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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315326

ABSTRACT

Background: Mandatory mask wearing policy for general population in public areas were the most controversial mitigative measure for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Thus, it was imperative to investigate its influence on the incidence of face touching behaviors. Methods: Videos displaying mask-wearing and face-touching behaviors of general population in public areas were analyzed. Period before the COVID-19 epidemic were defined as January 2018 to October 2019, and those during the pandemic were from February 2020 to August 2020 in East Asia, and March to August 2020 in Europe and United States (US). Findings: 37 videos (4699 individuals) before the pandemic with 135 videos (8217 individuals) were included. The mask wearing rates all increased significantly during the pandemic. However, the incidence of face touching behaviors maintained. The incidence of eyes, nose and mouth touching behaviors decreased in East Asia and Europe, instead of US. Mask wearing rates was negatively related to incidences of face touching behaviors, especially in East Asia. Surprisingly, when mask wearing rates were >0% and <75%, mask wearing rates was positively related to the incidence of face touching behaviors in East Asia significantly (p=0.017). Interpretation: The incidence of face touching behaviors of general population in public areas was negatively associated with mask wearing rates. However, Mandatory mask wearing polices were risky in population with low adherence to masks, among whom, the face touching behaviors in public areas might increase with mask wearing rates rise. Funding: This study was supported by Guangzhou Science and Technology Project (201904010461).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Clinical Ethics Review Board of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Sun Yat-sen University. Informed consent was waived according to ethical review of biomedical research involving humans by Order of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China No. 11.

2.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(11): 547-554, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the World Health Organization (WHO) announced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a global pandemic on March 11, 2020, the number of infections has been increasing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with coronary heart disease. METHOD: Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect the literature concerning coronary heart disease and COVID-19. The retrieval time was from inception to Nov 20, 2020, using Stata version 14.0 for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 22,148 patients from 40 studies were included. The meta-analysis revealed that coronary heart disease was associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19 (OR=3.42, 95%CI [2.83, 4.13], P < 0.001). After subgroup analysis, coronary heart disease was found to be related to mortality (OR = 3.75, 95%CI [2.91, 4.82], P < 0.001), severe/critical COVID-19 (OR = 3.23, 95%CI [2.19, 4.77], P < 0.001), ICU admission (OR = 2.25, 95%CI [1.34, 3.79], P = 0.002), disease progression (OR = 3.01, 95%CI [1.46, 6.22], P = 0.003); Meta-regression showed that the association between coronary heart disease and poor prognosis of COVID-19 was affected by hypertension (P = 0.004), and subgroup analysis showed that compared with the proportion of hypertension >30% (OR = 2.85, 95%CI [2.33, 3.49]), the proportion of hypertension <30% (OR = 4.78, 95%CI [3.50, 6.51]) had a higher risk of poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Coronary heart disease is a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


