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1.
Journal of Bio-X Research ; 6(1):23-36, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237621

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although the neurological and olfactory symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 have been identified, the neurotropic properties of the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remain unknown. We sought to identify the susceptible cell types and potential routes of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the central nervous system, olfactory system, and respiratory system. Method(s): We collected single-cell RNA data from normal brain and nasal epithelium specimens, along with bronchial, tracheal, and lung specimens in public datasets. The susceptible cell types that express SARS-CoV-2 entry genes were identified using single-cell RNA sequencing and the expression of the key genes at protein levels was verified by immunohistochemistry. We compared the coexpression patterns of the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the spike protein priming enzyme transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS)/cathepsin L among the specimens. Result(s): The SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and the spike protein priming enzyme TMPRSS/cathepsin L were coexpressed by pericytes in brain tissue;this coexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In the nasal epithelium, ciliated cells and sustentacular cells exhibited strong coexpression of ACE2 and TMPRSS. Neurons and glia in the brain and nasal epithelium did not exhibit coexpression of ACE2 and TMPRSS. However, coexpression was present in ciliated cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts in tracheal tissue;ciliated cells and goblet cells in bronchial tissue;and alveolar epithelium type 1 cells, AT2 cells, and ciliated cells in lung tissue. Conclusion(s): Neurological symptoms in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 could be associated with SARS-CoV-2 invasion across the blood-brain barrier via pericytes. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2-induced olfactory disorders could be the result of localized cell damage in the nasal epithelium.Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
European Respiratory Journal Conference: European Respiratory Society International Congress, ERS ; 60(Supplement 66), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2277334

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona virus pandemic pneumonia has caused unmatchable damage to humanity. Early detection and prompt treatment is the only answer for effective control. RT-PCR is the gold standard diagnostic test but displays high false-negative rate. A large number of undetected patients remain a constant source of inadvertent disease dissemination in community, potentiating the ongoing pandemic. Objective(s): To determine the usefulness of transthoracic ultrasonography for early detection of covid-19 pulmonary infection during a pandemic. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulmonology-OPD of Gulab Devi Teaching Hospital, Lahore-Pakistan, from April 21, 2020 to September 30, 2020. Total 262 patients with dry cough, fever and shortness of breath of sudden onset were included. Patients were investigated with chest x-ray/HRCT, transthoracic ultrasonography, covid-19-PCR and hematological tests. Sensitivity, Specificity, positive predictive value(PPV), negative predictive value(NPV) and diagnostic accuracy was calculated with clinical diagnosis as reference. Data was analyzed by SPSS-24-software. Result(s): Of 262-patients, 248 were detected as covid-19 pneumonia by ultrasound. Bilateral, multifocal, posteriolateral involvement and B-lines were common features. Ultrasound displayed sensitivity 99.60%, specificity, 69.23%, PPV 98.41%, NPV 90.0% and diagnostic accuracy 98.09%. PCR diagnosed 155/228(59.16%) cases. The P-value was 0.00001-significant at P<.05. Conclusion(s): Transthoracic ultrasonography is a tremendous tool furnishing instant detection of covid-19 pneumonia with high sensitivity and provides foundations for evidence based management during pandemic.

3.
2nd International Conference on Civil and Environmental Engineering, ICCEE 2022 ; 347, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2227247

ABSTRACT

The Malaysian Government implemented a countrywide lockdown due to COVID-19, which also affected the educational institutes. Under these circumstances, the e-learning educational strategy was initiated for the resuming of educational activities. A need for the study was devised and performed to assess the students' perspective on this transition from face-to-face learning to e-learning for the effective implementation of the system. Students' feedback data was evaluated for the January 2020 semester, which was collected before the pandemic and the September 2020 semester, which was collected during the pandemic by the end of the semester. Both data were analysed by adopting parametric Student's t-test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Overall, it is concluded that students were comfortable with the e-learning educational system. However, the effectiveness of the e-learning system is dependent on the course type and requirements. This study will help the instructors to evaluate and improve their teaching strategy for the e-learning educational system by the preview of students for the deficiencies, in comparison to face-to-face learning, as the current lockdown situation is uncertain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

