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1.
Nat Genet ; 54(4): 382-392, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730302

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters human host cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, through a genome-wide association study, we identify a variant (rs190509934, minor allele frequency 0.2-2%) that downregulates ACE2 expression by 37% (P = 2.7 × 10-8) and reduces the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60, P = 4.5 × 10-13), providing human genetic evidence that ACE2 expression levels influence COVID-19 risk. We also replicate the associations of six previously reported risk variants, of which four were further associated with worse outcomes in individuals infected with the virus (in/near LZTFL1, MHC, DPP9 and IFNAR2). Lastly, we show that common variants define a risk score that is strongly associated with severe disease among cases and modestly improves the prediction of disease severity relative to demographic and clinical factors alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Nature ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730298

ABSTRACT

Critical COVID-19 is caused by immune-mediated inflammatory lung injury. Host genetic variation influences the development of illness requiring critical care1 or hospitalization2-4 after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The GenOMICC (Genetics of Mortality in Critical Care) study enables the comparison of genomes from individuals who are critically ill with those of population controls to find underlying disease mechanisms. Here we use whole-genome sequencing in 7,491 critically ill individuals compared with 48,400 controls to discover and replicate 23 independent variants that significantly predispose to critical COVID-19. We identify 16 new independent associations, including variants within genes that are involved in interferon signalling (IL10RB and PLSCR1), leucocyte differentiation (BCL11A) and blood-type antigen secretor status (FUT2). Using transcriptome-wide association and colocalization to infer the effect of gene expression on disease severity, we find evidence that implicates multiple genes-including reduced expression of a membrane flippase (ATP11A), and increased expression of a mucin (MUC1)-in critical disease. Mendelian randomization provides evidence in support of causal roles for myeloid cell adhesion molecules (SELE, ICAM5 and CD209) and the coagulation factor F8, all of which are potentially druggable targets. Our results are broadly consistent with a multi-component model of COVID-19 pathophysiology, in which at least two distinct mechanisms can predispose to life-threatening disease: failure to control viral replication; or an enhanced tendency towards pulmonary inflammation and intravascular coagulation. We show that comparison between cases of critical illness and population controls is highly efficient for the detection of therapeutically relevant mechanisms of disease.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 148: 250-257, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700478

ABSTRACT

Resilience is a dynamic process through which people adjust to adversity and buffer anxiety and depression. The COVID-19 global pandemic has introduced a shared source of adversity for people across the world, with detrimental implications for mental health. Despite the pronounced vulnerability of autistic adults to anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic, relationships among autism-related quantitative traits, resilience, and mental health outcomes have not been examined. As such, we aimed to describe the relationships between these traits in a sample enriched in autism spectrum-related quantitative traits during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and social factors on these relationships. Across three independent samples of adults, we assessed resilience factors, autism-related quantitative traits, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. One sample (recruited via the Autism Spectrum Program of Excellence, n = 201) was enriched for autism traits while the other two (recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk, n = 624 and Facebook, n = 929) drew from the general population. We found resilience factors and quantitative autism-related traits to be inversely related, regardless of the resilience measure used. Additionally, we found that resilience factors moderate the relationship between autism-related quantitative traits and depression symptoms such that resilience appears to be protective. Across the neurodiversity spectrum, resilience factors may be targets to improve mental health outcomes. This approach may be especially important during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and in its aftermath.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Autistic Disorder/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(3): 291-300, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637435

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Telomeres protect DNA from damage. Because they shorten with each mitotic cycle, leukocyte telomere length (LTL) serves as a mitotic clock. Reduced LTL has been associated with multiple human disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between LTL and overall as well as disease-specific mortality and morbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This multicenter, community-based cohort study conducted from March 2006 to December 2010 included longitudinal follow-up (mean [SD], 12 [2] years) for 472 432 English participants from the United Kingdom Biobank (UK Biobank) and analyzed morbidity and mortality. The data were analyzed in 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios for mortality and morbidity associated with a standard deviation change in LTL, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and ethnicity. RESULTS: This study included a total of 472 432 English participants, of whom 54% were women (mean age, 57 years). Reduced LTL was associated with increased overall (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.07-1.09), cardiovascular (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.12), respiratory (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.34-1.45), digestive (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1.33), musculoskeletal (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.35-1.92), and COVID-19 (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23) mortality, but not cancer-related mortality. A total of 214 disorders were significantly overrepresented and 37 underrepresented in participants with shorter LTL. Respiratory (11%), digestive/liver-related (14%), circulatory (18%), and musculoskeletal conditions (6%), together with infections (5%), accounted for most positive associations, whereas (benign) neoplasms and endocrinologic/metabolic disorders were the most underrepresented entities. Malignant tumors, esophageal cancer, and lymphoid and myeloid leukemia were significantly more common in participants with shorter LTL, whereas brain cancer and melanoma were less prevalent. While smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with shorter LTL, additional adjustment for both factors, as well as cognitive function/major comorbid conditions, did not significantly alter the results. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This cohort study found that shorter LTL was associated with a small risk increase of overall mortality, but a higher risk of mortality was associated with specific organs and diseases.


