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2.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796041

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic caused an abrupt drop in in-person health care (inpatient, Emergency Department, outpatient) and an increase in telehealth care, which poses challenges in vaccine safety studies that identify outcomes from in-person encounters. We examined the changes in incidence rates of selected encounter-based outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We assembled a cohort of members from 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites from January 1, 2017 through December 31, 2020. Using ICD-10 diagnosis codes or laboratory criteria, we identified 21 incident outcomes in traditional in-person settings and all settings. We defined 4 periods in 2020: January-February (pre-pandemic), April-June (early pandemic), July-September (middle pandemic), and October-December (late pandemic). We defined four corresponding periods in each year during 2017–2019. We calculated incidence rates, conducted difference in difference (DiD) analyses, and reported ratios of incidence rate ratios (RRR) to examine changes in rates from pre-pandemic to early, middle, and late pandemic in 2020, after adjusting for changes across similar periods in 2017–2019. Results Among >10 million members, regardless of setting and after adjusting for changes during 2017–2019, we found that incidence rates of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, encephalitis/myelitis/encephalomyelitis/meningoencephalitis, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura did not significantly change from the pre-pandemic to early, middle or late pandemic periods (p-values≥0.05). Incidence rates decreased from the pre-pandemic to early pandemic period during 2020 for acute myocardial infarction, anaphylaxis, appendicitis, Bell’s palsy, convulsions/seizures, Guillain-Barré syndrome, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), narcolepsy/cataplexy, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism (p-values<0.05). Incidence rates of Bell’s palsy, ITP, and narcolepsy/cataplexy were higher in all settings than in traditional in-person settings during the three pandemic periods (p-values<0.05). Conclusion Rates of some clinical outcomes during the pandemic changed and should not be used as historical background rates in vaccine safety studies. Inclusion of telehealth visits should be considered for vaccine studies involving Bell’s palsy, ITP, and narcolepsy/cataplexy.

3.
Perm J ; 252021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic pandemic, stay-at-home orders and fear of acquiring COVID-19 may have led to an avoidance of care for medical emergencies, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated whether a decline in rates of AMI occurred during the COVID-19 stay-at-home order. METHODS: Rates of AMI per 100,000 member-weeks were calculated for Kaiser Permanente Southern California patients from January 1 to March 3, 2020 (prepandemic period) and from March 20 to July 31, 2020 (pandemic period), and during the same periods in 2019. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated comparing the time periods using Poisson regression. Case fatality rates (CFRs) were also compared. RESULTS: Rates of AMI were lower during the pandemic period of 2020 compared to the same period of 2019 [3.20 vs 3.76/100,000 member-weeks; RR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.90]. There was no evidence that rates of AMI differed during the 2020 prepandemic period compared to the same period in 2019 (4.45 vs 4.24/100,000 member-weeks; RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.03). AMI rates were lower during the early pandemic period (March 20-May 7: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.66-0.77), but not during the later pandemic period (May 8-July 31: RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.02) compared to 2019. In-hospital and 30-day case fatality rates were higher during the pandemic period of 2020 compared to 2019 (8.8% vs 6.1% and 6.5% vs 5.0%, respectively). CONCLUSION: AMI rates were lower during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same period in 2019. During stay-at-home orders, public health campaigns that encourage people to seek care for medical emergencies are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics
4.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some vaccines elicit non-specific immune responses that may protect against heterologous infections. We evaluated the association between recombinant adjuvanted zoster vaccine (RZV) and COVID-19 outcomes at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. METHODS: In a cohort design, adults aged ≥50 years who received ≥1 RZV dose before 3/1/2020 were matched 1:2 to unvaccinated individuals and followed until 12/31/2020. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for COVID-19 outcomes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. In a test-negative design, cases had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test and controls had only negative tests, during 3/1/2020-12/31/2020. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% CIs for RZV receipt were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: In the cohort design, 149,244 RZV recipients were matched to 298,488 unvaccinated individuals. The aHRs (95% CI) for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were 0.84 (0.81-0.87) and 0.68 (0.64-0.74), respectively. In the test-negative design, 8.4% of 75,726 test-positive cases and 13.1% of 340,898 test-negative controls had received ≥1 RZV dose. The aOR (95% CI) was 0.84 (0.81-0.86). CONCLUSION: RZV vaccination was associated with a 16% lower risk of COVID-19 diagnosis and 32% lower risk of hospitalization. Further study of vaccine-induced non-specific immunity for potential attenuation of future pandemics is warranted.