OBJETIVO: Desde que la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) anunció que la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19) se había convertido en una pandemia global el 11 de marzo de 2020, se ha incrementado el número de infecciones. El objetivo de este metaanálisis fue investigar el pronóstico de la COVID-19 en pacientes con cardiopatía coronaria. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos de Pubmed, Embase y Cochrane Library para reunir la literatura relativa a cardiopatía coronaria y COVID-19. El tiempo de recuperación de datos fue desde el inicio hasta el 20 de noviembre de 2020, utilizando la versión 14.0 de Stata® para el metaanálisis. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó un total de 22.148 pacientes de 40 estudios. El metaanálisis reveló que la cardiopatía coronaria estaba asociada a un mal pronóstico de COVID-19 (OR: 3,42; IC 95%: 2,83-4,13; p < 0,001). Tras el análisis de subgrupo, se encontró que la cardiopatía coronaria tenía relación con la mortalidad (OR: 3,75; IC 95%: 2,91-4,82; p < 0,001), COVID-19 grave/crítica (OR: 3,23; IC 95%: 2,19-4,77; p < 0,001), ingreso en la UCI (OR: 2,25; IC 95%: 1,34-3,79; p = 0,002), progresión de la enfermedad (OR: 3,01; IC 95%: 1,46-6,22; p = 0,003). La metarregresión reflejó que la asociación entre cardiopatía coronaria y mal pronóstico de la COVID-19 estaba influida por la hipertensión (p = 0,004), y el análisis de subgrupo mostró que comparada con la proporción de hipertensión > 30% (OR: 2,85; IC 95%: 2,33-3,49), la proporción de hipertensión < 30% (OR: 4,78; IC 95%: 3,50-6,51) tenía mayor riesgo de mal pronóstico. CONCLUSIÓN: La cardiopatía coronaria es un factor de riesgo de mal pronóstico en pacientes con COVID-19.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25837, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are large knowledge gaps regarding how transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in different settings across the world. This study aims to summarize basic reproduction number (R0) data and provide clues for designing prevention and control measures. METHODS: Several databases and preprint platforms were retrieved for literature reporting R0 values of COVID-19. The analysis was stratified by the prespecified modeling method to make the R0 values comparable, and by country/region to explore whether R0 estimates differed across the world. The average R0 values were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: We identified 185 unique articles, yielding 43 articles for analysis. The selected studies covered 5 countries from Asia, 5 countries from Europe, 12 countries from Africa, and 1 from North America, South America, and Australia each. Exponential growth rate model was most favored by researchers. The pooled global R0 was 4.08 (95% CI, 3.09-5.39). The R0 estimates for new and shifting epicenters were comparable or even higher than that for the original epicenter Wuhan, China. CONCLUSIONS: The high R0 values suggest that an extraordinary combination of control measures is needed for halting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 156(11): 547-554, 2021 06 11.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the World Health Organization (WHO) announced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a global pandemic on March 11, 2020, the number of infections has been increasing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with coronary heart disease. METHOD: Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect the literature concerning coronary heart disease and COVID-19. The retrieval time was from inception to Nov 20, 2020, using Stata version 14.0 for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 22,148 patients from 40 studies were included. The meta-analysis revealed that coronary heart disease was associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19 (OR=3.42, 95%CI [2.83, 4.13], P<0.001). After subgroup analysis, coronary heart disease was found to be related to mortality (OR=3.75, 95%CI [2.91, 4.82], P<0.001), severe/critical COVID-19 (OR=3.23, 95%CI [2.19, 4.77], P<0.001), ICU admission (OR=2.25, 95%CI [1.34, 3.79], P=0.002), disease progression (OR=3.01, 95%CI [1.46, 6.22], P=0.003); Meta-regression showed that the association between coronary heart disease and poor prognosis of COVID-19 was affected by hypertension (P=0.004), and subgroup analysis showed that compared with the proportion of hypertension >30% (OR=2.85, 95%CI [2.33, 3.49]), the proportion of hypertension <30% (OR=4.78, 95%CI [3.50, 6.51]) had a higher risk of poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Coronary heart disease is a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 609-612, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745310

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease, which has a strong virus transmission power and complex transmission routes. This disease is prone to outbreak of cluster infection. It is difficult for medical workers to provide a better perioperative treatment for surgery patient with COVID-19 while avoiding hospital spread effectively. The perioperative management for such patients needs to fully consider the possible lung injury factors caused by anesthesia and surgery. It also needs to choose the suitable timing of the operation, carry out preoperative infection screening and evaluation, and implement lung protection strategies during and after the operation to avoid aggravating the lung injury. Meanwhile, it is necessary to pay more attention to infection prevention and control in order to avoid nosocomial infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Perioperative Care , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2016924, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684790

