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1.
Chest ; 162(4):A2259-A2260, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060924

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced and Associated Critical Care Cases Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Methemoglobinemia is an increase in methemoglobin (mHb) level characterized by functional anemia and tissue hypoxia. It can be caused by congenital enzymes deficiencies, but it is usually acquired. Dapsone, an oxidizing agent, is a medication commonly associated with acquired methemoglobinemia (1). We describe the diagnosis and management of a COVID-19 patient with acquired methemoglobinemia due to Dapsone. CASE PRESENTATION: 84-year-old female with history of MPO-ANCA vasculitis with renal involvement, CKD4 and anemia of chronic disease presented with shortness of breath, lethargy and weakness. Initially, the patient was saturating (SpO2) 80% on room air and was placed on 4L nasal cannula (NC) with improvement to 92%. CT of the chest showed b/l GGOs consistent with atypical pneumonia and patient tested positive for COVID-19. About 4 months prior, she had received 2 doses of Rituximab and on high steroid therapy that was tapered to 5mg of prednisone daily. She has been on Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole for PJP prophylaxis, but due to hyperkalemia the medication was stopped. After confirming no G6PD deficiency, she was started on Dapsone 100mg daily. During hospitalization, she was given dexamethasone 6 mg daily and Dapsone was continued. On hospital stay day 6, a rapid response was called after oxygen dropped to 78% while walking on 6L NC. She was placed on high flow NC 100% and SpO2 went up to 90%. An arterial blood gas (ABG) was then obtained showing pO2 of 334, oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) of 83 and mHb of 17.4. The SpO2-PaO2 gap and elevated mHb lead to the diagnosis of Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia. Dapsone was discontinued. Patient received a one-time dose of 1mg/kg IV of methylene blue. One hour later her dyspnea had improved and was on 3L NC. Repeat ABG showed improvement of oxyHb (98) and decreased mHb (2.2). DISCUSSION: Physiologically, mHb is less than 1% of total Hb (1) and occurs when the iron in the porphyrin group of heme is oxidized from ferrous to the ferric form (2). Ferric heme binds oxygen irreversibly causing a left shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Clinical presentation tends to correlate with mHb levels, and it varies from being asymptomatic to fatigue, dyspnea, confusion, seizure, cyanosis resistant to oxygen therapy (mHb > 15%) and death. Methylene blue is safe and can be consider when mHb level is greater than 10 to 20% (2). Methylene blue was administer to our patient given the presence of COVID (leaving patient more susceptible to medication-induced methemoglobinemia (3)) and chronic anemia which made her less likely to tolerate state of reduced oxygen delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is a rare cause of hypoxemia that is often overlooked. In patients with risk factors (COVID, medication exposure) a high index of suspicion is needed when interpreting an ABG (SpO2-PaO2 gap) for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Reference #1: Toker, Ibrahim, et al. "Methemoglobinemia Caused by Dapsone Overdose: Which Treatment Is Best?” Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 15, no. 4, Dec. 2015, pp. 182–184, 10.1016/j.tjem.2014.09.002. Accessed 31 Aug. 2020. Reference #2: Cortazzo JA, Lichtman AD. Methemoglobinemia: a review and recommendations for management. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2014 Aug;28(4):1043-7. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2013.02.005. Epub 2013 Aug 13. PMID: 23953868. Reference #3: Naymagon, Leonard, et al. "The Emergence of Methemoglobinemia amidst the COVID -19 Pandemic.” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 95, no. 8, 3 June 2020, 10.1002/ajh.25868. Accessed 3 Mar. 2021. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mileydis Alonso No relevant relationships by Samantha Gillenwater No relevant relationships by Christine Girard No relevant relationships by Sikandar Khan No relevant relationships by Jose Rivera No relevant relationships by Frederick Ross

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A1741-A1742, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060855