4.
Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 17(3):693-698, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2155522

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus pandemic has dealt a severe blow to India’s poor and socioeconomically disadvantaged group. Among a nationwide lockdown to contain the spread of the infection. This study assessed the availability of food and access to healthcare among the vulnerable population of Gujarat– pregnant women and severe acute malnourished children. Specifically, we assessed events of starvation or skipped meal, availability of healthcare services, and self-reported psychological distress during the lock down. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study across 252 talukas and 33 districts of Gujarat was undertaken using a structured questionnaire. A telephonic survey was carried out and positive responses were received from 161 households (HHs) with severe acute malnourished children, 328 pregnant women with severe maternal anemia, and 402 lactating women. Results: We found 79.7% of surveyed HHs received ration where major reliance was on public distribution system (51.7%). Less than half of the beneficiaries (48.6%) received take-home ration under the ICDS program. Despite efforts of the State as well as voluntary agencies, 7.3% of HHs experienced episode of hunger, mostly from Devbhumi Dwarka, and Navsari district. A third of the respondents showed signs of psychological distress associated with lockdown. Conclusion: Food insecurity may lead to malnutrition impairing the immunity of the individuals to cope with the disease. Thus, given the uncertainty around the emergency situation, preparedness measures should not only focus on the availability of healthcare commodities but also to ensure the availability of other essentials, especially to the socioeconomic disadvantaged group. © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

5.
Pacific Affairs ; 95(4):731-756, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2144783

ABSTRACT

This paper takes a “state-in society” approach to understanding the evolution of Pakistan’s COVID-19 response, which was laid claim to and contested by multiple agencies within and adjacent to the state, and by multiple levels of government. The capacity of the health system of Pakistan was already overstretched by the needs of its population but in recent years it has been hamstrung by ongoing protests by the medical community concerning the privatization of public-sector hospitals, to which were added protests over the lack of personal protective equipment in the public sector. These protests resulted in frequent closures of outpatient departments at major hospitals. When the government announced a relief package to mitigate the effects of COVID-19, traders and big businesses lobbied the government to obtain the lion’s share in the form of concessions such as loan deferments and tax refunds. The government touted the unconditional cash grants program but the cash for the poor could not be disbursed effectively due to the absence of local governments at the grassroots level. As an appropriate response to the pandemic, especially in relation to the lockdown policies, was contested and negotiated among multiple actors in the Pakistani state and society, the Pakistani military emerged as a dominant force in this “field of power.”1 In this paper, I present an account of Pakistan’s response to COVID-19 as it evolved in 2020 and discuss the implications for democratic culture in Pakistan. © Pacific Affairs.

6.
Coronavirus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak ; : 1-211, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075823

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak provides a comprehensive review of coronaviruses, particularly COVID-19, its transmission, and disease pathology. The book covers the viral structure and genetics of coronaviruses, the pathogenesis and unique characteristics of coronavirus infection, and the evolving nature of our understanding of coronaviruses and disease. It also looks at the history of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections and its global spread. The book examines the effectiveness of various preventive measures and new therapeutic agents that are either currently available or expected to available. Finally, it details the psychological and societal impact the virus and disease has in outbreak regions and what the financial impact an outbreak has on the healthcare system and local economies. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

7.
Ids Bulletin-Institute of Development Studies ; 53(3):111-128, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1998103

ABSTRACT

What does research on informal sector workers and the state entail in the time of Covid-19? The pandemic has limited possibilities for in-person interactions and required adaptations in research approaches. These challenges are exacerbated when the subjects of the research are informal sector workers with limited access to technology and undefined spaces of work. In this article, we argue that the Covid-19 pandemic has magnified distances: between researchers located globally;between researchers and respondents;and between the state and people within informal employment. However, these distances also create new ways of working and opportunities for doing research. We discuss the challenges faced in the field, document the adaptations introduced to ensure robust research in difficult settings, and set out the limitations that remain. We also examine the ethical dimension of confronting dangerous misinformation related to the pandemic while conducting interviews, and the questions it raises about the distance between research and prescriptive advocacy in academia.