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is insufficient evidence on the efficacy of masks in the general population for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in public areas. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the association of mandatory mask-wearing policies with behaviors associated with the transmission of COVID-19. Objective: To assess the association of mask wearing with face-touching behavior among the general population in public areas. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used videos recorded in public transportation stations, streets, and parks among the general population in China, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe (ie, England, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy), and the US to analyze mask-wearing and face-touching behavior in public areas. Videos before the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as those recorded from January 2018 to October 2019, and those during the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as those recorded during February 2020 to March 2020 in China, Japan, and South Korea and during March 2020 in Western Europe and the US. Individuals who clearly displayed their face and face-touching behavior were included, and those whose behaviors were influenced by filming or public events were excluded. Exposures: Mandatory mask-wearing policies enacted at various time points in China, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe, and the US. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of individuals wearing masks and incidence of face touching. Results: This study included 4699 individuals before the COVID-19 pandemic and 2887 individuals during the pandemic. During the periods studied, mask wearing increased in all regions except the US, from 20 of 1745 individuals (1.1%) to 1090 of 1097 individuals (99.4%) in mainland China (P < .001), 44 of 1422 individuals (3.1%) to 346 of 893 individuals (38.7%) in Japan (P < .001), 6 of 717 individuals (0.8%) to 277 of 324 individuals (85.5% ) in South Korea (P < .001), 1 of 546 individuals (0.2%) to 6 of 379 individuals (1.6%) in Western Europe (P = .02), and 1 of 269 individuals (0.4%) to 4 of 194 individuals (2.1%) in the US (P = .17). Surgical masks were predominant in China (989 masks [89.1%]), and fabric masks were predominant in the other regions (Japan: 371 masks [95.1%]; South Korea: 240 masks [84.8%]; Western Europe: 6 masks [85.7%]; US: 5 masks [100%]). Face-touching behaviors decreased from before COVID-19 to during COVID-19 among individuals in China (72 incidences of 1745 observations [4.1%] to 12 incidences of 1097 observations [1.1%]; P < .001), South Korea (80 incidences of 717 observations [11.2%] to 7 incidences of 324 observations [2.2%]; P < .001), and Europe (62 incidences of 546 observations [11.4%] to 23 incidences of 379 observations [6.1%]; P = .01). Logistic regression found that mask wearing was associated with a reduction in face touching in China (odds ratio [OR], 3.91; 95% CI, 2.11-7.24) and South Korea (OR, 6.69; 95% CI, 2.69-16.69) and of touching the nose, mouth, and eyes (China: OR, 8.60; 95% CI, 2.65-27.86; South Korea: OR, 29.27; 95% CI, 1.79-478.22). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that mandatory mask-wearing policies were associated with increased mask wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mask wearing was associated with reduced face-touching behavior, especially touching of the eyes, nose, and mouth, which may prevent contact transmission of COVID-19 among the general population in public areas.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Face , Habits , Masks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Touch , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Far East/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(6): 1454-1460, 2020 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To control the spread of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), China sealed Wuhan on 23 January 2020 and soon expanded lockdown to 12 other cities in Hubei province. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics in one of the cities and highlight the effect of current implemented lockdown and nonpharmaceutical interventions. METHODS: We retrieved data of reported cases in Huangshi and Wuhan from publicly available disease databases. Local epidemiological data on suspected or confirmed cases in Huangshi were collected through field investigation. Epidemic curves were constructed with data on reported and observed cases. RESULTS: The accumulated confirmed COVID-19 cases and fatality in Huangshi were reported to be 1015 and 3.74%, respectively, compared with 50006 and 5.08% in Wuhan until 27 March 2020. Right after 24 January, the epidemic curve based on observed cases in Huangshi became flattened. And 1 February 2020 was identified as the "turning point" as the epidemic in Huangshi faded soon afterward. COVID-19 epidemic was characterized by mild cases in Huangshi, accounting for 82.66% of total cases. Moreover, 50 asymptomatic infections were identified in adults and children. In addition, we found confirmed cases in 19 familial clusters and 21 healthcare workers, supporting interhuman transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported the temporal dynamics and characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Huangshi city, China, across the unprecedented intervention. Such new epidemiological inference might provide further guidance on current lockdown measures in high-risk cities and, subsequently, help improve public health intervention strategies against the pandemic on the country and global levels.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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