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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324252

ABSTRACT

Background: With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (2019-nCoV, also named COVID-19) and growing knowledge of its epidemiological characteristics, it has been clear that children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are also susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: : In the past four months, we educated the guardians of children with leukemia with a series of preventative measures, including ⑴ Hand Hygiene and Hand Care;⑵ the use of masks;⑶ separation and sterilization of patient items;⑷ avoiding public transportation;⑸ Staying at home unless medically necessary;⑹ Telemedicine;⑺ Allowing only one caretaker during hospital admission ⑻ minimizing patients and their families visiting or travelling. We conducted a retrospective review to study the relationship between compliance with personal preventive measures and exposure to 2019-nCoV among children will ALL and their caretakers before and during the outbreak of 2019-nCoV in China between Jan 21-May 23 of 2020. Results: : Prior to the outbreak of coronavirus 2019-nCoV in Jan 2020, 88.9% of patients washed their hands before meals and 55.6% after they ate. All of the patients who are >3 years old and 91% of the patients <3 years olds wore face masks regularly as a strategy for protection in the outdoors. When in the hospital, 95.5% of the patients who are >3 years old and 78% of the patients <3 years olds wore face masks regularly as a strategy for protection. Since the outbreak of coronavirus 2019-nCoV in China in Jan, 2020, the percentage of compliance to hand-washing before and after meals rose to 100% for all patients, as well as the compliance of regular mask use was 100%. Similar trend is also seen in the caretakers, prior to the outbreak 75% of whom washed their hands before and 66.7% after they ate or handed food. ALL of them wore masks regularly in the hospital or outdoors. Since the outbreak, 100% of caretakers wore masks during outside and in the wards. Regardless of the children with ALL are immunocompromised patients, key message of infection prevention provided to the families were using alcohol to disinfect surfaces, avoid going to public transport and without visitor or travelling. Prior to the outbreak, internet consults consisted of 20% out of all patient consults. As of date, which is 160 days since the outbreak, 80% of patient consults are done via internet. ALL of patients are voiding public transportation. Private cars and taxi are their choices. ALL of them comply with the policy of just one companion and stayed at home unless have to get IV chemo or got likely infection. In April 2019, 21.38% of the ALL patients in inpatient department suffered febrile neutropenia. Otherwise, in April 2020, only 5.18% suffered febrile neutropenia. Conclusion: From Jan 22 of 2020 to the authorship of this report, within the 200 number of ALL patients whom we have provided care for in Shenzhen Children’s hospital, none of the patients as well as their families were infected with 2019-nCoV, and all of them received chemotherapy as planned. The infection rate of ALL patients suffered febrile neutropenia decreased by seventy-five percent. These outcomes demonstrated that our response to the public health emergency was on-time and appropriate. The operational result shows that the control measures taken are effective. Our experience suggest that offering prompt and appropriate instructions in addition to provision of regular education and preventative practices to patients and their families may be considered to other pediatric oncology centers around the world.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315329

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic, posing a serious threat to public health worldwide. Whether survivors of COVID-19 pneumonia may be at risk of pulmonary fibrosis is still unknown.Methods: This study involves 462 laboratory confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 days to 150 days after the onset of the disease.Finding: 397 (86.87%), 311 (74.40%), 222 (79.56%), 141 (68.12%) and 49 (62.03%) patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis during the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and >120 days after onset, respectively. Reversal of pulmonary fibrosis were found in 18 (4.53%), 61 (19.61%), 40 (18.02%), 54 (38.30%) and 24 (48.98%) COVID-19 patients during the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and >120 days after onset, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. Only a fraction of COVID-19 patients suffered with abnormal lung function after 90 days from onset.Interpretation: Long-term pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, high BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, long time to turn the viral RNA negative, pre-existing disease and delay to admission. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a half of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of most of COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis could turn to normal condition after three months from onset.Funding Statement: Shenzhen Science and Technology Research and Development Project (202002073000001 and 202002073000002), Shenzhen Fund for Guangdong Provincial High-level Clinical Key Specialties (SZGSP011).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was conducted at Shenzhen Third People's Hospital and approved by the Ethics Committees, each patient gave written informed consent.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315328