8.
Economic Alternatives ; 28(2):280-297, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965155

ABSTRACT

This empirical investigation identifies the effect of organizational culture on the job satisfaction of bank employees in KPK Pakistan. Data were collected from the banking sector on employees’ job satisfaction. The sample consisted of over 165 employees from 30 national and international banks in Pakistan. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The results of the study highlight that job satisfaction is closely connected with the variables of organizational satisfaction such as reward, organizational support, work environment, leadership, and communication. Culture and the variable of culture pay play a significant in job satisfaction. Many other organizational factors variables have a deep and positive relationship with job satisfaction. © 2022, University of National and World Economy. All rights reserved.

9.
Contemporary South Asia ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960710

ABSTRACT

This special section is dedicated to the BASAS conference 2021. The conference coincided with the devastating second wave of Covid-19 in India, which started in March and peaked in May 2021. Case numbers and mortality in South Asian countries were very high and their health systems too struggled to keep up with these unprecedented times. As governments across South Asia appeared to fail their populations, a sense of crisis was shared by conference participants, many of whom were personally affected by this wave. This conference was unique in that it took place after a two-year gap due to the Covid-19 pandemic and in that it was the first fully online BASAS conference. The papers in the special section draw attention to significant areas of research in South Asia. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

10.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):2080-2080, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849379
11.
Manchester Journal of International Economic Law ; 18(3):296-297, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1728412

ABSTRACT

This year began with many expectations engendered by the results of the US elections and the inauguration of Joe Biden’s presidency. Shortly later in March the new WTO Director-General (DG) Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala was appointed. Both appointments were remarkable individual achievements. But there was at the outset an understood limitation of what both could achieve immediately upon their appointment. In terms of international economic relations, it is perhaps still relatively early, though by no means too early, to engage in a retrospect of the achievements by both key players – even if this Covid era has slowed the speed of progress in disparate fields of international relations. © 2021, Manchester Journal of International Economic Law. All rights reserved.

12.
Stroke ; 53(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1724021

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Acute ischemic stroke patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus maybe candidates for acute revascularization treatments (intravenous thrombolysis and/or mechanical thrombectomy). Materials and Methods: We analyzed the data from 62 healthcare facilities to determine the odds of receiving acute revascularization treatments in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infected patients and odds of composite of death and non-routine discharge with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infected and non-infected patients undergoing acute revascularization treatments after adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Acute ischemic stroke patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection were significantly less likely to receive acute revascularization treatments (odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.8, p=0.0001). Among ischemic stroke patients who received acute revascularization treatments, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was associated with increased odds of death or non-routine discharge (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.8-5.1). The higher odds death or non-routine discharge (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.9-2.3) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection were observed in all ischemic stroke patients without any modifying effect of acute revascularization treatments (interaction term for death (p=0.9) or death or non-routine discharge (p=0.2). Conclusions: Patients with acute ischemic stroke patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection were significantly less likely to receive acute revascularization treatments. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was associated with a significantly higher rate of death or non-routine discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients receiving revascularization treatments.