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pathology Identifying Chest Infections Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Pleomorphic carcinoma is a subtype of sarcomatoid carcinomas that represents <1 % of all primary lung neoplasms. This case highlights a recent diagnosis of a patient with pleomorphic carcinoma in the midst of COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75 year old female with a 180-pack year smoking history presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and chest discomfort. Vital signs significant for oxygen saturation at 93% on room air. The patient had been admitted to the hospital 7 months prior for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. At that point, computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed a right lower lobe 5.5 cm juxtapleural lesion measuring fluid attenuation by Hounsfield units without intralesional enhancement. The lesion was initially thought to be secondary to the patient's COVID-19 pneumonia and was not investigated further. The patient was subsequently lost to follow up. Seven months later the patient presented with worsening shortness of breath. Chest CT revealed large right complex pleural effusion with near complete lung collapse. The patient underwent pigtail catheter placement with partial re-expansion of the lung. Pleural fluid analysis showed an exudative effusion with no malignant cells on cytology. Follow-up CT imaging showed a large mass-like area in the right mid and lower hemithorax. Video assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS) decortication and thoracotomy revealed a right lower lobe abscess and empyema. Pathology samples collected during procedure showed malignant cells of sarcamatoid features found in right lung and intraparenchymal lymph nodes. Histology and immunostaining showed a tumor composed of a component of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and more than 10% spindle/pleomorphic cells. Immunostaining showed the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma component was positive for moc 31, Ber-EP4, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2, lack TTF-1 and p40. The spindle/pleomorphic component was negative for cytokeratins. DISCUSSION: Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PC) is a rare, poorly differentiated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that contains at least 10% spindle and/or giant cells or a carcinoma consisting only of spindle and giant cells. PC has poor response to conventional treatments for NSCLC and subsequently poor 5 year survival. It more common in men and smokers. COVID-19 causes a variety of pulmonary radiographic manifestations, including nodules and mass-like consolidations. Superimposed bacterial infections are also common. Our case, however, highlights the importance of serial radiographic monitoring and, when indicated, tissue sampling to rule out alternative explanations for abnormal CT findings. CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate screening and careful follow up of suspicious lung lesions is vital to ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment of lung malignancy. Reference #1: WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial Board. Thoracic Tumours. In: WHO Classification of Tumours,Earke 5th ed, IARC Publications, 2021. Vol 5. Reference #2: Ito K, Oizumi S, Fukumoto S, Harada M, Ishida T, Fujita Y, Harada T, Kojima T, Yokouchi H, Nishimura M;Hokkaido Lung Cancer Clinical Study Group. Clinical characteristics of pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung. Lung Cancer. 2010 May;68(2):204-10. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2009.06.002. Epub 2009 Jul 3. PMID: 19577320. Reference #3: Maneenil K, Xue Z, Liu M, Boland J, Wu F, Stoddard SM, Molina J, Yang P. Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Lung: The Mayo Clinic Experience in 127 Patients. Clin Lung Cancer. 2018 May;19(3):e323-e333. doi: 10.1016/j.cllc.2017.12.008. Epub 2017 Dec 21. PMID: 29454534. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Rachel Earle No relevant relationships by Samantha Gillenwater No relevant relationships by Miquel Gonzalez No relevant relationships by Sikandar Khan No relevant relationships by Christopher Lau no disclosure submitted for Jinesh Mehta;

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A743, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060679

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Encounters with Mechanical Ventilation SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: Baseline radiographic edema on chest X-ray (CXR) in patients with COVID-19 presenting to the emergency department has been associated with need for hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well need for mechanical ventilation and 30-day mortality. Whether this is true for radiographic edema quantified after initiation of mechanical ventilation is unclear. We sought to evaluate this question using a well-validated scoring system (the Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema [RALE] score) using data over 6 months from a large, multi-hospital healthcare system including all adult (age >= 18) patients. METHODS: We collected CXRs performed in patients after endotracheal intubation for COVID-19 associated hypoxemic respiratory failure between March and September 2020. We quantified severity of radiographic edema using the RALE score. Two independent reviewers quantified radiographic edema using the RALE scoring system. We examined the association of radiographic edema with time from hospital admission to intubation and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: 65 patients were identified (median age 68, 40% female). Inter-rate agreement for RALE score was excellent (ICC = 0.84, 95% CI 0.82 - 0.87, p < 0.0001). Mortality at 30 days was 54% (n = 35). There was no association between time to ICU admission from ED presentation (r = -0.14, p = 0.27). RALE scores were not different in survivors and non-survivors (8 [4-17] and 7 [5-15], p = 0.92 respectively). When adjusted for age and history of diabetes, there was no difference in 30-day mortality between the lowest and highest RALE quartiles (HR 0.67 [0.24 - 1.85], p = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: In unvaccinated patients with COVID-19 hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation there is no association between baseline (time of intubation) radiographic edema as captured by CXR and 30-day mortality. Larger observational studies accounting for vaccination status, oxygenation strategies and medical therapy are needed. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: In small sample of unvaccinated patients requiring mechanical ventilation for COVID-19-associated hypoxemic respiratory failure, baseline radiographic edema on CXR does not provide prognostic value. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Samantha Gillenwater No relevant relationships by Christine Girard No relevant relationships by Anas Hadeh No relevant relationships by Andrew Kim No relevant relationships by Daniel Kotok No relevant relationships by Allen Lavina No relevant relationships by Jose Rivera No relevant relationships by Shruti Shettigar

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