5.
Nat Med ; 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700263

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is highly transmissible with potential immune escape. We conducted a test-negative case-control study to evaluate mRNA-1273 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against infection and hospitalization with Omicron or Delta. The large, diverse study population included 26,683 SARS-CoV-2 test-positive cases with variants determined by S gene target failure status (16% Delta and 84% Omicron). The two-dose VE against Omicron infection at 14-90 days was 44.0% (95% confidence interval, 35.1-51.6%) but declined quickly. The three-dose VE was 93.7% (92.2-94.9%) and 86.0% (78.1-91.1%) against Delta infection and 71.6% (69.7-73.4%) and 47.4% (40.5-53.5%) against Omicron infection at 14-60 days and >60 days, respectively. The three-dose VE was 29.4% (0.3-50.0%) against Omicron infection in immunocompromised individuals. The three-dose VE against hospitalization with Delta or Omicron was >99% across the entire study population. Our findings demonstrate high, durable three-dose VE against Delta infection but lower effectiveness against Omicron infection, particularly among immunocompromised people. However, three-dose VE of mRNA-1273 was high against hospitalization with Delta and Omicron variants.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307396

ABSTRACT

Background: Phase 3 trials found mRNA-1273 was highly effective in preventing COVID-19. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) to determine the real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA-1273 in preventing COVID-19 diagnosis and severe disease.Methods: For this planned interim analysis, individuals aged ≥18 years receiving 2 doses of mRNA-1273 ≥24 days apart (12/18/2020-3/31/2021) were 1:1 matched with randomly selected unvaccinated individuals on age, sex, and race/ethnicity, with follow-up through 6/30/2021. Outcomes were COVID-19 diagnosis (SARS-CoV-2 positive molecular test or COVID-19 diagnosis code) or severe disease (COVID-19 hospitalization and COVID-19 hospital death). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models accounting for multiple comparisons. Adjusted VE was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. Whole genome sequencing was performed on SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens.Findings: This analysis included 352,878 recipients of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 matched to 352,878 unvaccinated individuals. VE (99·3% CI) against COVID-19 diagnosis was 87·4% (84·8-89·6%). VE against COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death was 95·8% (90·7-98·1%) and 97·9% (66·9-99·9%), respectively. VE was higher against symptomatic (88·3% [98·3% CI: 86·1%-90·2%]) than asymptomatic COVID-19 (72·7% [53·4%-84·0%]), but was generally similar across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups. VE among individuals with history of COVID-19 ranged from 8·2-33·6%. The most prevalent variants were Delta (47·1%), Alpha (21·4%), Gamma (11·4%), Epsilon (4·3%), and Iota (4·3%) among fully vaccinated individuals and Alpha (41·2%), Epsilon (18·2%), Delta (11·0%) and Gamma (8·6%) among unvaccinated individuals.Interpretation: These interim results provide reassuring evidence of the VE of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups, and against asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 outcomes. Among individuals with history of COVID-19, mRNA-1273 vaccination may offer added protection beyond immunity acquired from prior infection. Longer follow-up is needed to fully evaluate VE of mRNA-1273 against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.Funding: Moderna Inc.Declaration of Interests: KJB, LSS, LQ, BKA, YL, GSL, YT, AF, HST, JET, HFT are employees of Kaiser Permanente Southern California, which has been contracted by Moderna for the conduct of this present study. CAT is an employee of and a shareholder in Moderna Inc. KJB received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax, Pfizer, Gilead, and Seqirus unrelated to this manuscript. LSS received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax, and Seqirus unrelated to this manuscript. LQ received funding from GlaxoSmithKline and Dynavax unrelated to this manuscript. BKA received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax, Seqirus and Pfizer unrelated to this manuscript. YL received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax, Seqirus and Pfizer unrelated to this manuscript. GSL received funding from GlaxoSmithKline unrelated to this manuscript. YT received funding from GlaxoSmithKline unrelated to this manuscript. AF received funding from Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, CDC, and Gilead unrelated to this manuscript. HST received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, ALK, and Wellcome unrelated to this manuscript. JET received funding from Pfizer unrelated to this manuscript. HFT received funding from GlaxoSmithKline and Seqirus unrelated to this manuscript;HFT also served in advisory boards for Janssen and Pfizer.Ethics Approval Statement: The KPSC Institutional Review Board provided ethical approval for the study.

