper measurement range. We also confirmed that the seroconversion and no-antibody titers were over the cutoff values in all 100 serum samples collected in 2017. These results indicate that this measurement system successfully detects SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG. We observed four false-positive cases in the IgM assay and no false-positive cases in the IgG assay when 111 serum samples known to contain autoantibodies were evaluated. The concordance rates of the antibody test with the PCR test were 98.1% for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and 100% for IgG among PCR-negative cases and 30.8% for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and 73.1% for SARS-CoV-2 IgG among PCR-positive cases. In conclusion, the performance of this new automated method for detecting antibody against both N and S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 is sufficient for use in laboratory testing.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Japan/epidemiology , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2776, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061095

ABSTRACT

The accurate and prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is required for the control and treatment of the coronavirus infection disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to investigate the time courses of the anti-severe acute corona respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgM and IgG titers and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of such tests according to the specific day after the onset of COVID-19 among a patient population in Japan. We measured the titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG in sera from 105 subjects, including 26 symptomatic COVID-19 patients, using chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) methods utilizing magnetic beads coated with SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and spike protein. The results of a ROC analysis suggested the possibility that the cutoff values in Japan might be lower than the manufacturer's reported cutoff (10 AU/mL): 1  AU/mL for IgM and 5  AU/mL for IgG. The sensitivity of the test before Day 8 after symptom onset was less than 50%; at Days 9-10, however, we obtained a much higher sensitivity of 81.8% for both IgM and IgG. At 15 days or later after symptom onset, the SARS-CoV-2 IgG test had a sensitivity of 100%. These results suggest that if the number of days since disease onset is taken into consideration, these antibody tests could be very useful for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and similar diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Japan
13.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(9): 1601-1607, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623918

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread globally. The laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection has relied on nucleic acid testing; however, it has some limitations, such as low throughput and high rates of false negatives. Tests of higher sensitivity are needed to effectively identify infected patients. Methods: This study has developed fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassays to determine IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum. The assay performance has been evaluated at 10 hospitals. Clinical specificity was evaluated by measuring 972 hospitalized patients and 586 donors of a normal population. Clinical sensitivity was assessed on 513 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Results: The assays demonstrated satisfied assay precision with coefficient of variation of less than 4.45%. Inactivation of specimen did not affect assay measurement. SARS-CoV-2 IgM showed clinical specificity of 97.33 and 99.49% for hospitalized patients and the normal population respectively, and SARS-CoV-2 IgG showed clinical specificity of 97.43 and 99.15% respectively. SARS-CoV-2 IgM showed clinical sensitivity of 82.54, 92.93, and 84.62% before 7 days, 7-14 days, and after 14 days respectively, since onset of symptoms, and SARS-CoV-2 IgG showed clinical sensitivity of 80.95, 97.98, and 99.15% respectively at the same time points above. Conclusions: We have developed fully automated immunoassays for detecting SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in human serum. The assays demonstrated high clinical specificity and sensitivity, and add great value to nucleic acid testing in fighting against the global pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
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