Subject(s)
Leukocytes/physiology , Mortality/trends , Telomere/physiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , United Kingdom
7.
Biomedicines ; 9(12)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542416

ABSTRACT

The balance between neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and COVID-19-directed therapy may underly the heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2's neurological outcomes. A total of 105 patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19 had serum collected over a 6 month period to assess neuroinflammatory (MIF, CCL23, MCP-1), neuro-injury (NFL, NCAM-1), neurodegenerative (KLK6, τ, phospho τ, amyloids, TDP43, YKL40), and neuroprotective (clusterin, fetuin, TREM-2) proteins. These were compared to markers of nonspecific inflammatory responses (IL-6, D-dimer, CRP) and of the overall viral burden (spike protein). Data regarding treatment (steroids, convalescent plasma, remdasavir), pre-existing conditions, and incidences of strokes were collected. Amyloid ß42, TDP43, NF-L, and KLK6 serum levels declined 2-3 days post-admission, yet recovered to admission baseline levels by 7 days. YKL-40 and NCAM-1 levels remained elevated over time, with clusters of differential responses identified among TREM-2, TDP43, and YKL40. Fetuin was elevated after the onset of COVID-19 while TREM-2 initially declined before significantly increasing over time. MIF serum level was increased 3-7 days after admission. Ferritin correlated with TDP-43 and KLK6. No treatment with remdesivir coincided with elevations in Amyloid-ß40. A lack of convalescent plasma resulted in increased NCAM-1 and total tau, and steroidal treatments did not significantly affect any markers. A total of 11 incidences of stroke were registered up to six months after initial admission for COVID-19. Elevated D-dimer, platelet counts, IL-6, and leukopenia were observed. Variable MIF serum levels differentiated patients with CVA from those who did not have a stroke during the acute phase of COVID-19. This study demonstrated concomitant and opposite changes in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective markers persisting well into recovery.

8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(11): e1009594, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518350

ABSTRACT

The growing number of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data presents a unique opportunity to study the combined impact of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded genetic variation in complex disease. Mitochondrial DNA variants and in particular, heteroplasmic variants, are critical for determining human disease severity. While there are approaches for obtaining mitochondrial DNA variants from NGS data, these software do not account for the unique characteristics of mitochondrial genetics and can be inaccurate even for homoplasmic variants. We introduce MitoScape, a novel, big-data, software for extracting mitochondrial DNA sequences from NGS. MitoScape adopts a novel departure from other algorithms by using machine learning to model the unique characteristics of mitochondrial genetics. We also employ a novel approach of using rho-zero (mitochondrial DNA-depleted) data to model nuclear-encoded mitochondrial sequences. We showed that MitoScape produces accurate heteroplasmy estimates using gold-standard mitochondrial DNA data. We provide a comprehensive comparison of the most common tools for obtaining mtDNA variants from NGS and showed that MitoScape had superior performance to compared tools in every statistically category we compared, including false positives and false negatives. By applying MitoScape to common disease examples, we illustrate how MitoScape facilitates important heteroplasmy-disease association discoveries by expanding upon a reported association between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and mitochondrial haplogroup T in men (adjusted p-value = 0.003). The improved accuracy of mitochondrial DNA variants produced by MitoScape will be instrumental in diagnosing disease in the context of personalized medicine and clinical diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Big Data , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Machine Learning , Genes, Mitochondrial , Humans
9.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750509

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19675, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450292