13.
Stroke ; 53(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1723998

ABSTRACT

Background: Undiagnosed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may be seen in acute stroke patients. Rapid screening is important to reduce exposure to medical professionals and other patients during acute assessment and treatment. Chest computed tomographic (CT) scan may be another time-sensitive option for identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection in acute stroke patients. Objective: We report our experience of incorporating chest CT scan in the initial neuroimaging protocol for evaluation of acute stroke patients. Methods: All acute stroke patients underwent chest CT scan concurrent to CT head, CT angiogram of head and neck and CT perfusion for 10 months. We identified patients who had chest CT scan findings that were suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection including bilateral, multilobar ground glass opacification with a peripheral or posterior distribution, and/or consolidation. All patients subsequently underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using nasopharyngeal specimen for identification of SARS-CoV-2 with contact isolation. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Results: A total of 530 consecutive acute stroke patients (mean age in years 65.6± SD;15.4;280 were men) underwent neuroimaging with concurrent chest CT scan. The chest CT scan identified findings suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 34 (6.4%) patients. Subsequent PCR testing confirmed the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 21 of 34 patients. Among 491 patients in whom chest CT scan did not identify any findings suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 387 underwent PCR tests;PCR testing confirmed the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 13 of 34 patients. Sensitivity and specificity of chest CT scan for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection was 61.9% and 96.2%, respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratio of chest CT scan for detecting SARSCoV-2 infection is 16.26 and 0.39, respectively. Conclusions: Although specificity was high, the relatively low sensitivity of chest CT scan in identifying SARS-CoV-2 infection limits the value of adding this imaging to standard neuroimaging in acute stroke patients. At our institution, we have subsequently discontinued the protocol.

14.
European Respiratory Journal ; 58:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1702112
15.
Annals of King Edward Medical University Lahore Pakistan ; 27(04):516-523, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1663247

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine the safety profile of Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine and identify breakthrough infections. Method: The study design was analytical cross sectional. An online questionnaire was filled by 1033 respondents between 16th and 22nd April 2021. Adults who had received both doses of Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine more th nd than a week ago or only a single dose with serious side effect were included in the study. The frequency and severity of vaccination related side effects were assessed and breakthrough infection identified. Results: The mean age of participants was 36.7 +/- 12.91(18 - 92) years. Ninety one percent of participants (n=946) were health care professionals. One fifth (n=225/1033, 21.8%) had suffered from COVID-19 infection prior to vaccination, confirmed using the nasal RT-PCR test. None of the participants reported serious (grade III) or life threatening (grade IV) adverse reactions after either of the two doses. The most common side effects after the first dose were pain at injection site (20.3%), fatigue (20.3%), headache (13.9%), myalgia (12.5%) and fever (9.3%) whereas after the second dose were fatigue (16.8%), pain at injection site (15.8%), myalgia (14%) and fever (6.7%). The side effects were more common in participants who had previous history of COVID-19 infection. Of 225 previously infected participants, 97(43.1%) (p value=0.020) and 90 (40%) (p value=0.001) participants had side effects after 1st and 2nd dose respectively. 16 participants (1.55%) developed PCR positive COVID-19 infection two weeks after the second dose while 3(0.29%) participants had a re-infection. There was one case of probable severe COVID-19 infection, 2 weeks after the second dose and recovered completely with treatment. Conclusion: Our study shows that Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine is generally safe with no serious side effects. The side effects were however, more common in inviduals who already had COVID-19 infection. The COVID-19 breakthrough infection and reinfection could occur after the vaccination.

19.
Muscle & Nerve ; 64:S9-S9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1507282
20.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(45B):30-39, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1497877

ABSTRACT

Aims: To assess medical students' perception of online teaching to suggest transforming the future curriculum in low-economic countries. Study Design: Cross-sectional online interview study. Place and Duration of Study: A team of collaborators interviewed final year medical and dental students of Pakistan from 07/08/2020 till 17/09/2020. Methodology: A questionnaire was developed based on open and close-ended questions in Google forms;focusing on institutional preparedness, views on online education, the institute's closure and COVID-19, and long-term effects of closure of the institute. Independent fellow researchers systematically analyzed the unaltered transcripts of the responses, and themes were then identified and coded to conclude the results. SPSS version 23 used for analysis. As this study was based on final year students. Results: In response to an invitation email, 2442/2661 (91.77%) students voluntarily participate in this qualitative study. Most participants were females (1614, 66.10%). Closing down institutes was directly linked to a lack of motivation and feel of helplessness. As most showed dissatisfaction with online teaching compounded by psychological effects, students feared losing clinical skills and life during the pandemic. Conclusion: The psychological impact of the crisis led to resistance to accepting the change for a better outcome. Incorporating telemedicine, different interactive learning style to online teaching, and resilience training would result in fruitful outcomes. Developed countries may also guide build infrastructure in developing countries to develop a more robust online teaching methodology in the long-run.

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