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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964123

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is one of the longest viral pandemics in the history of mankind, which have caused millions of deaths globally and induced severe deformities in the survivals. For instance, fibrosis and cavities in the infected lungs of COVID-19 are some of the complications observed in infected patients post COVID-19 recovery. These health abnormalities, including is multiple organ failure-the most striking pathological features of COVID-19-have been linked with diverse distribution of ACE2 receptor. Additionally, several health complications reports were reported after administration of COVID-19 vaccines in healthy individuals, but clinical or molecular pathways causing such complications are not yet studied in detail. Thus, the present systematic review established the comparison of health complication noted in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals (COVID-19 infected patients) to identify the association between vaccination and the multiorgan failure based on the data obtained from case studies, research articles, clinical trials/Cohort based studies and review articles published between 2020-2022. This review also includes the biological rationale behind the COVID-19 infection and its subsequent symptoms and effects including multiorgan failure. In addition, multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) has been informed in individuals post vaccination that resulted in multiorgan failure but, no direct correlation of vaccination with MIS has been established. Similarly, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) also noted to cause multiorgan failure in some individuals following full vaccination. Furthermore, severe complications were recorded in elderly patients (+40 years of age), indicates that older age individuals are higher risk by COVID-19 and post vaccination, but available literature is not sufficient to comply with any conclusive statements on relationship between vaccination and multiorgan failure.

2.
Pathogens ; 11(7)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964047

ABSTRACT

In October 2021, a case of acute hepatic failure without any known cause was identified in the United States of America. Upon further investigation, other children aged 1-6 years were reported to have the same liver failure, and some of them were positive for adenovirus 41 type F. On 21 April 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released an alert after 74 cases were identified in United Kingdom (UK) between 5 and 8 April in children below 10 years of age, some of whom were also found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. All the patients showed symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and abdominal pain. The patients' liver enzymes were remarkably increased. A total of 650 cases had been reported from 33 countries as of 27 May 2022, among which 222 cases were reported in the UK alone. No connection with SARS-CoV-2 or its vaccine has been found so far. However, the suspected cause is adenovirus, including its genomic variations, because its pathogenesis and laboratory investigations have been positively linked. Until further evidence emerges, hygiene precautions could be helpful to prevent its spread.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(9): 937-941, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936832

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread globally. The major reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains controversial, with the airborne route remaining a possible transmission vehicle for carrying the virus within indoor environments. This study aimed to detect contamination of SARS-CoV-2 in high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters within hospital isolation rooms of confirmed COVID-19 patients, exploring the role of nano-treatment of these filters with silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Ag/TiO2 NPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effectiveness of Ag-NPs/TiO2-treated HEPA filters in the air of rooms occupied by patients with confirmed COVID-19 in a university teaching hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia during the first wave of the pandemic. Ag/TiO2 NPs were designed and coated on HEPA filters to examine the filtration efficiency and antiviral ability in the presence of aerosolized virus particles. A total of 20 viral swab samples were collected from five patients' rooms before and after treatment with nanoparticle-prepared solutions into the sterile virus-transporting media. Samples were evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 with a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Two samples taken from the HEPA filter air exhaust outlets prior to nano-treatment tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the intensive care unit, which has stringent aerosolization control procedures, suggesting that small virus-laden droplets may be displaced by airflow. All air samples collected from the HEPA filters from the rooms of patients with confirmed COVID-19 following nano-treatment were negative. CONCLUSION: We recommend further experimental exploration using a larger number of HEPA filters in areas with aerosol-generating procedures, along with viability studies on the HEPA filters to facilitate decision-making in high-risk facilities regarding the replacement, storage, and disposal of HEPA filters in wards occupied by cases diagnosed with a highly transmissible disease.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917875

ABSTRACT

Given the increasing anti-vaccine movements erroneously touting vaccine danger, this review has investigated the rare adverse events potentially associated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), an mRNA vaccine against the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Only real-world surveillance studies with at least 0.1 million BNT162b2-vaccinated participants and one unvaccinated control group were selected for review. A total of 21 studies examining the potential association of BNT162b2 with cardiovascular, herpetic, thrombotic or thrombocytopenic, neurological, mortality, and other miscellaneous rare adverse events were described in this review. Only myocarditis is consistently associated with BNT162b2. An unclear direction of association was seen with stroke (hemorrhagic and ischemic), herpes zoster, and paresthesia from BNT162b2, which may require more studies to resolve. Fortunately, most surveillance studies detected no increased risks of the remaining rare adverse events reviewed herein, further reassuring the safety of BNT162b2. In conclusion, this review has concisely summarized the current rare adverse events related and unrelated to BNT162b2, arguably for the first time in sufficient depth, to better communicate vaccine safety to the public.

