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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(3): ofad075, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276201

ABSTRACT

Background: A continuing nationwide vaccination campaign began in the Dominican Republic on February 16, 2021 to prevent severe consequences of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Estimates of vaccine effectiveness under real-world conditions are needed to support policy decision making and inform further vaccine selection. Methods: We conducted a test-negative case-control study to assess the real-world effectiveness of nationwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination program using an inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac) on preventing symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospitalizations from August to November 2021 in the Dominican Republic. Participants were recruited from 10 hospitals in 5 provinces to estimate the effectiveness of full immunization (≥14 days after receipt of the second dose) and partial immunization (otherwise with at least 1 dose ≥14 days after receipt of the first dose). Results: Of 1078 adult participants seeking medical care for COVID-19-related symptoms, 395 (36.6%) had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for SARS-CoV-2; 142 (13.2%) were hospitalized during 15 days of follow up, including 91 (23%) among 395 PCR-positive and 51 (7.5%) among 683 PCR-negative participants. Full vaccination was associated with 31% lower odds of symptomatic infection (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.93) and partial vaccination was associated with 49% lower odds (OR, 0.51; CI, 0.30-0.86). Among 395 PCR-positive participants, full vaccination reduced the odds of COVID-19-related hospitalization by 85% (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.08-0.25) and partial vaccination reduced it by 75% (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.80); full vaccination was associated with reduced use of assisted ventilation by 73% (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.15-0.49). Conclusions: Given the ancestral and delta viral variants circulating during this study period, our results suggest that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine offered moderate protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and high protection against COVID-19-related hospitalizations and assisted ventilation. This is reassuring given that, as of August 2022, an estimated 2.6 billion inactivated CoronaVac vaccine doses had been administered worldwide. This vaccine will become a basis for developing multivalent vaccine against the currently circulating omicron variant.

2.
Infectious Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159000

ABSTRACT

Background Global evidence on the transmission of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be synthesized. Methods A search of 4 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases) as of January 24, 2021 was performed. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Studies which reported the transmission rate among close contacts with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases were included, and transmission activities occurred were considered. The transmission rates were pooled by zero-inflated beta distribution. The risk ratios (RRs) were calculated using random-effects models. Results Of 4923 records retrieved and reviewed, 15 studies including 3917 close contacts with asymptomatic indexes were eligible. The pooled transmission rates were 1.79 per 100 person-days (or 1.79%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41%–3.16%) by asymptomatic index, which is significantly lower than by presymptomatic (5.02%, 95% CI 2.37%–7.66%;P<.001), and by symptomatic (5.27%, 95% CI 2.40%–8.15%;P<.001). Subgroup analyses showed that the household transmission rate of asymptomatic index was (4.22%, 95% CI 0.91%–7.52%), four times significantly higher than non-household transmission (1.03%, 95% CI 0.73%–1.33%;P=.03), and the asymptomatic transmission rate in China (1.82%, 95% CI 0.11%–3.53%) was lower than in other countries (2.22%, 95% CI 0.67%–3.77%;P=.01). Conclusions People with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection are at risk of transmitting the virus to their close contacts, particularly in household settings. The transmission potential of asymptomatic infection is lower than symptomatic and presymptomatic infections. This meta-analysis provides evidence for predicting the epidemic trend and promulgating vaccination and other control measures. Trial Registration Registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021269446;https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=269446

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20763, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133618

