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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1129651, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286259

ABSTRACT

Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) are more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. However, evidence on the immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in this population is insufficient. The objective of this study is to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the two-dose schedule of Sinovac CoronaVac for 6 months postvaccination in PLWH. Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study among PLWH and HIV-negative adults in China. Participants who received two doses of CoronaVac prior to the recruitment were allocated into two groups and followed up for 6 months. The neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), immunoglobulin G against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein (S-IgG), and gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) were measured to assess the associations among CoronaVac immunogenicity and related factors. Adverse reactions were collected to evaluate the safety profile of vaccination. Results: A total of 203 PLWH and 100 HIV-negative individuals were enrolled. A small portion of participants reported mild or moderate adverse reactions without serious adverse events. Median nAbs level in PLWH (31.96 IU/mL, IQR: 12.34-76.40) was lower than that in the control group (46.52 IU/mL, IQR: 29.08-77.30) at the 2-4 weeks postvaccination (P=0.002), and the same trend was presented for median S-IgG titer (37.09 vs. 60.02 IU/ml) (both P <0.05). The nAbs seroconversion rate in the PLWH group was also lower than in the control group (75.86% vs. 89.00%). After then, the immune responses reduced over time in term of only 23.04% of PLWH and 36.00% of HIV-negative individuals had a positive seroconversion for nAbs at 6-month. The multivariable generalized estimating equation analysis showed that PLWH with CD4+T count≥350 cells/µL presented higher immune response than PLWH with CD4+T count <350 cells/µL in terms of antibody seroconversion and titers. The immunogenicity did not differ in participants with low or high HIV viral load. The S-antigen specific IFN-γ immunity was generally stable and had a slow attenuation in both two groups for 6 months postvaccination. Conclusion: The Sinovac CoronaVac was generally safe and immunogenic in PLWH, but the immunity response was inferior and the antibodies vanished faster compared to HIV-negative individuals. This study suggested a shorter than 6-month interval of prime-boost vaccination for PLWH to ensure a better protection.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Interferon-gamma , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 29: 100569, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246421

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented strict non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain COVID-19 at the early stage. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care continuum in China. Methods: Aggregated data on HIV care continuum between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2020 were collected from centers for disease control and prevention at different levels and major infectious disease hospitals in various regions in China. We used interrupted time series analysis to characterize temporal trend in weekly numbers of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescriptions, HIV tests, HIV diagnoses, median time intervals between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (time intervals, days), ART initiations, mean CD4+ T cell counts at ART initiation (CD4 counts, cells/µL), ART collections, and missed visits for ART collection, before and after the implementation of massive NPIs (23 January to 7 April 2020). We used Poisson segmented regression models to estimate the immediate and long-term impact of NPIs on these outcomes. Findings: A total of 16,780 PEP prescriptions, 1,101,686 HIV tests, 69,659 HIV diagnoses, 63,409 time intervals and ART initiations, 61,518 CD4 counts, 1,528,802 ART collections, and 6656 missed visits were recorded during the study period. The majority of outcomes occurred in males (55·3-87·4%), 21-50 year olds (51·7-90·5%), Southwestern China (38·2-82·0%) and heterosexual transmission (47·9-66·1%). NPIs was associated with 71·5% decrease in PEP prescriptions (IRR 0·285; 95% CI 0·192-0·423), 36·1% decrease in HIV tests (0·639, 0·497-0·822), 32·0% decrease in HIV diagnoses (0·680, 0·511-0·904), 59·3% increase in time intervals (1·593, 1·270-1·997) and 17·4% decrease in CD4 counts (0·826, 0·746-0·915) in the first week during NPIs. There was no marked change in the number of ART initiations, ART collections and missed visits during the NPIs. By the end of 2020, the number of HIV tests, HIV diagnoses, time intervals, ART initiations, and CD4 counts reached expected levels, but the number of PEP prescriptions (0·523, 0·394-0·696), ART collections (0·720, 0·595-0·872), and missed visits (0·137, 0·086-0·220) were still below expected levels. With the ease of restrictions, PEP prescriptions (slope change 1·024/week, 1·012-1·037), HIV tests (1·016/week, 1·008-1·026), and CD4 counts (1·005/week, 1·001-1·009) showed a significant increasing trend. Interpretation: HIV care continuum in China was affected by the COVID-19 NPIs at various levels. Preparedness and efforts to maintain the HIV care continuum during public health emergencies should leverage collaborations between stakeholders. Funding: Natural Science Foundation of China.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 822680, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109779