5.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917639

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused the COVID-19 infection, was discovered two and a half years ago. It caused a global pandemic, resulting in millions of deaths and substantial damage to the worldwide economy. Currently, only a few vaccines and antiviral drugs are available to combat SARS-CoV-2. However, there has been an increase in virus-related research, including exploring new drugs and their repurposing. Since discovering penicillin, natural products, particularly those derived from microbes, have been viewed as an abundant source of lead compounds for drug discovery. These compounds treat bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections. This review incorporates evidence from the available research publications on isolated and identified natural products derived from microbes with anti-hepatitis, anti-herpes simplex, anti-HIV, anti-influenza, anti-respiratory syncytial virus, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties. About 131 compounds with in vitro antiviral activity and 1 compound with both in vitro and in vivo activity have been isolated from microorganisms, and the mechanism of action for some of these compounds has been described. Recent reports have shown that natural products produced by the microbes, such as aurasperone A, neochinulin A and B, and aspulvinone D, M, and R, have potent in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, targeting the main protease (Mpro). In the near and distant future, these molecules could be used to develop antiviral drugs for treating infections and preventing the spread of disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917622

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Bacterial infections are among the major complications of many viral respiratory tract illnesses, such as influenza and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). These bacterial co-infections are associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality rates. The current observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan among COVID-19 patients with the status of oxygen dependency to see the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Materials and Methods: A total of 1251 clinical samples were collected from already diagnosed COVID-19 patients and tested for bacterial identification (cultures) and susceptibility testing (disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration) using gold standard diagnostic methods. Results: From the total collected samples, 234 were found positive for different bacterial isolates. The most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli) (n = 62) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (n = 47). The E. coli isolates have shown the highest resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin, while in the case of A. baumannii, the highest resistance was noted against tetracycline. The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 14.9%, carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was 4.5%, and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was 3.96%. Conclusions: The results of the current study conclude that empiric antimicrobial treatment in critically ill COVID-19 patients may be considered if properly managed within institutional or national level antibiotic stewardship programs, because it may play a protective role in the case of bacterial co-infections, especially when a patient has other AMR risk factors, such as hospital admission within the previous six months.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Escherichia coli , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
7.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(7): 773-780, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herd immunity for COVID-19 is the ultimate goal to end the pandemic. Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has been a subject of considerable debate regarding vaccines effectiveness. This ongoing discussion and other evolving variables contribute to the hesitancy toward vaccines and levels of vaccination acceptance among both the healthcare workers and the public. This study was conducted to assess COVID-19 vaccine uptake and hesitancy among the Saudi Arabian population during the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey conducted between June 28 and July 5, 2021. The survey collected sociodemographic information, personal and family history of previous COVID-19 infection, adherence to precautionary measures, COVID-19 vaccination status, parental willingness to vaccinate their teenage children, and address variable associated with hesitancy to receive vaccination. RESULTS: Among the 4071 participants, 67 % were women, 86 % of the participants received COVID-19 vaccine, 70 % had very high or high commitment with COVID-19 precautionary measures. On multivariate analysis, vaccine hesitancy was less likely in men (OR 0.652, p-value < 0.001), those who had direct family members infected with COVID-19 (OR 0.455, p-value < 0.001), and those who reported using the Ministry of Health official channels as information sources (OR 0.522, p-value < 0.001), while those younger than 44 years had higher hesitancy to receive the vaccine (1.5-2.1 times). Of the participants, only 42 % showed willingness to vaccinate their teenage (12-18 years old) children. CONCLUSIONS: The participants in this study had high COVID-19 vaccination rate; however, hesitancy was reported more commonly among women. Their willingness to vaccinate their teenage children was much lower. Participants relying on social media platforms were highly hesitant to receive vaccination. Public health officials should scale up their efforts targeting females, young population, and parents by vaccination awareness campaigns, and refute misinformation spread on social media, especially with the emergence of variants and the news burst that coincide with them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
8.
Pathogens ; 11(7):712, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894181