ABSTRACT

Kidney function is affected in COVID-19, while kidney itself modulates the immune response. Here, hypothesize if COVID-19 urine biomarkers level can assess immune activation vs. clinical trajectory. Considering the kidney's critical role in modulating the immune response, we sought to analyze activation markers in patients with pre-existing dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional study of 68 patients. Blood and urine were collected within 48 h of hospital admission (H1), followed by 96 h (H2), seven days (H3), and up to 25 days (H4) from admission. Serum level ferritin, procalcitonin, IL-6 assessed immune activation overall, while the response to viral burden was gauged with serum level of spike protein and αspike IgM and IgG. 39 markers correlated highly between urine and blood. Age and race, and to a lesser extend gender, differentiated several urine markers. The burden of pre-existing conditions correlated with urine DCN, CAIX and PTN, but inversely with IL-5 or MCP-4. Higher urinary IL-12 and lower CAIX, CCL23, IL-15, IL-18, MCP-1, MCP-3, MUC-16, PD-L1, TNFRS12A, and TNFRS21 signified non-survivors. APACHE correlated with urine TNFRS12, PGF, CAIX, DCN, CXCL6, and EGF. Admission urine LAG-3 and IL-2 predicted death. Pre-existing kidney disease had a unique pattern of urinary inflammatory markers. Acute kidney injury was associated, and to a certain degree, predicted by IFNg, TWEAK, MMP7, and MUC-16. Remdesavir had a more profound effect on the urine biomarkers than steroids. Urinary biomarkers correlated with clinical status, kidney function, markers of the immune system activation, and probability of demise in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Biomarkers/urine , COVID-19/immunology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/urine , Biomarkers/blood , CA-125 Antigen/urine , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines, CC/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interleukin-12/urine , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Membrane Proteins/urine , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(42)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447424

ABSTRACT

The coronaviruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV, and other coronavirus infections express a nucleocapsid protein (N) that is essential for viral replication, transcription, and virion assembly. Phosphorylation of N from SARS-CoV by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is required for its function and inhibition of GSK-3 with lithium impairs N phosphorylation, viral transcription, and replication. Here we report that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein contains GSK-3 consensus sequences and that this motif is conserved in diverse coronaviruses, raising the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 may be sensitive to GSK-3 inhibitors, including lithium. We conducted a retrospective analysis of lithium use in patients from three major health systems who were PCR-tested for SARS-CoV-2. We found that patients taking lithium have a significantly reduced risk of COVID-19 (odds ratio = 0.51 [0.35-0.74], P = 0.005). We also show that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein is phosphorylated by GSK-3. Knockout of GSK3A and GSK3B demonstrates that GSK-3 is essential for N phosphorylation. Alternative GSK-3 inhibitors block N phosphorylation and impair replication in SARS-CoV-2 infected lung epithelial cells in a cell-type-dependent manner. Targeting GSK-3 may therefore provide an approach to treat COVID-19 and future coronavirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Lithium Compounds/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Female , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lithium Compounds/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Retrospective Studies
13.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 1825-1844, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: NASH will soon become the leading cause of liver transplantation in the United States and is also associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. Currently, there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs available that slow NASH progression or address NASH liver involvement in COVID-19. Because animal models cannot fully recapitulate human NASH, we hypothesized that stem cells isolated directly from end-stage liver from patients with NASH may address current knowledge gaps in human NASH pathology. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We devised methods that allow the derivation, proliferation, hepatic differentiation, and extensive characterization of bipotent ductal organoids from irreversibly damaged liver from patients with NASH. The transcriptomes of organoids derived from NASH liver, but not healthy liver, show significant up-regulation of proinflammatory and cytochrome p450-related pathways, as well as of known liver fibrosis and tumor markers, with the degree of up-regulation being patient-specific. Functionally, NASH liver organoids exhibit reduced passaging/growth capacity and hallmarks of NASH liver, including decreased albumin production, increased free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, increased sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli, and increased cytochrome P450 metabolism. After hepatic differentiation, NASH liver organoids exhibit reduced ability to dedifferentiate back to the biliary state, consistent with the known reduced regenerative ability of NASH livers. Intriguingly, NASH liver organoids also show strongly increased permissiveness to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vesicular stomatitis pseudovirus as well as up-regulation of ubiquitin D, a known inhibitor of the antiviral interferon host response. CONCLUSION: Expansion of primary liver stem cells/organoids derived directly from irreversibly damaged liver from patients with NASH opens up experimental avenues for personalized disease modeling and drug development that has the potential to slow human NASH progression and to counteract NASH-related SARS-CoV-2 effects.