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV (PLWH), if infected with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), had an increased risk of mortality compared to people without HIV infection. They are considered as a priority group to receive COVID-19 vaccination. This cross-sectional online survey investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake among 2740 PLWH aged 18-65 years in eight Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. As validated by requesting participants to send an image of receipt hiding personal identification, 6.2% of PLWH had taken up COVID-19 vaccination. Participants living in cities where individuals could make an appointment to receive COVID-19 vaccination reported significantly higher uptake than those living in cities without such allowance (11.0 vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001). Being a member of priority groups to receive vaccination, concerning about the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination and its interaction with HIV treatment, and exposing to information on the Internet/social media supporting PLWH to receive COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in both groups of participants. Receiving advice from the staff of community-based organizations supporting COVID-19 vaccination was associated with higher uptake among participants living in cities where individuals could make an appointment to receive such vaccination, while a shortage in COVID-19 vaccine supply was associated with a lower uptake among participants living in other cities. Our findings presented a snapshot of COVID-19 vaccination uptake among PLWH in the early phase of vaccine rollout in China. It provided a knowledge basis to formulate interventions promoting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWH.

4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(7): e40910, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005819

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/33995.].

5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(6): e33995, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries and organizations recommended people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) receive the COVID-19 vaccine. However, vaccine hesitancy still exists and becomes a barrier for promoting COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate factors that contributed to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among PLWHA. METHODS: The study used a multicenter cross-sectional design and an online survey mode. We recruited PLWHA aged 18-65 years from 5 metropolitan cities in China between January 2021 and February 2021. Participants completed an online survey through Golden Data, a widely used encrypted web-based survey platform. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the background characteristics in relation to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and structural equation modeling was performed to assess the relationships among perceived benefits, perceived risks, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: Among 1735 participants, 41.61% (722/1735) reported COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Older age, no other vaccinations in the past 3 years, and having chronic disease history were positively associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Structural equation modeling revealed a direct relationship of perceived benefits, perceived risks, and subjective norms with self-efficacy and vaccine hesitancy and an indirect relationship of perceived benefits, perceived risks, and subjective norms with vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, self-efficacy toward COVID-19 vaccination was low. PLWHA had concerns of HIV disclosure during COVID-19 vaccination. Family member support could have an impact on COVID-19 vaccination decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was high among PLWHA in China. To reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, programs and strategies should be adopted to eliminate the concerns for COVID-19 vaccination, disseminate accurate information on the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine, encourage family member support for COVID-19 vaccination, and improve PLWHA's trust of medical professionals.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Vaccination Hesitancy
6.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905473