ABSTRACT

In October 2021, a case of acute hepatic failure without any known cause was identified in the United States of America. Upon further investigation, other children aged 1–6 years were reported to have the same liver failure, and some of them were positive for adenovirus 41 type F. On 21 April 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released an alert after 74 cases were identified in United Kingdom (UK) between 5 and 8 April in children below 10 years of age, some of whom were also found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. All the patients showed symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and abdominal pain. The patients' liver enzymes were remarkably increased. A total of 650 cases had been reported from 33 countries as of 27 May 2022, among which 222 cases were reported in the UK alone. No connection with SARS-CoV-2 or its vaccine has been found so far. However, the suspected cause is adenovirus, including its genomic variations, because its pathogenesis and laboratory investigations have been positively linked. Until further evidence emerges, hygiene precautions could be helpful to prevent its spread.

9.
Vaccines ; 10(7):985, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is one of the longest viral pandemics in the history of mankind, which have caused millions of deaths globally and induced severe deformities in the survivals. For instance, fibrosis and cavities in the infected lungs of COVID-19 are some of the complications observed in infected patients post COVID-19 recovery. These health abnormalities, including is multiple organ failure-the most striking pathological features of COVID-19-have been linked with diverse distribution of ACE2 receptor. Additionally, several health complications reports were reported after administration of COVID-19 vaccines in healthy individuals, but clinical or molecular pathways causing such complications are not yet studied in detail. Thus, the present systematic review established the comparison of health complication noted in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals (COVID-19 infected patients) to identify the association between vaccination and the multiorgan failure based on the data obtained from case studies, research articles, clinical trials/Cohort based studies and review articles published between 2020–2022. This review also includes the biological rationale behind the COVID-19 infection and its subsequent symptoms and effects including multiorgan failure. In addition, multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) has been informed in individuals post vaccination that resulted in multiorgan failure but, no direct correlation of vaccination with MIS has been established. Similarly, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) also noted to cause multiorgan failure in some individuals following full vaccination. Furthermore, severe complications were recorded in elderly patients (+40 years of age), indicates that older age individuals are higher risk by COVID-19 and post vaccination, but available literature is not sufficient to comply with any conclusive statements on relationship between vaccination and multiorgan failure.

10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875702

ABSTRACT

Measles is an RNA virus infectious disease mainly seen in children. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine against measles, it remains a health issue in children. Although it is a self-limiting disease, it becomes severe in undernourished and immune-compromised individuals. Measles infection is associated with secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria due to the immunosuppressive effects of the measles virus. Recent reports highlight that measles infection erases the already existing immune memory of various pathogens. This review covers the incidence, pathogenesis, measles variants, clinical presentations, secondary infections, elimination of measles virus on a global scale, and especially the immune responses related to measles infection.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Measles , Child , Humans , Incidence , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control
11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855847

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron spread fast globally and became the predominant variant in many countries. Resumption of public regular life activities, including in-person schooling, presented parents with new sources of worry. Thus, it is important to study parental worry about the Omicron variant, willingness to vaccinate their children, and knowledge about school-based COVID-19 precautionary measures. Methods: A national, cross-sectional, pilot-validated online questionnaire targeting parents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was distributed between 31 December 2021, and 7 January 2022. The survey included sociodemographic, COVID-19 infection data, parental and children vaccination status, attitudes towards booster vaccine, parents' Omicron-related perceptions and worries, and attitude towards in-person schooling. Results: A total of 1340 participants completed the survey, most (65.3%) of whom were mothers. Of the parents, 96.3% either received two or three doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Only 32.1% of the parents were willing to vaccinate their young children (5-11 years of age). In relation to their children 12-18 years of age, 48% had already had them vaccinated, 31% were planning to vaccinate them, and 42.8% were willing to administer a booster dose. Only 16% were more worried about the Omicron variant compared to the Delta variant. Residents of western KSA were more worried about Omicron compared to Delta. Parents worried about the Omicron variant and male participants were significantly less aware of school-based COVID-19 precautionary measures. Parents with post-graduate degrees and those having more children were significantly more inclined to send their children to school even if COVID-19 outbreaks could occur in schools, while parents who were more worried about the Omicron variant and were more committed to infection prevention measures were significantly less inclined to do so. Conclusions: Overall, parents had lower worry levels about the Omicron variant compared to the Delta variant. They had a higher willingness to vaccinate their older children compared to the younger ones. In addition, our cohort of parents showed high willingness to send their children to schools and trusted the school-based preventative measures. These findings can inform policy makers when considering school related decisions during the current or future public health crises.