ABSTRACT

This meta-analysis aims to synthesize global evidence on the risk of reinfection among people previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science as of April 5, 2021. We conducted: (1) meta-analysis of cohort studies containing data sufficient for calculating the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection; (2) systematic review of case reports with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reinfection cases. The reinfection incidence was pooled by zero-inflated beta distribution. The hazard ratio (HR) between reinfection incidence among previously infected individuals and new infection incidence among infection-naïve individuals was calculated using random-effects models. Of 906 records retrieved and reviewed, 11 studies and 11 case reports were included in the meta-analysis and the systematic review, respectively. The pooled SARS-CoV-2 reinfection incidence rate was 0.70 (standard deviation [SD] 0.33) per 10,000 person-days. The incidence of reinfection was lower than the incidence of new infection (HR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.17). Our meta-analysis of studies conducted prior to the emergency of the more transmissible Omicron variant showed that people with a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection could be re-infected, and they have a lower risk of infection than those without prior infection. Continuing reviews are needed as the reinfection risk may change due to the rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , PubMed
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 822680, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109779

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV (PLWH), if infected with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), had an increased risk of mortality compared to people without HIV infection. They are considered as a priority group to receive COVID-19 vaccination. This cross-sectional online survey investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake among 2740 PLWH aged 18-65 years in eight Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. As validated by requesting participants to send an image of receipt hiding personal identification, 6.2% of PLWH had taken up COVID-19 vaccination. Participants living in cities where individuals could make an appointment to receive COVID-19 vaccination reported significantly higher uptake than those living in cities without such allowance (11.0 vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001). Being a member of priority groups to receive vaccination, concerning about the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination and its interaction with HIV treatment, and exposing to information on the Internet/social media supporting PLWH to receive COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in both groups of participants. Receiving advice from the staff of community-based organizations supporting COVID-19 vaccination was associated with higher uptake among participants living in cities where individuals could make an appointment to receive such vaccination, while a shortage in COVID-19 vaccine supply was associated with a lower uptake among participants living in other cities. Our findings presented a snapshot of COVID-19 vaccination uptake among PLWH in the early phase of vaccine rollout in China. It provided a knowledge basis to formulate interventions promoting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWH.

5.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905473

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV (PLWH), if infected with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), had an increased risk of mortality compared to people without HIV infection. They are considered as a priority group to receive COVID-19 vaccination. This cross-sectional online survey investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake among 2740 PLWH aged 18–65 years in eight Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. As validated by requesting participants to send an image of receipt hiding personal identification, 6.2% of PLWH had taken up COVID-19 vaccination. Participants living in cities where individuals could make an appointment to receive COVID-19 vaccination reported significantly higher uptake than those living in cities without such allowance (11.0 vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001). Being a member of priority groups to receive vaccination, concerning about the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination and its interaction with HIV treatment, and exposing to information on the Internet/social media supporting PLWH to receive COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in both groups of participants. Receiving advice from the staff of community-based organizations supporting COVID-19 vaccination was associated with higher uptake among participants living in cities where individuals could make an appointment to receive such vaccination, while a shortage in COVID-19 vaccine supply was associated with a lower uptake among participants living in other cities. Our findings presented a snapshot of COVID-19 vaccination uptake among PLWH in the early phase of vaccine rollout in China. It provided a knowledge basis to formulate interventions promoting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWH.

