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1.
Lancet ; 399(10336): 1718-1729, 2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab prolongs progression-free and overall survival among patients with advanced melanoma and recurrence-free survival in resected stage III disease. KEYNOTE-716 assessed pembrolizumab as adjuvant therapy in patients with completely resected, high-risk, stage II melanoma. We report results from the planned first and second interim analyses for recurrence-free survival. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 study, involving 160 academic medical centres and hospitals in 16 countries (Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, the UK, and the USA), patients aged 12 years or older with newly diagnosed, completely resected stage IIB or IIC melanoma (TNM stage T3b or T4 with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy) were recruited. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1), in blocks of four and stratified by T-category (3b, 4a, and 4b) and paediatric status (age 12-17 years vs ≥18 years), using an interactive response technology system to intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg (2 mg/kg in paediatric patients) or placebo every 3 weeks for 17 cycles or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. All patients, clinical investigators, and analysts were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed recurrence-free survival (defined as time from randomisation to recurrence or death) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (ie, all patients randomly assigned to treatment). The primary endpoint was met if recurrence-free survival was significantly improved for pembrolizumab versus placebo at either the first interim analysis (after approximately 128 patients had events) or second interim analysis (after 179 patients had events) under multiplicity control. Safety was assessed in all patients randomly assigned to treatment who received at least one dose of study treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03553836, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Sept 23, 2018, and Nov 4, 2020, 1182 patients were screened, of whom 976 were randomly assigned to pembrolizumab (n=487) or placebo (n=489; ITT population). The median age was 61 years (IQR 52-69) and 387 (40%) patients were female and 589 (60%) were male. 874 (90%) of 976 patients were White and 799 (82%) were not Hispanic or Latino. 483 (99%) of 487 patients in the pembrolizumab group and 486 (99%) of 489 in the placebo group received assigned treatment. At the first interim analysis (data cutoff on Dec 4, 2020; median follow-up of 14·4 months [IQR 10·2-18·7] in the pembrolizumab group and 14·3 months [10·1-18·7] in the placebo group), 54 (11%) of 487 patients in the pembrolizumab group and 82 (17%) of 489 in the placebo group had a first recurrence of disease or died (hazard ratio [HR] 0·65 [95% CI 0·46-0·92]; p=0·0066). At the second interim analysis (data cutoff on June 21, 2021; median follow-up of 20·9 months [16·7-25·3] in the pembrolizumab group and 20·9 months [16·6-25·3] in the placebo group), 72 (15%) patients in the pembrolizumab group and 115 (24%) in the placebo group had a first recurrence or died (HR 0·61 [95% CI 0·45-0·82]). Median recurrence-free survival was not reached in either group at either assessment timepoint. At the first interim analysis, grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 78 (16%) of 483 patients in the pembrolizumab groups versus 21 (4%) of 486 in the placebo group. At the first interim analysis, four patients died from an adverse event, all in the placebo group (one each due to pneumonia, COVID-19-related pneumonia, suicide, and recurrent cancer), and at the second interim analysis, one additional patient, who was in the pembrolizumab group, died from an adverse event (COVID-19-related pneumonia). No deaths due to study treatment occurred. INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab as adjuvant therapy for up to approximately 1 year for stage IIB or IIC melanoma resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of disease recurrence or death versus placebo, with a manageable safety profile. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melanoma , Testicular Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Child , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Melanoma/drug therapy , Melanoma/surgery , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy
2.
The Lancet. Oncology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877254