ABSTRACT

Background: Thousands of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been discharged from hospitals, persistent follow-up studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 fibrosis. Methods: : This study involves 462 laboratory confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital from January 11, 2020 to April 26, 2020. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 days to 150 days after the onset of the disease, and lung function tests were conducted in about three months after the onset. The risk factors affecting the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis were identified through regression analysis and the prediction model of the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis was established. Results: : Parenchymal bands, irregular interfaces, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis were the most common CT features in all COVID-19 patients. During the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and >120 days after onset, 86.87%, 74.40%, 79.56%, 68.12% and 62.03% patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis and 4.53%, 19.61%, 18.02%, 38.30% and 48.98% patients reversed pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. A predictive model of the persistence with pulmonary fibrosis was developed based-on the Logistic Regression method with an accuracy, PPV, NPV, Sensitivity and Specificity of the model of 76%, 71%, 79%, 67%, and 82%, respectively. More than half of COVID-19 patients revealed abnormal condition in lung function after 90 days from onset, and the ratio of abnormal lung function did not differ on a statistically significant level between the fibrotic and non-fibrotic groups. Conclusions: : Persistent pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, high BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, long time to turn the viral RNA negative, pre-existing disease and delay to admission. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a third of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of less than half of COVID-19 patients could turn to normal condition after three months from onset. An effective prediction model with an average Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.84 was established to predict the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients for early diagnosis.

4.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667057

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still ongoing, as is research on the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular infection by coronaviruses, with the hope of developing therapeutic agents against this pandemic. Other important respiratory viruses such as 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV), influenza A viruses, are also responsible for a possible outbreak due to their respiratory susceptibility. However, the interaction of these viruses with host cells and the regulation of post-transcriptional genes remains unclear. In this study, we detected and analyzed the comparative transcriptome profiling of SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1 (A/California/07/2009), and H7N9 (A/Shanghai/1/2013) infected cells. The results showed that the commonly upregulated genes among the three groups were mainly involved in autophagy, pertussis, and tuberculosis, which indicated that autophagy plays an important role in viral pathogenicity. There are three groups of commonly downregulated genes involved in metabolic pathways. Notably, unlike panH1N1 and H7N9, SARS-CoV-2 infection can inhibit the m-TOR pathway and activate the p53 signaling pathway, which may be responsible for unique autophagy induction and cell apoptosis. Particularly, upregulated expression of IRF1 was found in SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection. Further analysis showed SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection-induced upregulation of lncRNA-34087.27 could serve as a competitive endogenous RNA to stabilize IRF1 mRNA by competitively binding with miR-302b-3p. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , RNA/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transcriptome/genetics
5.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1582-1589, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453469

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation. All 5 were treated with convalescent plasma transfusion. The study was conducted at the infectious disease department, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 25, 2020; final date of follow-up was March 25, 2020. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Exposures: Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2 increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 203, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thousands of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been discharged from hospitals Persistent follow-up studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 fibrosis. METHODS: This study involves 462 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 11, 2020 to April 26, 2020. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 to 150 days after the onset of the disease, and lung function tests were conducted about three months after the onset. The risk factors affecting the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis were identified through regression analysis and the prediction model of the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis was established. RESULTS: Parenchymal bands, irregular interfaces, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis were the most common CT features in all COVID-19 patients. During the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and > 120 days after onset, 86.87%, 74.40%, 79.56%, 68.12% and 62.03% patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis and 4.53%, 19.61%, 18.02%, 38.30% and 48.98% patients reversed pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. A predictive model of the persistence with pulmonary fibrosis was developed based-on the Logistic Regression method with an accuracy, PPV, NPV, Sensitivity and Specificity of the model of 76%, 71%, 79%, 67%, and 82%, respectively. More than half of the COVID-19 patients revealed abnormal conditions in lung function after 90 days from onset, and the ratio of abnormal lung function did not differ on a statistically significant level between the fibrotic and non-fibrotic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, higher BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, a longer viral clearance time, pre-existing disease and delayed hospitalization. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a third of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of less than half of COVID-19 patients could turn to normal condition after three months from onset. An effective prediction model with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84 was established to predict the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients for early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lung/virology , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , China , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
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