7.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 6: 100134, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phase 3 trials found mRNA-1273 was highly effective in preventing COVID-19. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) to determine the real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA-1273 in preventing COVID-19 infection and severe disease. METHODS: For this planned interim analysis, individuals aged ≥18 years receiving 2 doses of mRNA-1273 ≥24 days apart (18/12/2020-31/03/2021) were 1:1 matched to randomly selected unvaccinated individuals by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, with follow-up through 30/06/2021. Outcomes were COVID-19 infection (SARS-CoV-2 positive molecular test or COVID-19 diagnosis code) or severe disease (COVID-19 hospitalization and COVID-19 hospital death). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and confidence intervals (CI) for COVID-19 outcomes comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models accounting for multiple comparisons. Adjusted VE was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. Whole genome sequencing was performed on SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens from the KPSC population. FINDINGS: This analysis included 352,878 recipients of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 matched to 352,878 unvaccinated individuals. VE (99·3% CI) against COVID-19 infection was 87·4% (84·8-89·6%). VE against COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death was 95·8% (90·7-98·1%) and 97·9% (66·9-99·9%), respectively. VE was higher against symptomatic (88·3% [98·3% CI: 86·1-90·2%]) than asymptomatic COVID-19 (72·7% [53·4-84·0%]), but was generally similar across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups. VE among individuals with history of COVID-19 ranged from 8·2-33·6%. The most prevalent variants were Alpha (41·6%), Epsilon (17·5%), Delta (11·5%), and Gamma (9·1%), with Delta increasing to 54·0% of variants by June 2021. INTERPRETATION: These interim results provide reassuring evidence of the VE of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups, and against asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 outcomes. Among individuals with history of COVID-19, mRNA-1273 vaccination may offer added protection beyond immunity acquired from prior infection. Longer follow-up is needed to fully evaluate VE of mRNA-1273 against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. FUNDING: Moderna Inc.

8.
BMJ ; 375: e068848, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants and assess its effectiveness against the delta variant by time since vaccination. DESIGN: Test negative case-control study. SETTING: Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), an integrated healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: Adult KPSC members with a SARS-CoV-2 positive test sent for whole genome sequencing or a negative test from 1 March 2021 to 27 July 2021. INTERVENTIONS: Two dose or one dose vaccination with mRNA-1273 (Moderna covid-19 vaccine) ≥14 days before specimen collection versus no covid-19 vaccination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included infection with SARS-CoV-2 and hospital admission with covid-19. In pre-specified analyses for each variant type, test positive cases were matched 1:5 to test negative controls on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and specimen collection date. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare odds of vaccination among cases versus controls, with adjustment for confounders. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1-odds ratio)×100%. RESULTS: The study included 8153 cases and their matched controls. Two dose vaccine effectiveness was 86.7% (95% confidence interval 84.3% to 88.7%) against infection with the delta variant, 98.4% (96.9% to 99.1%) against alpha, 90.4% (73.9% to 96.5%) against mu, 96-98% against other identified variants, and 79.9% (76.9% to 82.5%) against unidentified variants (that is, specimens that failed sequencing). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission with the delta variant was 97.5% (92.7% to 99.2%). Vaccine effectiveness against infection with the delta variant declined from 94.1% (90.5% to 96.3%) 14-60 days after vaccination to 80.0% (70.2% to 86.6%) 151-180 days after vaccination. Waning was less pronounced for non-delta variants. Vaccine effectiveness against delta infection was lower among people aged ≥65 years (75.2%, 59.6% to 84.8%) than those aged 18-64 years (87.9%, 85.5% to 89.9%). One dose vaccine effectiveness was 77.0% (60.7% to 86.5%) against infection with delta. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA-1273 were highly effective against all SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially against hospital admission with covid-19. However, vaccine effectiveness against infection with the delta variant moderately declined with increasing time since vaccination.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , /administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , California , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(34): 10392-10399, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579734

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a significant challenge for clinicians, especially for immunocompromised cancer patients. By analyzing the impact of COVID-19 on the immune microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients at the tissue level and single-cell level, we found that CRC patients are more easily infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), but promotion of infiltration and differentiation of monocytes makes them more likely to develop severe COVID-19. Because of the continuing activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) signaling pathways in monocytes, imbalance of macrophage polarization can aggravate the cytokine release syndrome. Therefore, regulating the infiltration and differentiation of monocytes is helpful for the treatment of COVID-19 in CRC patients.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296665