ABSTRACT

Background The omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible and escapes vaccine-induced immunity. We aimed to describe outcomes due to COVID-19 during the omicron outbreak compared with the prevaccination period and alpha (B.1.1.7) and delta (B.1.617.2) waves in patients with cancer in Europe. Methods In this retrospective analysis of the multicentre OnCovid Registry study, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, who had a history of solid or haematological malignancy that was either active or in remission. Patient were recruited from 37 oncology centres from UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany. Participants were followed up from COVID-19 diagnosis until death or loss to follow-up, while being treated as per standard of care. For this analysis, we excluded data from centres that did not actively enter new data after March 1, 2021 (in France, Germany, and Belgium). We compared measures of COVID-19 morbidity, which were complications from COVID-19, hospitalisation due to COVID-19, and requirement of supplemental oxygen and COVID-19-specific therapies, and COVID-19 mortality across three time periods designated as the prevaccination (Feb 27 to Nov 30, 2020), alpha-delta (Dec 1, 2020, to Dec 14, 2021), and omicron (Dec 15, 2021, to Jan 31, 2022) phases. We assessed all-cause case-fatality rates at 14 days and 28 days after diagnosis of COVID-19 overall and in unvaccinated and fully vaccinated patients and in those who received a booster dose, after adjusting for country of origin, sex, age, comorbidities, tumour type, stage, and status, and receipt of systemic anti-cancer therapy. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04393974, and is ongoing. Findings As of Feb 4, 2022 (database lock), the registry included 3820 patients who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 between Feb 27, 2020, and Jan 31, 2022. 3473 patients were eligible for inclusion (1640 [47·4%] were women and 1822 [52·6%] were men, with a median age of 68 years [IQR 57–77]). 2033 (58·5%) of 3473 were diagnosed during the prevaccination phase, 1075 (31·0%) during the alpha-delta phase, and 365 (10·5%) during the omicron phase. Among patients diagnosed during the omicron phase, 113 (33·3%) of 339 were fully vaccinated and 165 (48·7%) were boosted, whereas among those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase, 152 (16·6%) of 915 were fully vaccinated and 21 (2·3%) were boosted. Compared with patients diagnosed during the prevaccination period, those who were diagnosed during the omicron phase had lower case-fatality rates at 14 days (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·19–0·61) and 28 days (0·34 [0·16–0·79]), complications due to COVID-19 (0·26 [0·17–0·46]), and hospitalisation due to COVID-19 (0·17 [0·09–0·32]), and had less requirements for COVID-19-specific therapy (0·22 [0·15–0·34]) and oxygen therapy (0·24 [0·14–0·43]) than did those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase. Unvaccinated patients diagnosed during the omicron phase had similar crude case-fatality rates at 14 days (ten [25%] of 40 patients vs 114 [17%] of 656) and at 28 days (11 [27%] of 40 vs 184 [28%] of 656) and similar rates of hospitalisation due to COVID-19 (18 [43%] of 42 vs 266 [41%] of 652) and complications from COVID-19 (13 [31%] of 42 vs 237 [36%] of 659) as those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase. Interpretation Despite time-dependent improvements in outcomes reported in the omicron phase compared with the earlier phases of the pandemic, patients with cancer remain highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 if they are not vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support universal vaccination of patients with cancer as a protective measure against morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Funding National Institute for Health and Care Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre and the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 171: 64-74, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccines immunogenicity in patients with cancer has been investigated, whether they can significantly improve the severity of COVID-19 in this specific population is undefined. METHODS: Capitalizing on OnCovid (NCT04393974) registry data we reported COVID-19 mortality and proxies of COVID-19 morbidity, including post-COVID-19 outcomes, according to the vaccination status of the included patients. RESULTS: 2090 eligible patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 02/2020 and 11/2021 were included, of whom 1930 (92.3%) unvaccinated, 91 (4.4%) fully vaccinated and 69 (3.3%) partially vaccinated. With the exception of a higher prevalence of patients from the UK (p = 0.0003) and receiving systemic anticancer therapy at COVID-19 diagnosis (p = 0.0082) among fully vaccinated patients, no demographics/oncological features were associated with vaccination status. The 14-days case fatality rate (CFR) (5.5% vs 20.7%, p = 0.0004) and the 28-days CFR (13.2% vs 27.4%, p = 0.0028) demonstrated a significant improvement for fully vaccinated patients in comparison with unvaccinated patients. The receipt of prior full vaccination was also associated with reduced symptomatic COVID-19 (79.1% vs 88.5%, p = 0.0070), need of COVID-19 oriented therapy (34.9% vs 63.2%, p < 0.0001), complications from COVID-19 (28.6% vs 39.4%, p = 0.0379), hospitalizations due to COVID-19 (42.2% vs 52.5%, p = 0.0007) and oxygen therapy requirement (35.7% vs 52%, p = 0.0036). Following Inverse Probability Treatment Weighting (IPTW) procedure no statistically significant difference according to the vaccination status was confirmed; however, all COVID-19 related outcomes were concordantly in favour of full vaccination. Among the 1228 (58.8%) patients who underwent a formal reassessment at participating centres after COVID-19 resolution, fully vaccinated patients experienced less sequelae than unvaccinated patients (6.7% vs 17.2%, p = 0.0320). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides initial evidence in support of the beneficial effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Morbidity , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Eur J Cancer ; 166: 202-207, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine for patients with cancer. A substantial risk of developing vaccine-related autoimmune toxicities could be hypothesised for patients with thymic epithelial tumours (TETs) due to their high risk of autoimmune disorders (ADs). Moreover, a cross-reaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies and various tissue proteins has been shown, and antibodies against nucleoproteins showed overlaps in the autoimmune cross-reaction with antibodies to spike protein. Due to the rarity of TETs, no data addressing this hypothesis are available. METHODS: Patients with TETs who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, treated in 4 referral centres of the Italian Collaborative Group for ThYmic MalignanciEs (TYME) network between February 2021 and September 2021, were interviewed through a standardised 15-items questionnaire in order to describe the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients affected by TETs. RESULTS: Data from 245 doses of vaccine administered to 126 patients (41 = thymic carcinoma, 85 = thymoma; 38 with AD, of which 26 with active AD) were collected. Nine patients had a previous COVID-19-positive swab. No cases of AD reactivation or worsening of a pre-existing AD were seen in the study population. A new diagnosis of myasthenia gravis likely unrelated to the vaccine was made in two patients after the vaccination. Sixty-four patients (51%) experienced a total of 103 adverse events, all G1/G2, most commonly fatigue, new or worsening muscle pain and chills. None AE required patients' hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines appear to be safe in patients with TET, even in case of active or pre-existing AD.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial , Thymus Neoplasms , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(1): 114-122, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530068

