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1.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 6(7): 638-641, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751161

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective, multicenter study of 261 eyes (259 patients), patients who underwent rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) post-lockdown period experienced an additional 22-day delay, leading to significantly more epiretinal membrane and proliferative vitreoretinopathy and lower single-surgery anatomic success rates. During lockdown, perfluoropropane gas was used more commonly, and pneumatic retinopexy was used more commonly in COVID-19-positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Detachment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Retinal Detachment/diagnosis , Retinal Detachment/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
3.
Eurosurveillance ; 26(29):10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1341599

ABSTRACT

Background In South Africa, COVID-19 control measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread were initiated on 16 March 2020. Such measures may also impact the spread of other pathogens, including influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with implications for future annual epidemics and expectations for the subsequent northern hemisphere winter. Methods We assessed the detection of influenza and RSV through facility-based syndromic surveillance of adults and children with mild or severe respiratory illness in South Africa from January to October 2020, and compared this with surveillance data from 2013 to 2019. Results Facility-based surveillance revealed a decline in influenza virus detection during the regular season compared with previous years. This was observed throughout the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. RSV detection decreased soon after the most stringent COVID-19 control measures commenced;however, an increase in RSV detection was observed after the typical season, following the reopening of schools and the easing of measures. Conclusion COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions led to reduced circulation of influenza and RSV in South Africa. This has limited the country's ability to provide influenza virus strains for the selection of the annual influenza vaccine. Delayed increases in RSV case numbers may reflect the easing of COVID-19 control measures. An increase in influenza virus detection was not observed, suggesting that the measures may have impacted the two pathogens differently. The impact that lowered and/or delayed influenza and RSV circulation in 2020 will have on the intensity and severity of subsequent annual epidemics is unknown and warrants close monitoring.

4.
International Journal of Production Research ; : 17, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1309498

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a highly infectious respiratory disease which spread can be effectively curbed by wearing facial masks, especially N95 and surgical masks. In this paper, we develop a stylised game-theoretical model to evaluate the impacts of producing and selling masks on supply chain profits, safety index and consumer and social welfare. Firstly, we find that as the infection probability without protection (IPWP) increases, both the retail price and demand for these masks will increase. When the IPWP is sufficiently low, those consumers who want to purchase masks are more likely to purchase N95 masks, but when the IPWP increases, surgical masks are more popular amongst consumers. Secondly, we develop a safety index that indicates the effectiveness of using masks in preventing respiratory disease infection. This index is especially crucial in cases where the IPWP is moderate;in other words, recommending to wear masks is particularly important when the IPWP is moderate. We also examine the impacts of government involvement in handling the outbreak of respiratory diseases. Providing consumer subsidies and promoting the social mask enterprise can effectively combat respiratory diseases under different conditions. Our results can be used for combating COVID-19 and preparing for future health crisess.

5.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 31:293, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-984633

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with COVID-19 can be asymptomatic or have severe illness. Oxidative stress may be a cause of increased severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methaemoglobinaemia (MetHb) and haemolysis can occur as a result of oxidative stress. MetHb is associated with sepsis, exposure to drugs and inborn errors of metabolism. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may also manifest with MetHb and severe haemolysis. Case Description: A 31-year old man, originally from West Africa, with no comorbidities, presented with dyspnoea, cough, anosmia and oligo-anuria. He had type 1 respiratory failure and stage 3 AKI, which led to critical care admission for intubation, ventilation and haemofiltration. COVID-19 pneumonia was confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab and radiological imaging. He developed haemolytic anaemia. The MetHb was 3.5% (normal <1.5%). It rose to a peak of 10.7% with persisting anaemia and further investigations showed G6PD deficiency. He had no exposure to medications known to trigger haemolytic crises, such as Hydroxychloroquine. He was treated with supportive management including red cell transfusions and also with Tocilizumab for COVID-19. He was extubated after 15 days and recovered renal function. Data on 9 other patients admitted during this period to the ITU with COVID-19 and AKI showed 7 had normal MetHb levels and 2 had modest elevations (<3%). Discussion: Triggers of G6PD deficiency include stress from infections, fava beans, or drugs e.g Hydroxychloroquine. It typically presents as haemolytic anaemia, jaundice and AKI. Although MetHb is linked to severe illness including sepsis, little is known about a possible association with COVID-19. Our report highlights the importance of considering alternative diagnoses of very high MetHb levels such as G6PD deficiency in COVID-19 patients. This is of particular relevance as Hydroxychloroquine has been used as experimental treatment for COVID-19 and in the current climate, G6PD deficiency should be suspected in COVID-19 patients with AKI, acute haemolytic anaemia and signikficantly elevated MetHb, particularly in those from regions of high prevalence and those treated with known triggers such as Hydroxychloroquine.

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