ABSTRACT

Background: We conducted a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California to study the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA-1273 over time and during the emergence of the Delta variant. Methods: The cohort for this planned interim analysis consisted of individuals aged ≥18 years receiving 2 doses of mRNA-1273 through June 2021, matched 1:1 to randomly selected unvaccinated individuals by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, with follow-up through September 2021. Outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing outcomes in the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Adjusted VE (%) was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. HRs and VEs were also estimated for SARS-CoV-2 infection by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and during the Delta period (June-September 2021). VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated at 0-<2, 2-<4, 4-<6, and 6-<8 months post-vaccination. Results: 927,004 recipients of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 were matched to 927,004 unvaccinated individuals. VE (95% CI) was 82.8% (82.2-83.3%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection, 96.1% (95.5-96.6%) against COVID-19 hospitalization, and 97.2% (94.8-98.4%) against COVID-19 hospital death. VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and was 86.5% (84.8-88.0%) during the Delta period. VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection decreased from 88.0% at 0-<2 months to 75.5% at 6-<8 months. Conclusions: These interim results provide continued evidence for protection of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 against SARS-CoV-2 infection over 8 months post-vaccination and during the Delta period, and against COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death.

11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1520-1524, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498054

ABSTRACT

By September 21, 2021, an estimated 182 million persons in the United States were fully vaccinated against COVID-19.* Clinical trials indicate that Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Moderna (mRNA-1273), and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson; Ad.26.COV2.S) vaccines are effective and generally well tolerated (1-3). However, daily vaccination rates have declined approximately 78% since April 13, 2021†; vaccine safety concerns have contributed to vaccine hesitancy (4). A cohort study of 19,625 nursing home residents found that those who received an mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) had lower all-cause mortality than did unvaccinated residents (5), but no studies comparing mortality rates within the general population of vaccinated and unvaccinated persons have been conducted. To assess mortality not associated with COVID-19 (non-COVID-19 mortality) after COVID-19 vaccination in a general population setting, a cohort study was conducted during December 2020-July 2021 among approximately 11 million persons enrolled in seven Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) sites.§ After standardizing mortality rates by age and sex, this study found that COVID-19 vaccine recipients had lower non-COVID-19 mortality than did unvaccinated persons. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and VSD site, this study found that adjusted relative risk (aRR) of non-COVID-19 mortality for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.44) after dose 1 and 0.34 (95% CI = 0.33-0.36) after dose 2. The aRRs of non-COVID-19 mortality for the Moderna vaccine were 0.34 (95% CI = 0.32-0.37) after dose 1 and 0.31 (95% CI = 0.30-0.33) after dose 2. The aRR after receipt of the Janssen vaccine was 0.54 (95% CI = 0.49-0.59). There is no increased risk for mortality among COVID-19 vaccine recipients. This finding reinforces the safety profile of currently approved COVID-19 vaccines in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Mortality/trends , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(40): 1415-1419, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456568

ABSTRACT

Data from observational studies demonstrate that variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, have evolved rapidly across many countries (1,2). The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of concern is more transmissible than previously identified variants,* and as of September 2021, is the predominant variant in the United States.† Studies characterizing the distribution and severity of illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants, particularly the Delta variant, are limited in the United States (3), and are subject to limitations related to study setting, specimen collection, study population, or study period (4-7). This study used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data on SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected across Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), a large integrated health care system, to describe the distribution and risk of hospitalization associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants during March 4-July 21, 2021, by patient vaccination status. Among 13,039 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens identified from KPSC patients during this period, 6,798 (52%) were sequenced and included in this report. Of these, 5,994 (88%) were collected from unvaccinated persons, 648 (10%) from fully vaccinated persons, and 156 (2%) from partially vaccinated persons. Among all sequenced specimens, the weekly percentage of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant infections increased from 20% to 67% during March 4-May 19, 2021. During April 15-July 21, 2021, the weekly percentage of Delta variant infections increased from 0% to 95%. During March 4-July 21, 2021, the weekly percentage of variants was similar among fully vaccinated and unvaccinated persons, but the Delta variant was more commonly identified among vaccinated persons then unvaccinated persons overall, relative to other variants. The Delta variant was more prevalent among younger persons, with the highest percentage (55%) identified among persons aged 18-44 years. Infections attributed to the Delta variant were also more commonly identified among non-Hispanic Black persons, relative to other variants. These findings reinforce the importance of continued monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 variants and implementing multiple COVID-19 prevention strategies, particularly during the current period in which Delta is the predominant variant circulating in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(1): 68-77, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453520

