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J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820302


BACKGROUND: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) alter the immune system and therefore increase the risk of infection. There is growing concern about the impact of COVID-19 on patients with MS (pwMS), especially those treated with DMTs. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective observational study based on data from the Esclerosis Múltiple y COVID-19 (EMCOVID-19) study. Demographic characteristics, MS history, laboratory data and SARS-CoV-2 serology, and symptoms of COVID-19 in pwMS treated with any DTM were extracted. The relationship among demographics, MS status, DMT, and COVID-19 was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 259 pwMS were included. The administration of interferon was significantly associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (26.4% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.006). Although patients taking interferon were significantly older (49.1 vs. 43.5, p = 0.003), the association of interferon with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was still significant in the multivariate analysis (OR 2.99 (1.38; 6.36), p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: According to our data, pwMS present a higher risk of COVID-19 infection compared with results obtained from the general population. There is no evidence of a worse COVID-19 outcome in pwMS. DMTs did not significantly change the frequency of COVID-19, except for interferon; however, these findings must be interpreted with caution given the small sample of pwMS taking each DMT.

Cephalalgia ; 40(13): 1410-1421, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088416


OBJECTIVE: To define headache characteristics and evolution in relation to COVID-19 and its inflammatory response. METHODS: This is a prospective study, comparing clinical data and inflammatory biomarkers of COVID-19 patients with and without headache, recruited at the Emergency Room. We compared baseline with 6-week follow-up to evaluate disease evolution. RESULTS: Of 130 patients, 74.6% (97/130) had headache. In all, 24.7% (24/97) of patients had severe pain with migraine-like features. Patients with headache had more anosmia/ageusia (54.6% vs. 18.2%; p < 0.0001). Clinical duration of COVID-19 was shorter in the headache group (23.9 ± 11.6 vs. 31.2 ± 12.0 days; p = 0.028). In the headache group, IL-6 levels were lower at the ER (22.9 (57.5) vs. 57.0 (78.6) pg/mL; p = 0.036) and more stable during hospitalisation. After 6 weeks, of 74 followed-up patients with headache, 37.8% (28/74) had ongoing headache. Of these, 50% (14/28) had no previous headache history. Headache was the prodromal symptom of COVID-19 in 21.4% (6/28) of patients with persistent headache (p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Headache associated with COVID-19 is a frequent symptom, predictive of a shorter COVID-19 clinical course. Disabling headache can persist after COVID-19 resolution. Pathophysiologically, its migraine-like features may reflect an activation of the trigeminovascular system by inflammation or direct involvement of SARS-CoV-2, a hypothesis supported by concomitant anosmia.

Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prodromal Symptoms , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2