Subject(s)
End Stage Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Organoids/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , End Stage Liver Disease/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Healthy Volunteers , Hepatocytes/immunology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/immunology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Liver/cytology , Liver/immunology , Liver Regeneration , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Organoids/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Up-Regulation/immunology
14.
JCI Insight ; 6(16)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369459

ABSTRACT

Some studies suggest that recent common coronavirus (CCV) infections are associated with reduced COVID-19 severity upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. We completed serological assays using samples collected from health care workers to identify antibody types associated with SARS-CoV-2 protection and COVID-19 symptom duration. Rare SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies elicited by past CCV infections were not associated with protection; however, the duration of symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infections was significantly reduced in individuals with higher common betacoronavirus (ßCoV) antibody titers. Since antibody titers decline over time after CCV infections, individuals in our cohort with higher ßCoV antibody titers were more likely recently infected with common ßCoVs compared with individuals with lower antibody titers. Therefore, our data suggest that recent ßCoV infections potentially limit the duration of symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infections through mechanisms that do not involve cross-reactive antibodies. Our data are consistent with the emerging hypothesis that cellular immune responses elicited by recent common ßCoV infections transiently reduce symptom duration following SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
16.
Cell Metab ; 33(8): 1592-1609.e7, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300705

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory drugs, but their long-term use has severe metabolic side effects. Here, by treating multiple individual adipose stem cell-derived adipocytes and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes with the potent GC dexamethasone (Dex), we uncovered cell-type-specific and individual-specific GC-dependent transcriptomes and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cistromes. Individual-specific GR binding could be traced to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that altered the binding motifs of GR or its cooperating factors. We also discovered another set of genetic variants that modulated Dex response through affecting chromatin accessibility or chromatin architecture. Several SNPs that altered Dex-regulated GR binding and gene expression controlled Dex-driven metabolic perturbations. Remarkably, these genetic variations were highly associated with increases in serum glucose, lipids, and body mass in subjects on GC therapy. Knowledge of the genetic variants that predispose individuals to metabolic side effects allows for a precision medicine approach to the use of clinically relevant GCs.


Subject(s)
Epigenomics , Glucocorticoids , Adipocytes/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism
17.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(12): e1879-e1886, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270943

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Multiple studies have demonstrated the negative impact of cancer care delays during the COVID-19 pandemic, and transmission mitigation techniques are imperative for continued cancer care delivery. We aimed to gauge the effectiveness of these measures at the University of Pennsylvania. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity and seroconversion in patients presenting to infusion centers for cancer-directed therapy between May 21, 2020, and October 8, 2020. Participants completed questionnaires and had up to five serial blood collections. RESULTS: Of 124 enrolled patients, only two (1.6%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on initial blood draw, and no initially seronegative patients developed newly detectable antibodies on subsequent blood draw(s), corresponding to a seroconversion rate of 0% (95% CI, 0.0 TO 4.1%) over 14.8 person-years of follow up, with a median of 13 health care visits per patient. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that patients with cancer receiving in-person care at a facility with aggressive mitigation efforts have an extremely low likelihood of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
18.
Cell ; 184(7): 1858-1864.e10, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071140

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans had been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we quantified levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies and hCoV-reactive antibodies in serum samples collected from 431 humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. We then quantified pre-pandemic antibody levels in serum from a separate cohort of 251 individuals who became PCR-confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we longitudinally measured hCoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the serum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our studies indicate that most individuals possessed hCoV-reactive antibodies before the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined that ∼20% of these individuals possessed non-neutralizing antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. These antibodies were not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections or hospitalizations, but they were boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Disease Susceptibility , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Vero Cells
19.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 145-147, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691958

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has driven unprecedented efforts to identify existing treatments that can be quickly and effectively repurposed to reduce morbidity and mortality. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Zhang et al. (2020) report an association between statin use and improved outcomes in a large observational study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Given the widespread availability, low cost, and safety of statins, this promising result should be further investigated in randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690482

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important for determining SARS-CoV-2 exposures within both individuals and populations. We validated a SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain serological test using 834 pre-pandemic samples and 31 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors. We then completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the community.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
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