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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(4): ofac115, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769338

ABSTRACT

Background: Case series without control groups suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in cognitive deficits and dementia in the postinfectious period. Methods: Adult pneumonia patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (index hospitalization) and age-, gender-, and race/ethnicity-matched contemporary control pneumonia patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from 110 healthcare facilities in United States. The risk of new diagnosis of dementia following >30 days after the index hospitalization event without any previous history of dementia was identified using logistic regression analysis to adjust for potential confounders. Results: Among 10 403 patients with pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 312 patients (3% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.7%-3.4%]) developed new-onset dementia over a median period of 182 days (quartile 1 = 113 days, quartile 3 = 277 days). After adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, nicotine dependence/tobacco use, alcohol use/abuse, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, and congestive heart failure, the risk of new-onset dementia was significantly higher with pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with pneumonia unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio [OR], 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.5]). The association remained significant after further adjustment for occurrence of stroke, septic shock, and intubation/mechanical ventilation during index hospitalization (OR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.5]). Conclusions: Approximately 3% of patients with pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed new-onset dementia, which was significantly higher than the rate seen with other pneumonias.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 294-300, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of reinfection after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become one of the healthcare priorities in the current pandemic. We determined the rate of reinfection, associated factors, and mortality during follow-up in a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We analyzed 9119 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who received serial tests in total of 62 healthcare facilities in the United States between 1 December 2019 and 13 November 2020. Reinfection was defined by 2 positive tests separated by interval of >90 days and resolution of first infection was confirmed by 2 or more consecutive negative tests. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with reinfection. RESULTS: Reinfection was identified in 0.7% (n = 63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .5%-.9%) during follow-up of 9119 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The mean period (±standard deviation [SD]) between 2 positive tests was 116 ± 21 days. A logistic regression analysis identified that asthma (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.2) and nicotine dependence/tobacco use (OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.6-4.5) were associated with reinfection. There was a significantly lower rate of pneumonia, heart failure, and acute kidney injury observed with reinfection compared with primary infection among the 63 patients with reinfection There were 2 deaths (3.2%) associated with reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a low rate of reinfection confirmed by laboratory tests in a large cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although reinfection appeared to be milder than primary infection, there was associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Reinfection , United States/epidemiology
5.
Ethn Dis ; 31(3): 389-398, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502975

