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1.
Sustainability ; 15(9), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20243356

ABSTRACT

Investigating the essential impact of the cryptocurrency market on carbon emissions is significant for the U.S. to realize carbon neutrality. This exploration employs low-frequency vector auto-regression (LF-VAR) and mixed-frequency VAR (MF-VAR) models to capture the complicated interrelationship between cryptocurrency policy uncertainty (CPU) and carbon emission (CE) and to answer the question of whether cryptocurrency policy uncertainty could facilitate U.S. carbon neutrality. By comparison, the MF-VAR model possesses a higher explanatory power than the LF-VAR model;the former's impulse response indicates a negative CPU effect on CE, suggesting that cryptocurrency policy uncertainty is a promoter for the U.S. to realize the goal of carbon neutrality. In turn, CE positively impacts CPU, revealing that mass carbon emissions would raise public and national concerns about the environmental damages caused by cryptocurrency transactions and mining. Furthermore, CPU also has a mediation effect on CE;that is, CPU could affect CE through the oil price (OP). In the context of a more uncertain cryptocurrency market, valuable insights for the U.S. could be offered to realize carbon neutrality by reducing the traditional energy consumption and carbon emissions of cryptocurrency trading and mining.

2.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 12(1):49-53, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315750

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the cost of launching telemedicine services by Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Methods The patients using telemedicine services were enrolled during the period of pilot run from February 10th to April 15th, 2020. The study was done from the social perspective. A decision-tree model was constructed to compare the costs between telemedicine services and conventional clinical services for outpatients. The main outcome was measured as incre- mental cost-effective ness ratios (ICER). Sensitivity analysis was conducted by using one-way sensitivity analysis. Results During a period of forty-seven days, the online fever clinic was applied 3055 person-times(2070 patients) and the online outpatient clinic were applied 36 549 person-times(20 467 patients). On average, 44 febrile cases/d and 435 nonfebrile cases/d were reduced in the outpatient clinic. It helped to reduce roughly 1/4 (febrile) and 1/5(nonfebrile) of total numbers of the patients in the outpatient clinic during the peak period of the epidemic. If calculated according to the actual free-of-charge condition, the ICER was -64.7 yuans/person-time. If the actual cost of each consultant of telemedicine service was estimated according to the level of outpatient-service fee, the ICER was -5.5 yuans/person-time. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the main factors affecting the ICERs were transportation cost, lost wages, and the efficiency of telemedicine services. Conclusions Launching telemedicine services helped to relieve the pressure at the outpatient clinics, and has the potential to provide significant cost saving compared to conventional clinic services for outpatients. It is worth considering applying this practice widely in the medical and health services.Copyright © 2021, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All rights reserved.

3.
7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics, ICARM 2022 ; : 350-354, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191811

ABSTRACT

For normalized prevention and control of novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a robot system is desired to assist in performing large numbers of oropharyngeal (OP) swab sampling. However, reliability and efficiency are still challenges for the practical application of existing robot systems. In this paper, a robot system and related implementation scheme for high efficiency automatic OP swab sampling are developed. A novel robot end-effector with a disposable protective cover is designed, that testee keeps biting on its terminal during sampling. The main steps of the sampling procedure, including sterilizing, recycling, swab mounting and collection, are realized automatically. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed robot system are validated through experiment on human subjects. The whole sampling procedure takes about 80 to 90 seconds. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
2nd International Conference on New Energy Technology and Industrial Development, NETID 2021 ; 292, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2186199

ABSTRACT

With its extraordinary rapidity of transmission, the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the vulnerability of a globalized and networked world. The first months of the pandemic were marked by a significant strain on health-care systems. Since the prospect of pandemics has elevated public health concerns, it is critical to revisit this issue. The primary goal of this essay is to employ data mining technologies and methodologies to do investigative analysis on publicly available information. In this article we shared ways and techniques to handle and control this pandemic in the best possible way using data mining techniques and models. Researchers and scientists will be able to use the results ofour poll to come up with new approaches to combat the pandemic. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

5.
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2134040

ABSTRACT

In the context of the global economic downturn, the approach guided by consumer loans (CL) to boost consumer confidence is a feasible way to promote the internal circulation of the Chinese economy. Therefore, we use a time-varying rolling-window approach to identify how CL affects the consumer confidence index (CCI). We find that CL can be seen as vital support for promoting confidence because it can ease liquidity constraints and improve consumption levels. The empirical outcome is supported by the Rational Expectations Perpetual Income Hypothesis (RE-PIH), emphasizing that increasing CL can boost consumer confidence. Conversely, CCI has both positive and negative effects on CL. The positive effects suggest that consumers’ optimistic confidence leads them to increase borrowing, which in turn creates a heavier debt burden. This statement cannot be supported by the negative effect due to consumers’ blind self-confidence will cause cognitive bias, which is not conducive to the loan market development. Against the backdrop of increased global uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the government’s continuous adjustment of loan policies, consumers can effectively optimise their consumption decision-making through borrowing. The policymaker can maintain loan stability by effectively promoting consumer confidence and raising the consumption level of the whole society. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

6.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10:13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1855339

ABSTRACT

Air quality in China has been undergoing significant changes due to the implementation of extensive emission control measures since 2013. Many observational and modeling studies investigated the formation mechanisms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O-3) pollution in the major regions of China. To improve understanding of the driving forces for the changes in PM2.5 and O-3 in China, a nationwide air quality modeling study was conducted from 2013 to 2019 using the Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. In this study, the model predictions were evaluated using the observation data for the key pollutants including O-3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and PM2.5 and its major components. The evaluation mainly focused on five major regions, that is , the North China Plain (NCP), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), the Chengyu Basin (CY), and the Fenwei Plain (FW). The CMAQ model successfully reproduced the air pollutants in all the regions with model performance indices meeting the suggested benchmarks. However, over-prediction of PM2.5 was noted in CY. NO2, O-3,O- and PM2.5 were well simulated in the north compared to the south. Nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) were the most important PM2.5 components in heavily polluted regions. For the performance on different pollution levels, the model generally over-predicted the clean days but underpredicted the polluted days. O-3 was found increasing each year, while other pollutants gradually reduced during 2013-2019 across the five regions. In all of the regions except PRD (all seasons) and YRD (spring and summer), the correlations between PM2.5 and O-3 were negative during all four seasons. Low-to-medium correlations were noted between the simulated PM2.5 and NO2, while strong and positive correlations were established between PM2.5 and SO2 during all four seasons across the five regions. This study validates the ability of the CMAQ model in simulating air pollution in China over a long period and provides insights for designing effective emission control strategies across China.