6.
Curr HIV Res ; 20(4): 287-295, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown measures for controlling the COVID-19 epidemic were enforced in China between January and May 2020. Previous studies showed a decrease in HIV high- Risk Behaviors (HRBs) and updated testing during the lockdown, but little is known about these behaviors during the post-lockdown period. OBJECTIVE: We conducted quantitative and qualitative assessments of HIV-related behaviors among MSM during the lockdown and post-lockdown periods in Changsha, south-central China. METHODS: Face-to-face structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted using the TimeLine Follow Back (TLFB) method for collecting retrospective data on frequencies of HRBs and testing. McNemar's Chi-square test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to comparing frequencies of behaviors between lockdown (January-May 2020) and post-lockdown periods (June- October 2020). Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data on the reasons for rebounding HRBs and testing. RESULTS: Of 159 MSM participants, 64% had at least one HRB during the post-lockdown period. Men had increased condomless sex (from 24% to 35%), multiple partners (23% to 35%), and substance abuse (16% to 27%) between the two study periods due to the negative emotions and increased use of social networks during the lockdown. HIV testing frequency also increased from 37% to 66% due to resuming routine testing services in the community-based organizations and increased HRBs among MSM during post-lockdown. CONCLUSION: After lifting the lockdown measures, MSM had rebounding HRBs and uptake of testing. Effective preventive measures and healthcare services should be available to MSM after the lockdown measures are lifted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Testing , Risk-Taking , China/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e31125, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is a significant independent risk factor for both severe COVID-19 presentation at hospital admission and in-hospital mortality. Available information has suggested that people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) could benefit from COVID-19 vaccination. However, there is a dearth of evidence on willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among a national sample of PLWHA in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey investigated factors associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA aged 18 to 65 years living in eight conveniently selected Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. Eight community-based organizations (CBOs) providing services to PLWHA facilitated the recruitment. Eligible PLWHA completed an online survey developed using a widely used encrypted web-based survey platform in China. We fitted a single logistic regression model to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aORs), which involved one of the independent variables of interest and all significant background variables. Path analysis was also used in the data analysis. RESULTS: Out of 10,845 PLWHA approached by the CBOs, 2740 completed the survey, and 170 had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. This analysis was performed among 2570 participants who had never received COVID-19 vaccination. Over half of the participants reported willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (1470/2570, 57.2%). Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination, including positive attitudes (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09-1.12; P<.001), negative attitudes (aOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.97; P<.001), perceived support from significant others (perceived subjective norm; aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.46-1.61; P<.001), and perceived behavioral control (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11-1.14; P<.001). At the interpersonal level, receiving advice supportive of COVID-19 vaccination from doctors (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.65-2.40; P<.001), CBO staff (aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.51-2.36; P<.001), friends and/or family members (aOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.93-5.35; P<.001), and PLWHA peers (aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.85-3.08; P<.001) was associated with higher willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The overall opinion supporting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWHA on the internet or social media was also positively associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.31-1.94; P<.001). Path analysis indicated that interpersonal-level variables were indirectly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination through perceptions (ß=.43, 95% CI .37-.51; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to PLWHA in other countries and the general population in most parts of the world, PLWHA in China reported a relatively low willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The internet and social media as well as interpersonal communications may be major sources of influence on PLWHA's perceptions and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(11): e25637, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897817

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Social disruption associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens to impede access to regular healthcare, including for people living with HIV (PLHIV), potentially resulting in antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI). We aimed to explore the characteristics and factors associated with ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among PLHIV by convenience sampling through social media between 5 and 17 February 2020. Respondents were asked to report whether they were at risk of ATI (i.e. experienced ATI, risk of imminent ATI, threatened but resolved risk of ATI [obtaining ART prior to interruption]) or were not at risk of ATI associated with the COVID-19 outbreak. PLHIV were also asked to report perceived risk factors for ATI and sources of additional ART. The factors associated with the risk of ATI were assessed using logistic regression. We also evaluated the factors associated with experienced ATI. RESULTS: A total of 5084 PLHIV from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China completed the survey, with valid response rate of 99.4%. The median age was 31 years (IQR 27 to 37), 96.5% of participants were men, and 71.3% were men who had sex with men. Over one-third (35.1%, 1782/5084) reported any risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak, including 2.7% (135/5084) who experienced ATI, 18.0% (917/5084) at risk of imminent ATI and 14.4% (730/5084) at threatened but resolved risk. PLHIV with ATI were more likely to have previous interruptions in ART (aOR 8.3, 95% CI 5.6 to 12.3), travelled away from where they typically receive HIV care (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.5), stayed in an area that implemented citywide lockdowns or travel restrictions to control COVID-19 (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.6), and be in permanent residence in a rural area (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.8). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of PLHIV in China are at risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak and some have already experienced ATI. Correlates of ATI and self-reported barriers to ART suggest that social disruptions from COVID-19 have contributed to ATI. Our findings demonstrate an urgent need for policies and interventions to maintain access to HIV care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel
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