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify differences in short-term outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) according to various racial/ethnic groups. Design: Analysis of Cerner de-identified COVID-19 dataset. Setting: A total of 62 health care facilities. Participants: The cohort included 49,277 adult COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized from December 1, 2019 to November 13, 2020. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was non-routine discharge (discharge to destinations other than home, such as short-term hospitals or other facilities including intermediate care and skilled nursing homes). Methods: We compared patients' age, gender, individual components of Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidities, medical complications, use of do-not-resuscitate, use of palliative care, and socioeconomic status between various racial and/or ethnic groups. We further compared the rates of in-hospital mortality and non-routine discharges between various racial and/or ethnic groups. Results: Compared with White patients, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher among African American (OR 1.5; 95%CI:1.3-1.6, P<.001), Hispanic (OR1.4; 95%CI:1.3-1.6, P<.001), and Asian or Pacific Islander (OR 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-1.9, P=.002) patients after adjustment for age and gender, Elixhauser comorbidities, do-not-resuscitate status, palliative care use, and socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Our study found that, among hospitalized patients with COVID-2019, African American, Hispanic, and Asian or Pacific Islander patients had increased mortality compared with White patients after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, and do-not-resuscitate/palliative care status. Our findings add additional perspective to other recent studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , African Americans , Hospital Mortality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
6.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 225-230, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine the exposure risk for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) during neurology practice. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are increasingly being recognized mandating high level of participation by neurologists. METHODS: An American Academy of Neurology survey inquiring about various aspects of COVID-19 exposure was sent to a random sample of 800 active American Academy of Neurology members who work in the United States. Use of second tier protection (1 or more including sterile gloves, surgical gown, protective goggles/face shield but not N95 mask) or maximum protection (N95 mask in addition to second tier protection) during clinical encounter with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 patients was inquired. RESULTS: Of the 81 respondents, 38% indicated exposure to COVID-19 at work, 1% at home, and none outside of work/home. Of the 28 respondents who did experience at least 1 symptom of COVID-19, tiredness (32%) or diarrhea (8%) were reported. One respondent tested positive out of 12 (17%) of respondents who were tested for COVID-19 within the last 2 weeks. One respondent received health care at an emergency department/urgent care or was hospitalized related to COVID-19. When seeing patients, maximum protection personal protective equipment was used either always or most of the times by 16% of respondents in outpatient setting and 56% of respondents in inpatient settings, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The data could enhance our knowledge of the factors that contribute to COVID-19 exposure during neurology practice in United States, and inform education and advocacy efforts to neurology providers, trainees, and patients in this unprecedented pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurology , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
9.
Coronavirus Disease ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1473188
10.
Neurocrit Care ; 36(1): 259-265, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify whether the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage is higher in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we compared the risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients intracerebral hemorrhage and COVID-19 and those without COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the Cerner deidentified COVID-19 data set derived from 62 health care facilities. The data set included patients with an emergency department or inpatient encounter with discharge diagnoses codes that could be associated with suspicion of or exposure to COVID-19 or confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: There were a total of 154 (0.2%) and 667 (0.3%) patients with intracerebral hemorrhage among 85,645 patients with COVID-19 and 197,073 patients without COVID-19, respectively. In the multivariate model, there was a lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 0.5; 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.6; p < .0001) after adjustment for sex, age strata, race/ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nicotine dependence/tobacco use, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, long-term anticoagulant use, and alcohol abuse. The proportions of patients who developed pneumonia (58.4% versus 22.5%; p < .0001), acute kidney injury (48.7% versus 31.0%; p < .0001), acute myocardial infarction (11% versus 6.4%; p = .048), sepsis (41.6% versus 22.5%; p < .0001), and respiratory failure (61.7% versus 42.3%; p < .0001) were significantly higher among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and COVID-19 compared with those without COVID-19. The in-hospital mortality among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and COVID-19 was significantly higher compared with that among those without COVID-19 (40.3% versus 19.0%; p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis does not suggest that rates of intracerebral hemorrhage are higher in patients with COVID-19. The higher mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and COVID-19 compared with those without COVID-19 is likely mediated by higher frequency of comorbidities and adverse in-hospital events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e615-e620, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intracranial hemorrhage (including subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]) has been reported in 0.3%-1.2% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no study has evaluated the risk of SAH in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data from 62 health care facilities using the Cerner de-identified COVID-19 dataset. RESULTS: There were 86 (0.1%) and 376 (0.2%) patients with SAH among 85,645 patients with COVID-19 and 197,073 patients without COVID-19, respectively. In the multivariate model, there was a lower risk of SAH in patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.7, P < 0.0001) after adjusting for sex, age strata, race/ethnicity, hypertension, and nicotine dependence/tobacco use. The proportions of patients who developed pneumonia (58.1% vs. 21.3%, P < 0.0001), acute kidney injury (43% vs. 27.7%, P = 0.0005), septic shock (44.2% vs. 20.7%, P < 0.0001), and respiratory failure (64.0% vs. 39.1%, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher among patients with SAH and COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19. The in-hospital mortality among patients with SAH and COVID-19 was significantly higher compared with patients without COVID-19 (31.4% vs. 12.2%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH was not increased in patients with COVID-19. The higher mortality in patients with SAH and COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19 is likely mediated by higher frequency of systemic comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Databases, Factual/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends
14.
Stroke ; 52(3): 905-912, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke may occur in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but risk factors, in-hospital events, and outcomes are not well studied in large cohorts. We identified risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 with or without acute ischemic stroke and compared with patients without COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed the data from 54 health care facilities using the Cerner deidentified COVID-19 dataset. The dataset included patients with an emergency department or inpatient encounter with discharge diagnoses codes that could be associated to suspicion of or exposure to COVID-19 or confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 103 (1.3%) patients developed acute ischemic stroke among 8163 patients with COVID-19. Among all patients with COVID-19, the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure was significantly higher among those with acute ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke was associated with discharge to destination other than home or death (relative risk, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4]; P<0.0001) after adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 199 (1.0%) patients developed acute ischemic stroke among 19 513 patients without COVID-19. Among all ischemic stroke patients, COVID-19 was associated with discharge to destination other than home or death (relative risk, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.3]; P=0.03) after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Acute ischemic stroke was infrequent in patients with COVID-19 and usually occurs in the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. The risk of discharge to destination other than home or death increased 2-fold with occurrence of acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adult , African Americans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Edema/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals, Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105344, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital admissions and outcomes in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Single-center retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the hospital with acute ischemic stroke, between December 1st, 2019 and June 30th, 2020. Outcomes were classified as none-to-minimal disability, moderate-to-severe disability, and death based on discharge disposition, and compared between two time periods: pre-COVID-19 era (December 1st, 2019 to March 11th, 2020) and COVID-19 era (March 12th to June 30th, 2020). We also performed a comparative trend analysis for the equivalent period between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy-five patients with a mean age (years±SD) of 68±16 were admitted from December 1st, 2019 to June 30th, 2020, with a clinical diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Of these, 255 (44.3%) patients were admitted during the COVID-19 era. We observed a 22.1% and 39.5% decline in admission for acute ischemic stroke in April and May 2020, respectively. A significantly higher percentage of patients with acute ischemic stroke received intravenous thrombolysis during the COVID-19 era (p = 0.020). In patients with confirmed COVID-19, we found a higher percentage of older men with preexisting comorbidities such as hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus but a lower rate of atrial fibrillation. In addition, we found a treatment delay in both intravenous thrombolysis (median 94.5 min versus 38 min) and mechanical thrombectomy (median 244 min versus 86 min) in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. There were no differences in patients' disposition including home, short-term, and long-term facility (p = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a reduction of hospital admissions in acute ischemic strokes and some delay in reperfusion therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospective studies and a larger dataset analysis are warranted.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/trends , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Community Health Services/trends , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virginia
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 146: 105747, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of mandated societal lockdown to reduce the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on road traffic accidents is not known. For this reason, we performed an in-depth analysis using data from Statewide Traffic Accident Records System. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data on total 2292 road traffic accident records in Missouri from January 1, 2020 through May 15, 2020. We treated March 23 as the first day of mandated societal lockdown and May 3 as the first day of re-opening. RESULTS: We have found that there was a significant reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries (mean 14.5 versus 10.8, p < 0.0001) but not in accidents resulting in serious or fatal injuries (mean 3.4 versus 3.7, p = 0.42) after mandated societal lockdown. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries after the mandated social lockdown (parameter estimate -5.9, p = 0.0028) in the time series analysis. There was an increase in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries after expiration of mandatory societal lockdown (mean 10.8 versus 13.7, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The mandated societal lockdown policies led to reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in non-serious or no injuries but not those resulting in serious or fatal injuries.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Humans , Missouri
17.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 595-605, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646401