7.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 12(1):49-53, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1513191

ABSTRACT

Objective  To assess the cost of launching telemedicine services by Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.  Methods  The patients using telemedicine services were enrolled during the period of pilot run from February 10th to April 15th, 2020. The study was done from the social perspective. A decision-tree model was constructed to compare the costs between telemedicine services and conventional clinical services for outpatients. The main outcome was measured as incre- mental cost-effective ness ratios (ICER). Sensitivity analysis was conducted by using one-way sensitivity analysis.  Results  During a period of forty-seven days, the online fever clinic was applied 3055 person-times(2070 patients) and the online outpatient clinic were applied 36 549 person-times(20 467 patients). On average, 44 febrile cases/d and 435 nonfebrile cases/d were reduced in the outpatient clinic. It helped to reduce roughly 1/4 (febrile) and 1/5(nonfebrile) of total numbers of the patients in the outpatient clinic during the peak period of the epidemic. If calculated according to the actual free-of-charge condition, the ICER was -64.7 yuans/person-time. If the actual cost of each consultant of telemedicine service was estimated according to the level of outpatient-service fee, the ICER was -5.5 yuans/person-time. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the main factors affecting the ICERs were transportation cost, lost wages, and the efficiency of telemedicine services.  Conclusions  Launching telemedicine services helped to relieve the pressure at the outpatient clinics, and has the potential to provide significant cost saving compared to conventional clinic services for outpatients. It is worth considering applying this practice widely in the medical and health services. © 2021, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All rights reserved.

8.
Acta Optica Sinica ; 41(10):10, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1374562

ABSTRACT

For NOx, pollutions in Wuhan during the outbreak of COVID-19, we applied a mobile MAX-DOAS and a portable ultraviolet DOAS to cooperatively measure NOx, concentration in the third ring road of Wuhan from Feb. 29th to Mar. 14th, 2020. The mobile MAX-DOAS acquired the vertical column concentration (VCD) distribution of NO2 along its course and the portable ultraviolet DOAS measured the NO and NO2 concentrations to calculate [NOx]/[NO2]. Then, the NOx emission flux and its error of the third ring road of Wuhan were calculated in conjunction with the data of the wind field. The results show that the NO, emission flux during the measurements in the third ring of Wuhan ranges from 7.78 mol/s to 15.71 mol/s, about 10.78 mol/s on average. Compared with the average [NOx]/[NO2], the real-time [NOx]/[NO2] along the route of the mobile MAX-DOAS derived from the portable ultraviolet DOAS could effectively reduce the error of NOx emission flux caused by the [NOx,]/[NO2] error. However, this method is not recommended in scenarios with substantial near-surface NOx emission sources.

9.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; 7(11):779-786, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1003236

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown period (from January 23 to February 29, 2020), ambient PM2.5 concentrations in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region were observed to be much lower, while the maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) O-3 concentrations became much higher compared to those before the lockdown (from January 1 to 22, 2020). Here, we show that emission reduction is the major driving force for the PM2.5 change, contributing to a PM2.5 decrease by 37% to 55% in the four YRD major cities (i.e., Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, and Hefei), but the MDA8 O-3 increase is driven by both emission reduction (29%-52%) and variation in meteorological conditions (17%-49%). Among all pollutants, reduction in emissions mainly of primary PM contributes to a PM2.5 decrease by 28% to 46%, and NOx emission reduction contributes 7% to 10%. Although NOx emission reduction dominates the MDA8 O-3 increase (38%-59%), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission reduction lead to a 5% to 9% MDA8 O-3 decrease. Increased O-3 promotes secondary aerosol formation and partially offsets the decrease of PM2.5 caused by the primary PM emission reductions. The results demonstrate that more coordinated air pollution control strategies are needed in YRD.

10.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-7937

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China. Methods Demographic and clinical data of all confirmed cases with COVID-19 on admission at Tongji Hospital from January 10 to February 12, 2020, were collected and analyzed. The data of laboratory examinations, including peripheral lymphocyte subsets, were analyzed and compared between severe and non-severe patients. Results Of the 452 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 286 were diagnosed as severe infection. The median age was 58 years and 235 were male. The most common symptoms were fever, shortness of breath, expectoration, fatigue, dry cough and myalgia. Severe cases tend to have lower lymphocytes counts, higher leukocytes counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), as well as lower percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Most of severe cases demonstrated elevated levels of infection-related biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines. The number of T cells significantly decreased, and more hampered in severe cases. Both helper T cells and suppressor T cells in patients with COVID-19 were below normal levels, and lower level of helper T cells in severe group. The percentage of naïve helper T cells increased and memory helper T cells decreased in severe cases. Patients with COVID-19 also have lower level of regulatory T cells, and more obviously damaged in severe cases. Conclusions The novel coronavirus might mainly act on lymphocytes, especially T lymphocytes. Surveillance of NLR and lymphocyte subsets is helpful in the early screening of critical illness, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.

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