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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050618


The aim of this review is to highlight the influence of the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and Gestational Weight Gain (GWG) during the COVID-19 pandemic era and the specific role of interleukin (IL)-6 in diabesity. It is known that diabetes, high body mass index, high glycated hemoglobin and raised serum IL-6 levels are predictive of poor outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The immunopathological mechanisms of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection include rising levels of several cytokines and in particular IL-6. The latter is associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and could be useful for predicting the development of GDM. Rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals, MedDiet improves the immune system and could modulate IL-6, C reactive protein and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB. Moreover, polyphenols could modulate microbiota composition, inhibit the NF-κB pathway, lower IL-6, and upregulate antioxidant enzymes. Finally, adhering to the MedDiet prior to and during pregnancy could have a protective effect, reducing GWG and the risk of GDM, as well as improving the immune response to viral infections such as COVID-19.

COVID-19/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diet, Mediterranean , Interleukin-6/blood , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Weight Gain , Humans , Life Style , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Pregnancy