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV (PLWH), if infected with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), had an increased risk of mortality compared to people without HIV infection. They are considered as a priority group to receive COVID-19 vaccination. This cross-sectional online survey investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake among 2740 PLWH aged 18–65 years in eight Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. As validated by requesting participants to send an image of receipt hiding personal identification, 6.2% of PLWH had taken up COVID-19 vaccination. Participants living in cities where individuals could make an appointment to receive COVID-19 vaccination reported significantly higher uptake than those living in cities without such allowance (11.0 vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001). Being a member of priority groups to receive vaccination, concerning about the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination and its interaction with HIV treatment, and exposing to information on the Internet/social media supporting PLWH to receive COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in both groups of participants. Receiving advice from the staff of community-based organizations supporting COVID-19 vaccination was associated with higher uptake among participants living in cities where individuals could make an appointment to receive such vaccination, while a shortage in COVID-19 vaccine supply was associated with a lower uptake among participants living in other cities. Our findings presented a snapshot of COVID-19 vaccination uptake among PLWH in the early phase of vaccine rollout in China. It provided a knowledge basis to formulate interventions promoting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWH.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 809033, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in an endothelial dysfunction in acute phase. However, information on the late vascular consequences of COVID-19 is limited. METHODS: Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) examination were performed, and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed in 86 survivors of COVID-19 for 327 days (IQR 318-337 days) after recovery. Comparisons were made with 28 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls and 30 risk factor-matched patients. RESULTS: Brachial artery FMD was significantly lower in the survivors of COVID-19 than in the healthy controls and risk factor-matched controls [median (IQR) 7.7 (5.1-10.7)% for healthy controls, 6.9 (5.5-9.4)% for risk factor-matched controls, and 3.5(2.2-4.6)% for COVID-19, respectively, p < 0.001]. The FMD was lower in 25 patients with elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [2.7(1.2-3.9)] than in 61 patients without elevated TNF-α [3.8(2.6-5.3), p = 0.012]. Furthermore, FMD was inversely correlated with serum concentration of TNF-α (r = -0.237, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Survivors of COVID-19 have a reduced brachial artery FMD, which is inversely correlated with increased serum concentration of TNF-α. Prospective studies on the association of endothelial dysfunction with long-term cardiovascular outcomes, especially the early onset of atherosclerosis, are warranted in survivors of COVID-19.

8.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e27388, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) platforms show promise in the management of mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression. This has resulted in an abundance of mHealth platforms available for research or commercial use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to characterize the current state of mHealth platforms designed for anxiety or depression that are available for research, commercial use, or both. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using a two-pronged approach: searching relevant literature with prespecified search terms to identify platforms in published research and simultaneously searching 2 major app stores-Google Play Store and Apple App Store-to identify commercially available platforms. Key characteristics of the mHealth platforms were synthesized, such as platform name, targeted condition, targeted group, purpose, technology type, intervention type, commercial availability, and regulatory information. RESULTS: The literature and app store searches yielded 169 and 179 mHealth platforms, respectively. Most platforms developed for research purposes were designed for depression (116/169, 68.6%), whereas the app store search reported a higher number of platforms developed for anxiety (Android: 58/179, 32.4%; iOS: 27/179, 15.1%). The most common purpose of platforms in both searches was treatment (literature search: 122/169, 72.2%; app store search: 129/179, 72.1%). With regard to the types of intervention, cognitive behavioral therapy and referral to care or counseling emerged as the most popular options offered by the platforms identified in the literature and app store searches, respectively. Most platforms from both searches did not have a specific target age group. In addition, most platforms found in app stores lacked clinical and real-world evidence, and a small number of platforms found in the published research were available commercially. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable number of mHealth platforms designed for anxiety or depression are available for research, commercial use, or both. The characteristics of these mHealth platforms greatly vary. Future efforts should focus on assessing the quality-utility, safety, and effectiveness-of the existing platforms and providing developers, from both commercial and research sectors, a reporting guideline for their platform description and a regulatory framework to facilitate the development, validation, and deployment of effective mHealth platforms.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Anxiety/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/therapy , Humans
9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 756790, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574359

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 can result in myocardial injury in the acute phase. However, information on the late cardiac consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study to investigate the late cardiac consequences of COVID-19. Standard echocardiography and myocardial strain assessment were performed, and cardiac blood biomarkers were tested in 86 COVID-19 survivors 327 days (IQR 318-337 days) after recovery. Comparisons were made with 28 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls and 30 risk factor-matched patients. Results: There were no significant differences in all echocardiographic structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain, right ventricular (RV) longitudinal strain, LV end-diastolic volume, RV dimension, and the ratio of peak early velocity in mitral inflow to peak early diastolic velocity in the septal mitral annulus (E/e') among COVID-19 survivors, healthy controls and risk factor-matched controls. Even 26 patients with myocardial injury at admission did not have any echocardiographic structural and functional abnormalities. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to serum concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Conclusion: This study showed that COVID-19 survivors, including those with myocardial injury at admission and those with severe and critical types of illness, do not have any echocardiographic evidence of cardiac structural and functional abnormalities 327 days after diagnosis.

