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Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2102354, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967808


Vaccinating health-care workers against influenza during the COVID-19 pandemic can effectively prevent and control influenza and reduce COVID-19 strain on health systems. This study was conducted to explore influenza vaccination coverage and determinants among health-care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020/2021 influenza season in Ningxia. This cross-sectional survey included demographic characteristics of health-care workers, influenza vaccination status, reasons for not getting vaccinated, and whether influenza vaccination was recommended for others. We found that influenza vaccine rate of health-care workers was 39.6%. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that health-care workers' vaccination coverage was higher when the individuals were aware of the effect of the influenza vaccine (OR = 0.624, 95% CI: 0.486-0.802). Health-care workers who from internal medicine (OR = 1.494, 95% CI: 1.146-1.948), pediatrics (OR = 2.091, 95% CI: 1.476-2.962), and surgery departments (OR = 1.373, 95% CI: 1.014-1.859) had a lower coverage than those who worked in vaccination and infectious disease departments. The main reasons that some stated for not getting vaccinated were that they felt it was unnecessary (52.22%). Health-care workers who were vaccinated against influenza were more likely to recommend influenza vaccination to their patients than health-care workers who had not been vaccinated. The incidence of influenza among health-care workers was higher than that of the general population in Ningxia. Under the policy of voluntary and self-pay influenza vaccination in Ningxia, the coverage rate of influenza vaccine among health-care workers was far below the vaccination requirements of influenza vaccine in influenza season even during the COVID-19 epidemic.

Lett Spat Resour Sci ; 15(3): 341-376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827067


This paper examines the relationship between world crude oil markets following the introduction of Shanghai crude oil futures from the perspective of network connectedness based on the vector autoregressive model. The connectedness measurement method proposed by Diebold and Yilmaz (Econ J 119(534):158-171, 2009, Int J Forecast 28(1):57-66, 2012. 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2011.02.006, J Econom 182(1):119-134, 2014. 10.1016/j.jeconom.2014.04.012) is adopted to study a time-varying interdependence relationship. The empirical results show that the world crude oil markets exhibit a high degree of integration from both returns and volatility; however, the direction and magnitude contributed by each market varies significantly. Specifically, the West Texas Intermediate futures and Brent spot and futures markets were found to have the highest contributions to the world oil market over the entire sample period and take leading roles, whereas Dubai futures market was found to be the most important receiver, and has received the most spillover from other markets and passed it throughout the system. Shanghai crude oil futures is not yet highly connected with other markets. Moreover, heterogeneous changes in the direction, intensity, and persistence of the spillover were observed across markets after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. This study reveals the integration level of Shanghai crude oil futures and the dynamics of linkages between regional crude oil markets, which is of great significance for market participants, policymakers, and future researchers. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12076-021-00288-z.