13.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 household transmissibility remains unclear in Pakistan. To understand the dynamics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus disease epidemiology, this study estimated Secondary Attack Rate (SAR) among household and close contacts of index cases in Pakistan using a statistical transmission model. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an inclusive contact tracing dataset from the provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to estimate SAR. We considered the probability of an infected person transmitting the infection to close contacts regardless of residential addresses. This means that close contacts were identified irrespective of their relationship with the index case. We assessed demographic determinants of COVID-19 infectivity and transmissibility. For this purpose based on evolving evidence, and as CDC recommends fully vaccinated people get tested 5-7 days after close contact with a person with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Therefore we followed the same procedure in the close contacts for secondary infection. FINDINGS: During the study period from 15th May 2020 to 15th Jan 2021, a total of 339 (33.9%) index cases were studied from 1000 cases initially notified. Among close contact groups (n = 739), households were identified with an assumed mean incubation period of 8.2+4.3 days and a maximum incubation period of 15 days. SAR estimated here is among the household contacts. 117 secondary cases from 739 household contacts, with SAR 11.1% (95% CI 9.0-13.6). All together (240) SAR achieved was 32.48% (95% CI; 29.12-37.87) for symptomatic and confirmed cases. The potential risk factors for SAR identified here included; old age group (>45 years of age), male (gender), household members >5, and residency in urban areas and for index cases high age group. Overall local reproductive number (R) based on the observed household contact frequencies for index/primary cases was 0.9 (95% CI 0.47-1.21) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 1.3 (95% CI 0.73-1.56) in Punjab. CONCLUSIONS: SAR estimated here was high especially in the second phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The results highlight the need to adopt rigorous preventive measures to cut the chain of viral transmission and prevent another wave of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
14.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Infection ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748391

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies investigated the endurance of symptoms and occurrence of complications three months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to examine the prevalence, variation, and severity of continual symptoms in the post-COVID-19 using a single-center questionnaire. METHODS: The questionnaire was distributed among population in Saudi Arabia who recovered from COVID-19 between April 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021. RESULTS: A total of 744 participants completed the questionnaire, 318 (42.8%) recovered less than 3 months, 75 (10.1%) recovered 3-6 months, while 351 (47.2%) recovered more than 6 months. About half of the participants 353 (47.5%) had incessant symptoms and of those patients, more than half had two or more symptoms. Common symptoms included fatigue 189 (25.4%), headache 118 (15.9%), and myalgia 63 (8.5%). Of the participants, 189 (21.4%) experienced continual symptoms including anxiety in 98 (13.2%) and depression in 70 (9.5%). CONCLUSION: The current study showed a high proportion of individuals with long-COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, proper assessment of the individuals in the post-recovery period can guide the patients to the relevant clinics for rehabilitation. Moreover, there is a great importance to decrease COVID-19 infection, populations should be targeted to boost vaccine efficiency.

16.
Infection ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743837

ABSTRACT

Introduction Recent studies investigated the endurance of symptoms and occurrence of complications three months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to examine the prevalence, variation, and severity of continual symptoms in the post‐COVID-19 using a single-center questionnaire. Methods The questionnaire was distributed among population in Saudi Arabia who recovered from COVID‐19 between April 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021. Results A total of 744 participants completed the questionnaire, 318 (42.8%) recovered less than 3 months, 75 (10.1%) recovered 3–6 months, while 351 (47.2%) recovered more than 6 months. About half of the participants 353 (47.5%) had incessant symptoms and of those patients, more than half had two or more symptoms. Common symptoms included fatigue 189 (25.4%), headache 118 (15.9%), and myalgia 63 (8.5%). Of the participants, 189 (21.4%) experienced continual symptoms including anxiety in 98 (13.2%) and depression in 70 (9.5%). Conclusion The current study showed a high proportion of individuals with long-COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, proper assessment of the individuals in the post-recovery period can guide the patients to the relevant clinics for rehabilitation. Moreover, there is a great importance to decrease COVID-19 infection, populations should be targeted to boost vaccine efficiency.