10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e31125, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is a significant independent risk factor for both severe COVID-19 presentation at hospital admission and in-hospital mortality. Available information has suggested that people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) could benefit from COVID-19 vaccination. However, there is a dearth of evidence on willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among a national sample of PLWHA in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey investigated factors associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA aged 18 to 65 years living in eight conveniently selected Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. Eight community-based organizations (CBOs) providing services to PLWHA facilitated the recruitment. Eligible PLWHA completed an online survey developed using a widely used encrypted web-based survey platform in China. We fitted a single logistic regression model to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aORs), which involved one of the independent variables of interest and all significant background variables. Path analysis was also used in the data analysis. RESULTS: Out of 10,845 PLWHA approached by the CBOs, 2740 completed the survey, and 170 had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. This analysis was performed among 2570 participants who had never received COVID-19 vaccination. Over half of the participants reported willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (1470/2570, 57.2%). Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination, including positive attitudes (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09-1.12; P<.001), negative attitudes (aOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.97; P<.001), perceived support from significant others (perceived subjective norm; aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.46-1.61; P<.001), and perceived behavioral control (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11-1.14; P<.001). At the interpersonal level, receiving advice supportive of COVID-19 vaccination from doctors (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.65-2.40; P<.001), CBO staff (aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.51-2.36; P<.001), friends and/or family members (aOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.93-5.35; P<.001), and PLWHA peers (aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.85-3.08; P<.001) was associated with higher willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The overall opinion supporting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWHA on the internet or social media was also positively associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.31-1.94; P<.001). Path analysis indicated that interpersonal-level variables were indirectly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination through perceptions (ß=.43, 95% CI .37-.51; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to PLWHA in other countries and the general population in most parts of the world, PLWHA in China reported a relatively low willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The internet and social media as well as interpersonal communications may be major sources of influence on PLWHA's perceptions and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e20007, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to evidence is crucial in times of an evolving clinical crisis. To that end, we propose a novel approach to answer clinical queries, termed rapid meta-analysis (RMA). Unlike traditional meta-analysis, RMA balances a quick time to production with reasonable data quality assurances, leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) to strike this balance. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether RMA can generate meaningful clinical insights, but crucially, in a much faster processing time than traditional meta-analysis, using a relevant, real-world example. METHODS: The development of our RMA approach was motivated by a currently relevant clinical question: is ocular toxicity and vision compromise a side effect of hydroxychloroquine therapy? At the time of designing this study, hydroxychloroquine was a leading candidate in the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We then leveraged AI to pull and screen articles, automatically extract their results, review the studies, and analyze the data with standard statistical methods. RESULTS: By combining AI with human analysis in our RMA, we generated a meaningful, clinical result in less than 30 minutes. The RMA identified 11 studies considering ocular toxicity as a side effect of hydroxychloroquine and estimated the incidence to be 3.4% (95% CI 1.11%-9.96%). The heterogeneity across individual study findings was high, which should be taken into account in interpretation of the result. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that a novel approach to meta-analysis using AI can generate meaningful clinical insights in a much shorter time period than traditional meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/etiology , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Eye/drug effects , Eye/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Time Factors , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
12.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(5): 990-992, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-97917

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pneumonia presented with certain characteristic chest CT imaging features, which are helpful to the radiologist in the early detection and diagnosis of this emerging global health emergency. In this report, we present chest CT findings from five patients with COVID-19. Except for one case with normal lung appearance, all the other four cases had certain characteristics, including ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation and atoll sign. The lesions were mainly distributed in the peripheral portion of lung.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
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