ABSTRACT

Importance: Whether the severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with cancer have improved in terms of disease management and capacity is yet to be defined. Objective: To test whether severity and mortality from COVID-19 among patients with cancer have improved during the course of the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: OnCovid is a European registry that collects data on consecutive patients with solid or hematologic cancer and COVID-19. This multicenter case series study included real-world data from 35 institutions across 6 countries (UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany). This update included patients diagnosed between February 27, 2020, and February, 14, 2021. Inclusion criteria were confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of solid or hematologic cancer. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Deaths were differentiated at 14 days and 3 months as the 2 landmark end points. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared by stratifying patients across 5 phases (February to March 2020, April to June 2020, July to September 2020, October to December 2020, and January to February 2021) and across 2 major outbreaks (February to June 2020 and July 2020 to February 2021). Results: At data cutoff, 2795 consecutive patients were included, with 2634 patients eligible for analysis (median [IQR] age, 68 [18-77] years ; 52.8% men). Eligible patients demonstrated significant time-dependent improvement in 14-day case-fatality rate (CFR) with estimates of 29.8% (95% CI, 0.26-0.33) for February to March 2020; 20.3% (95% CI, 0.17-0.23) for April to June 2020; 12.5% (95% CI, 0.06-22.90) for July to September 2020; 17.2% (95% CI, 0.15-0.21) for October to December 2020; and 14.5% (95% CI, 0.09-0.21) for January to February 2021 (all P < .001) across the predefined phases. Compared with the second major outbreak, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak were more likely to be 65 years or older (974 of 1626 [60.3%] vs 564 of 1008 [56.1%]; P = .03), have at least 2 comorbidities (793 of 1626 [48.8%] vs 427 of 1008 [42.4%]; P = .001), and have advanced tumors (708 of 1626 [46.4%] vs 536 of 1008 [56.1%]; P < .001). Complications of COVID-19 were more likely to be seen (738 of 1626 [45.4%] vs 342 of 1008 [33.9%]; P < .001) and require hospitalization (969 of 1626 [59.8%] vs 418 of 1008 [42.1%]; P < .001) and anti-COVID-19 therapy (1004 of 1626 [61.7%] vs 501 of 1008 [49.7%]; P < .001) during the first major outbreak. The 14-day CFRs for the first and second major outbreaks were 25.6% (95% CI, 0.23-0.28) vs 16.2% (95% CI, 0.13-0.19; P < .001), respectively. After adjusting for country, sex, age, comorbidities, tumor stage and status, anti-COVID-19 and anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 complications, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak had an increased risk of death at 14 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.47-2.32) and 3 months (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51) compared with those diagnosed in the second outbreak. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this registry-based study suggest that mortality in patients with cancer diagnosed with COVID-19 has improved in Europe; this improvement may be associated with earlier diagnosis, improved management, and dynamic changes in community transmission over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer who are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are more likely to develop severe illness and die compared with those without cancer. The impact of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) on the severity of COVID-19 illness is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICI confers an additional risk for severe COVID-19 in patients with cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from 110 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 while on treatment with ICI without chemotherapy in 19 hospitals in North America, Europe and Australia. The primary objective was to describe the clinical course and to identify factors associated with hospital and intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality. FINDINGS: Thirty-five (32%) patients were admitted to hospital and 18 (16%) died. All patients who died had advanced cancer, and only four were admitted to ICU. COVID-19 was the primary cause of death in 8 (7%) patients. Factors independently associated with an increased risk for hospital admission were ECOG ≥2 (OR 39.25, 95% CI 4.17 to 369.2, p=0.0013), treatment with combination ICI (OR 5.68, 95% CI 1.58 to 20.36, p=0.0273) and presence of COVID-19 symptoms (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.57 to 17.89, p=0.0073). Seventy-six (73%) patients interrupted ICI due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, 43 (57%) of whom had resumed at data cut-off. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19-related mortality in the ICI-treated population does not appear to be higher than previously published mortality rates for patients with cancer. Inpatient mortality of patients with cancer treated with ICI was high in comparison with previously reported rates for hospitalized patients with cancer and was due to COVID-19 in almost half of the cases. We identified factors associated with adverse outcomes in ICI-treated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920977002, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937033