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine vaccine delivery in the US and globally. The magnitude of these disruptions and their association with childhood vaccination coverage are unclear. Objectives: To compare trends in pediatric vaccination before and during the pandemic and to evaluate the proportion of children up to date (UTD) with vaccinations by age, race, and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This surveillance study used a prepandemic-postpandemic control design with data from 8 health systems in California, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Minnesota, and Wisconsin in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Children from age groups younger than 24 months and 4 to 6, 11 to 13, and 16 to 18 years were included if they had at least 1 week of health system enrollment from January 5, 2020, through October 3, 2020, over periods before the US COVID-19 pandemic (January 5, 2020, through March 14, 2020), during age-limited preventive care (March 15, 2020, through May 16, 2020), and during expanded primary care (May 17, 2020, through October 3, 2020). These individuals were compared with those enrolled during analogous weeks in 2019. Exposures: This study evaluated UTD status among children reaching specific ages in February, May, and September 2020, compared with those reaching these ages in 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weekly vaccination rates for routine age-specific vaccines and the proportion of children UTD for all age-specific recommended vaccines. Results: Of 1 399 708 children in 2019 and 1 402 227 in 2020, 1 371 718 were female (49.0%) and 1 429 979 were male (51.0%); 334 216 Asian individuals (11.9%), 900 226 were Hispanic individuals (32.1%), and 201 619 non-Hispanic Black individuals (7.2%). Compared with the prepandemic period and 2019, the age-limited preventive care period was associated with lower weekly vaccination rates, with ratios of rate ratios of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.80-0.85) among those younger than 24 months, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.16-0.20) among those aged 4 to 6 years, 0.16 (95% CI, 0.14-0.17) among those aged 11 to 13 years, and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.08-0.13) among those aged 16 to 18 years. Vaccination rates during expanded primary care remained lower for most ages (ratios of rate ratios: <24 months, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.98]; 11-13 years, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.76-0.86]; 16-18 years, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.51-0.63]). In September 2020, 74% (95% CI, 73%-76%) of infants aged 7 months and 57% (95% CI, 56%-58%) of infants aged 18 months were UTD vs 81% (95% CI, 80%-82%) and 61% (95% CI, 60%-62%), respectively, in September 2019. The proportion UTD was lowest in non-Hispanic Black children across most age groups, both during and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (eg, in May 2019, 70% [95% CI, 64%-75%] of non-Hispanic Black infants aged 7 months were UTD vs 82% [95% CI, 81%-83%] in all infants aged 7 months combined). Conclusions and Relevance: As of September 2020, childhood vaccination rates and the proportion who were UTD remained lower than 2019 levels. Interventions are needed to promote catch-up vaccination, particularly in populations at risk for underimmunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Male , Time Factors
14.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441421

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a major obstacle to the widespread clinical application of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies. CRS can also be induced by infections (such as SARS-CoV-2), drugs (such as therapeutic antibodies), and some autoimmune diseases. Myeloid-derived macrophages play key roles in the pathogenesis of CRS, and participate in the production and release of the core CRS cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and interferon-γ. In this review, we summarize the roles of macrophages in CRS and discuss new developments in macrophage activation and the related mechanisms of cytokine regulation in CRS.

15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e29959, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dramatic decreases in outpatient visits and sudden increases in telehealth visits were observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, but it was unclear whether these changes differed by patient demographics and socioeconomic status. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on in-person outpatient and telehealth visits (telephone and video) by demographic characteristics and household income in a diverse population. METHODS: We calculated weekly rates of outpatient and telehealth visits by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level median household income among members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) from January 5, 2020, to October 31, 2020, and the corresponding period in 2019. We estimated the percentage change in visit rates during the early pandemic period (March 22 to April 25, 2020) and the late pandemic period (October 4 to October 31, 2020) from the prepandemic period (January 5 to March 7, 2020) in Poisson regression models for each subgroup while adjusting for seasonality using 2019 data. We examined if the changes in visit rates differed by subgroups statistically by comparing their 95% CIs. RESULTS: Among 4.56 million KPSC members enrolled in January 2020, 15.0% (n=682,947) were ≥65 years old, 51.5% (n=2,345,020) were female, 39.4% (n=1,795,994) were Hispanic, and 7.7% (n=350,721) lived in an area of median household income