17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2045853, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730554

ABSTRACT

Multiple vaccines have recently been developed, and almost all the countries are presently vaccinating their population to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the COVID-19 vaccines in use are administered via intramuscular (IM) injection, eliciting protective humor and cellular immunity. COVID-19 intranasal (IN) vaccines are also being developed that have shown promising ability to induce a significant amount of antibody-mediated immune response and a robust cell-mediated immunity as well as hold the added ability to stimulate protective mucosal immunity along with the additional advantage of the ease of administration as compared to IM injected vaccines. By inducing secretory IgA antibody responses specifically in the nasal compartment, the intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine can prevent virus infection, replication, shedding, and disease development, as well as possibly limits virus transmission. This article highlights the current progress, advantages, prospects, and challenges in developing intranasal COVID-19 vaccines for countering the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2027197, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722105

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have recently been reported in many countries. These have exacerbated the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced global health threats and hindered COVID-19 vaccine development and therapeutic progress. This commentary discusses the potential risk of the newly classified Mu variant of interest, seeming a highly vaccine-resistant variant, and the approaches that can be adopted to tackle this variant based on the available evidence. The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.621 (Mu variant) lineage has shown approximately ten times higher resistance to neutralizing sera obtained from COVID-19 survivors or BNT161b2-vaccinated people than the parenteral B.1 lineage. Several urgent and long-term strategic plans, including quick genomic surveillance for uncovering the genetic characteristics of the variants, equitable global mass vaccination, booster dose administration if required, and strict implementation of public health measures or non-pharmaceutical interventions, must be undertaken concertedly to restrict further infections, mutations, or recombination of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its deadly strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709582

ABSTRACT

In addition to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, bacterial co-infection plays an essential role in the incidence and progression of SARS-CoV-2 infections by increasing the severity of infection, as well as increasing disease symptoms, death rate and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The current study was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, among hospitalized COVID-19 patients to see the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and the AMR rates among different isolated bacteria. Clinical samples for the laboratory diagnosis were collected from 1165 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, of which 423 were found to be positive for various bacterial infections. Most of the isolated bacteria were Gram-negative rods (n = 366), followed by Gram-positive cocci (n = 57). A significant association (p < 0.05) was noted between the hospitalized COVID-19 patients and bacterial co-infections. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) showed high resistance against tetracycline (61.7%), Streptococcus pyogenes against penicillin (100%), E. coli against Amp-clavulanic acid (88.72%), Klebsiella pneumoniae against ampicillin (100%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa against ciprofloxacin (75.40%). Acinetobacter baumannii was 100% resistant to the majority of tested antibiotics. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 14.7%. The topmost symptoms of >50% of COVID-19 patients were fever, fatigue, dyspnea and chest pain with a significant association (p < 0.05) in bacterial co-infected patients. The current study results showed a comparatively high prevalence of AMR, which may become a severe health-related issue in the future. Therefore, strict compliance of antibiotic usage and employment of antibiotic stewardship programs at every public or private institutional level are recommended.

20.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328245

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, we aimed to determine the global prevalence, chronological order of symptom appearance, and mortality rates with regard to hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to discuss possible pathogeneses of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in individuals with the disease. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for relevant articles published up to November 8, 2020. Data regarding study characteristics, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and COVID-19 were retrieved in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the quality of the eligible studies. The pooled prevalence and mortality rate of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke were calculated. Results: The pooled estimate of prevalence of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.46% (95% CI 0.40%–0.53%;I 2=89.81%) among 67,155 COVID-19 patients and that of ischemic stroke was 1.11% (95% CI 1.03%–1.22%;I 2=94.07%) among 58,104 COVID-19 patients. Ischemic stroke was more predominant (incidence: 71.58%) than hemorrhagic stroke (incidence: 28.42%) in COVID-19 patients who experienced a stroke. In COVID-19 patients who experienced a stroke, hospital admission with respiratory symptoms was more commonly reported than that with neurological symptoms (20.83% for hemorrhagic stroke and 5.51% for ischemic stroke versus 6.94% for hemorrhagic stroke and 5.33% for ischemic stroke, respectively). The pooled mortality rate of COVID-19 patients who experienced a hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke was 44.72% (95% CI 36.73%–52.98%) and 36.23% (95% CI 30.63%–42.24%), respectively. Conclusions: Although the occurrence of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke is low, the mortality rates of both stroke types in patients with COVID-19 are concerning, and therefore, despite several potential pathogeneses that have been proposed, studies aimed at definitively elucidating the mechanisms of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in individuals with COVID-19 are warranted. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020224470 (04/12/20)

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