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, global healthcare systems have been dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic. In oncology, the biggest questions concern interaction of COVID-19 with pre-existing cancer disease and with systemic anticancer treatments. With regards to immunotherapy, there is uncertainty about its effect in the context of COVID-19 in terms of probability and course of viral infection. Herein, we retrospectively report data of patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) treated with immunotherapy at five Italian referral cancer centers during the pandemic. cSCC is a disease poorly represented in the literature, typically affecting fragile, elderly patients, with multiple comorbidities and often immunosuppressed. Overall, 54 patients were identified, most of them coming from Lombardy and Piedmont, the two regions hit hardest by COVID in Italy. In most cases, our choice was to continue treatment, reserving temporary interruptions only to patients considered particularly at risk for age and comorbidity. A total of 9% of patients developed new-onset symptoms or had chest radiological assessment potentially related to COVID-19. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected in all suspicious cases and two hospitalized patients were found to be positive. In conclusion, the outbreak of COVID-19 is a major worldwide health concern. Our data indicate that COVID-19 mortality in patients with cancer may be principally driven by advancing age, the presence of other comorbidities, and other cancer-related conditions (i.e. hospitalization). Our data further suggests the safety of continued use of PD-1 blockade during the COVID-19 pandemic (obviously implementing all the safety measures in the hospital environment) also considering the possible negative effects of a prolonged suspension on the course of the tumor evolution. We think it is useful to collect and report case studies coming from reference centers, because they can represent helpful examples for the scientific community of clinical management of patients affected by cancer in this difficult period and guide further research.

8.
Cancer Invest ; 39(1): 9-14, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894477

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemia is a major health worldwide concern. Patients with cancer might have a worse outcome, because of the immunosuppression determined by the tumor itself and anti-cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The impact and course of viral infection in patients receiving immunotherapy remains unknown. We report the case of a patient with metastatic melanoma, long responder to anti PD-1 blockade who got infected with Sars CoV-2, recovering without sequelae. A critical review of literature was performed. Limited data available in literature support the possibility to continue the immunotherapy in patients with cancer under control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Melanoma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Semin Oncol ; 47(5): 302-304, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are presumed to have a higher risk to contract SARS-CoV-2 infection, because of their immunosuppressed status. The impact and course of COVID-19 infection in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of the management of patients with advanced melanoma treated with immunotherapy in 2 Cancer Centers located in areas of Italy with a high incidence of COVID-19 infections. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from January 1 to April 30, 2020 on patients with locally advanced and metastatic melanoma receiving immunotherapy at either Istituto Europeo di Oncologia or Città della Salute e della Scienza University Hospital. RESULTS: One-hundred and sixty-nine patients with stage III and IV melanoma were treated with an immunotherapy regimen at either Istituto Europeo di Oncologia or Città della Salute e della Scienza University Hospital. One-hundred and four patients continued treatment without interruption or delay, while 49 patients had a treatment delay. The main reasons for treatment delay were older age (median age of the group of patients with or without treatment-delay, respectively 60 and 69 years, P value <0.001) and/or presence of comorbidities (percentage of patients with at least one comorbidity respectively 81% and 62%, in patients with or without treatment delay, P value = 0.001). One-hundred and twelve patients had at least 1 thoracic CT scan performed and radiological findings suspicious for COVID-19 were observed in only 7 cases (4%). Fifteen patients (9%) developed symptoms potentially related to COVID-19; nasopharyngeal swabs were collected in 9 patients and only 1 was positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 infection observed in our cohort of patients with advanced malignant melanoma treated with immunotherapy appears meaningfully lower as compared with that reported in the overall population in Italy as well as in patients affected by solid tumors. We conclude that in patients with locally advanced and metastatic melanoma, immunotherapy can be safely continued without delay in the majority of cases, reserving precautionary delay only for the most frail patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunotherapy/methods , Melanoma/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Melanoma/epidemiology , Melanoma/immunology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
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