ABSTRACT

Stroke has been considered as one of the underlying diseases that increases the probability of severe infection and mortality. Meanwhile, there are ongoing reports of stroke subsequent to COVID-19 infection. In this narrative paper, we reviewed major neurologic adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and pharmacokinetics of drugs which are routinely used for COVID-19 infection and their potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) with common drugs used for the treatment of stroke. It is highly recommended to monitor patients on chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), antiviral drugs, and/or corticosteroids about initiation or progression of cardiac arrhythmias, delirium, seizure, myopathy, and/or neuropathy. In addition, PDDIs of anti-COVID-19 drugs with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), anticoagulants, antiaggregants, statins, antihypertensive agents, and iodine-contrast agents should be considered. The most dangerous PDDIs were interaction of lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir with clopidogrel, prasugrel, and new oral anticoagulants (NOACs).

19.
J Neuroimaging ; 30(5): 617-624, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute stroke patients may have undiagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, transmissible to medical professionals involved in their care. Our aim was to determine the value of incorporating a chest computed tomography (CT) scan during acute stroke imaging, and the factors that influence this decision. METHODS: We constructed a probabilistic decision tree of the value of acquiring a chest CT scan or not, expressed in quality-adjusted life months (QALM) of patients and medical professionals. The model was based on the chance of detecting infection by chest CT scan, the case fatality rates of COVID-19 infection, the risk of COVID-19 infection after exposure, the expected proportion of medical professionals exposed, and the exposure reduction derived from early disease detection. RESULTS: The decision to incorporate the chest CT scan was superior to not doing so (12.00 QALM vs 11.99 QALM, respectively), when the probability of patients having undetected COVID-19 infection is 3.5%, potentially exposing 100% of medical professionals, and if early detection reduces exposure by 50%. The risk of developing symptomatic COVID-19 infection following exposure casts uncertainty on the results, but this is offset by the potential for reducing exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a measurable benefit of incorporating a chest CT into the urgent imaging protocol of acute stroke patients in reducing exposure of medical professionals without appropriate precautions. The clinical impact of this benefit, however, may not be materially significant.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(7): 1548.e5-1548.e7, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To present guidance for clinicians caring for adult patients with acuteischemic stroke with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The summary was prepared after review of systematic literature reviews,reference to previously published stroke guidelines, personal files, and expert opinionby members from 18 countries. RESULTS: The document includes practice implications for evaluation of stroke patientswith caution for stroke team members to avoid COVID-19 exposure, during clinicalevaluation and conduction of imaging and laboratory procedures with specialconsiderations of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy in strokepatients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Conclusions-The summary is expected to guide clinicians caring for adult patientswith acute ischemic stroke who are suspected of, or confirmed, with COVID-19infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Disease Management , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
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