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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325061

ABSTRACT

Background: Millions of cases of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported in the world. Although it is known that the air travel has the potential to spread SARS-CoV-2, the risk of in-flight transmission is unknown.Methods We enrolled all passengers and crew suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, who bounded for Beijing on international flights. We specified the characteristics of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection and utilized Wells-Riley equation to estimate the infectivity of COVID-19 during air travel.Results We screened 4492 passengers and crew with suspected COVID-19 infection, verified 161 confirmed cases (mean age 28.6 years), and traced two confirmed cases who may have been infected in the aircraft. The estimated infectivity was 375 quanta/h (range 274-476), while the effective infectivity was only 4 quanta/h (range 2-5). The risk of per-person infection during a 13 hours air travel in economy class was 0.56‰ (95% CI 0.41‰-0.72‰). Conclusion We found that the universal use of face masks on the flight, together with the plane's ventilation system, significantly decreased the infectivity of COVID-19.

2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1569-1575, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential of SARS-CoV-2 spread during air travel and the risk of in-flight transmission. METHODS: We enrolled all passengers and crew suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, who bounded for Beijing on international flights. We specified the characteristics of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection and utilised Wells-Riley equation to estimate the infectivity of COVID-19 during air travel. RESULTS: We screened 4492 passengers and crew with suspected COVID-19 infection, verified 161 confirmed cases (mean age 28.6 years), and traced two confirmed cases who may have been infected in the aircraft. The estimated infectivity was 375 quanta/h (range 274-476), while the effective infectivity was only 4 quanta/h (range 2-5). The risk of per-person infection during a 13 h air travel in economy class was 0.56‰ (95% CI 0.41‰-0.72‰). CONCLUSION: We found that the universal use of face masks on the flight, together with the plane's ventilation system, significantly decreased the infectivity of COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESThe COVID-19 pandemic is changing the lifestyle in the world, especially air travel which has the potential to spread SARS-CoV-2.The universal use of face masks on the flight, together with the plane's ventilation system, significantly decreased the infectivity of COVID-19 on an aircraft.Our findings suggest that the risk of infection in aircraft was negligible.


Subject(s)
Air Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Theoretical , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374426

ABSTRACT

The current spreading coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and pathogenic. In this study, we screened the gene expression of three host receptors (ACE2, DC-SIGN and L-SIGN) of SARS coronaviruses and dendritic cells (DCs) status in bulk and single cell transcriptomic datasets of upper airway, lung or blood of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. In COVID-19 patients, DC-SIGN gene expression was interestingly decreased in lung DCs but increased in blood DCs. Within DCs, conventional DCs (cDCs) were depleted while plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were augmented in the lungs of mild COVID-19. In severe cases, we identified augmented types of immature DCs (CD22+ or ANXA1+ DCs) with MHCII downregulation. In this study, our observation indicates that DCs in severe cases stimulate innate immune responses but fail to specifically present SARS-CoV-2. It provides insights into the profound modulation of DC function in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Genome-Wide Association Study , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis
4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(15): e2100606, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340232

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is the core signaling adaptor in the RNA signaling pathway. Thus, appropriate regulation of MAVS expression is essential for antiviral immunity against RNA virus infection. However, the regulation of MAVS expression at the mRNA level especially at the post transcriptional level is not well-defined. Here, it is reported that the MAVS mRNA undergoes N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) modification through methyltransferase-like protein 14 (METTL14), which leads to a fast turnover of MAVS mRNA. Knockdown or deficiency of METTL14 increases MAVS mRNA stability, and downstream phosphorylation of TBK1/IRF3 and interferon-ß production in response to RNA viruses. Compared to wild-type mice, heterozygotes Mettl14+/- mice better tolerate RNA virus infection. The authors' findings unveil a novel mechanism to regulate the stability of MAVS transcripts post-transcriptionally through m6 A modification.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Methyltransferases/immunology , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/immunology , Adenosine/metabolism , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Methyltransferases/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology
6.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(14):5170, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-653577

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 lock down on lifestyle in China during the initial stage of the pandemic. A questionnaire was distributed to Chinese adults living in 31 provinces of China via the internet using a snowball sampling strategy. Information on 7-day physical activity recall, screen time, and emotional state were collected between January 24 and February 2, 2020. ANOVA, χ²test, and Spearman"s correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis. 12,107 participants aged 18-80 years were included. During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak, nearly 60% of Chinese adults had inadequate physical activity (95% CI 56.6%-58.3%), which was more than twice the global prevalence (27.5%, 25.0%-32.2%). Their mean screen time was more than 4 hours per day while staying at home (261.3 ±189.8 min per day), and the longest screen time was found in young adults (305.6 ±217.5 min per day). We found a positive and significant correlation between provincial proportions of confirmed COVID-19 cases and negative affect scores (r = 0.501, p = 0.004). Individuals with vigorous physical activity appeared to have a better emotional state and less screen time than those with light physical activity. During this nationwide lockdown, more than half of Chinese adults temporarily adopted a sedentary lifestyle with insufficient physical activity, more screen time, and poor emotional state, which may carry considerable health risks. Promotion of home-based self-exercise can potentially help improve health and wellness.

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