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e26558, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an abrupt reduction in the use of in-person health care, accompanied by a corresponding surge in the use of telehealth services. However, the extent and nature of changes in health care utilization during the pandemic may differ by care setting. Knowledge of the impact of the pandemic on health care utilization is important to health care organizations and policy makers. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are (1) to evaluate changes in in-person health care utilization and telehealth visits during the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) to assess the difference in changes in health care utilization between the pandemic year 2020 and the prepandemic year 2019. METHODS: We retrospectively assembled a cohort consisting of members of a large integrated health care organization, who were enrolled between January 6 and November 2, 2019 (prepandemic year), and between January 5 and October 31, 2020 (pandemic year). The rates of visits were calculated weekly for four settings: inpatient, emergency department (ED), outpatient, and telehealth. Using Poisson models, we assessed the impact of the pandemic on health care utilization during the early days of the pandemic and conducted difference-in-deference (DID) analyses to measure the changes in health care utilization, adjusting for the trend of health care utilization in the prepandemic year. RESULTS: In the early days of the pandemic, we observed significant reductions in inpatient, ED, and outpatient utilization (by 30.2%, 37.0%, and 80.9%, respectively). By contrast, there was a 4-fold increase in telehealth visits between weeks 8 (February 23) and 12 (March 22) in 2020. DID analyses revealed that after adjusting for prepandemic secular trends, the reductions in inpatient, ED, and outpatient visit rates in the early days of the pandemic were 1.6, 8.9, and 367.2 visits per 100 person-years (P<.001), respectively, while the increase in telehealth visits was 272.9 visits per 100 person-years (P<.001). Further analyses suggested that the increase in telehealth visits offset the reduction in outpatient visits by week 26 (June 28, 2020). CONCLUSIONS: In-person health care utilization decreased drastically during the early period of the pandemic, but there was a corresponding increase in telehealth visits during the same period. By end-June 2020, the combined outpatient and telehealth visits had recovered to prepandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e30101, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217031

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/26558.].

18.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190194

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on vaccination coverage, critical to preventing vaccine-preventable diseases, has not been assessed during the reopening period. METHODS: Vaccine uptake and vaccination coverage for recommended vaccines and for measles-containing vaccines at milestone ages were assessed in a large cohort of children aged 0 to 18 years in Southern California during January to August 2020 and were compared with those in the same period in 2019. Differences in vaccine uptake and vaccination coverage (recommended vaccines and measles-containing vaccines) in prepandemic (January to March), stay-at-home (April to May), and reopening (June to August) periods in 2020 and 2019 were compared. RESULTS: Total and measles-containing vaccine uptake declined markedly in all children during the pandemic period in 2020 compared with 2019, but recovered in children aged 0 to 23 months. Among children aged 2 to 18 years, measles-containing vaccine uptake recovered, but total vaccine uptake remained lower. Vaccination coverage (recommended and measles-containing vaccines) declined and remained reduced among most milestone age cohorts ≤24 months during the pandemic period, whereas recommended vaccination coverage in older children decreased during the reopening period in 2020 compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric vaccine uptake decreased dramatically during the pandemic, resulting in decreased vaccination coverage that persisted or worsened among several age cohorts during the reopening period. Additional strategies, including immunization tracking, reminders, and recall for needed vaccinations, particularly during virtual visits, will be required to increase vaccine uptake and vaccination coverage and reduce the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles Vaccine , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(10): 773-781, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity, race/ethnicity, and other correlated characteristics have emerged as high-profile risk factors for adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated outcomes, yet studies have not adequately disentangled their effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the adjusted effect of body mass index (BMI), associated comorbidities, time, neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors, and other factors on risk for death due to COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Kaiser Permanente Southern California, a large integrated health care organization. PATIENTS: Kaiser Permanente Southern California members diagnosed with COVID-19 from 13 February to 2 May 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable Poisson regression estimated the adjusted effect of BMI and other factors on risk for death at 21 days; models were also stratified by age and sex. RESULTS: Among 6916 patients with COVID-19, there was a J-shaped association between BMI and risk for death, even after adjustment for obesity-related comorbidities. Compared with patients with a BMI of 18.5 to 24 kg/m2, those with BMIs of 40 to 44 kg/m2 and greater than 45 kg/m2 had relative risks of 2.68 (95% CI, 1.43 to 5.04) and 4.18 (CI, 2.12 to 8.26), respectively. This risk was most striking among those aged 60 years or younger and men. Increased risk for death associated with Black or Latino race/ethnicity or other sociodemographic characteristics was not detected. LIMITATION: Deaths occurring outside a health care setting and not captured in membership files may have been missed. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays a profound role in risk for death from COVID-19, particularly in male patients and younger populations. Our capitated system with more equalized health care access may explain the absence of effect of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities on death. Our data highlight the leading role of severe obesity over correlated risk factors, providing a target for early intervention. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Roche-Genentech.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , California/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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