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1.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915298

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the new SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which is known to have a large number of mutations when compared to other variants, brought to light the concern about vaccine escape, especially from the neutralization by antibodies induced by vaccination. Methods: Based on viral microneutralization assays, we evaluated in 90 individuals the impact on antibody neutralization induction, against Omicron variant, by a booster dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine after the CoronaVac primary vaccination scheme. Results: Here we show that the percentage of seroconverted individuals 30 and 60 days after CoronaVac scheme was 16.6% and 10%, respectively. After booster dose administration, the seroconvertion rate increased to 76.6%. The neutralization mean titer against Omicron in the CoronaVac protocol decreased over time, but after the booster dose, the mean titer increased 43.1 times. Conclusions: These results indicate a positive impact of this vaccine combination in the serological immune response against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.

2.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 41, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860436

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the Brazilian variant of concern, Gamma lineage (P.1), impacted the epidemiological profile of COVID-19 cases due to its higher transmissibility rate and immune evasion ability. Methods: We sequenced 305 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genomes and performed phylogenetic analyses to identify introduction events and the circulating lineages. Additionally, we use epidemiological data of COVID-19 cases, severe cases, and deaths to measure the impact of vaccination coverage and mortality risk. Results: Here we show that Gamma introduction in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, was followed by the displacement of seven circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and a rapid increase in prevalence two months after its first detection in January 2021. Moreover, Gamma variant is associated with increased mortality risk and severity of COVID-19 cases in younger age groups, which corresponds to the unvaccinated population at the time. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the beneficial effects of vaccination indicated by a pronounced reduction of severe cases and deaths in immunized individuals, reinforcing the need for rapid and massive vaccination.

3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327452

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Although much has been published since the first cases of COVID-19, there remain unanswered questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 impact on testes and the potential consequences for reproductive health. We investigated testicular alterations in deceased COVID-19-patients, the precise location of the virus, its replicative activity, and the molecules involved in the pathogenesis. We found that SARS-CoV-2 testicular tropism is higher than previously thought and that reliable viral detection in the testis requires sensitive nanosensoring or RT-qPCR using a specific methodology. Macrophages and spermatogonial cells are the main SARS-CoV-2 lodging sites and where new virions form inside the Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Intermediate Complex. Moreover, we showed infiltrative infected monocytes migrating into the testicular parenchyma. SARS-CoV-2 maintains its replicative and infective abilities long after the patient’s infection, suggesting that the testes may serve as a viral sanctuary. Further, infected testes show thickening of the tunica propria, germ cell apoptosis, Sertoli cell barrier loss, evident hemorrhage, angiogenesis, Leydig cell inhibition, inflammation, and fibrosis. Finally, our findings indicate that high angiotensin II levels and activation of mast cells and macrophages may be critical for testicular pathogenesis. Importantly, our data suggest that patients who become critically ill exhibit severe damages and may harbor the active virus in testes.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 745310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477894

ABSTRACT

The emergence of several SARS-CoV-2 lineages presenting adaptive mutations is a matter of concern worldwide due to their potential ability to increase transmission and/or evade the immune response. While performing epidemiological and genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in samples from Porto Ferreira-São Paulo-Brazil, we identified sequences classified by pangolin as B.1.1.28 harboring Spike L452R mutation, in the RBD region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these sequences grouped into a monophyletic branch, with others from Brazil, mainly from the state of São Paulo. The sequences had a set of 15 clade defining amino acid mutations, of which six were in the Spike protein. A new lineage was proposed to Pango and it was accepted and designated P.4. In samples from the city of Porto Ferreira, P.4 lineage has been increasing in frequency since it was first detected in March 2021, corresponding to 34.7% of the samples sequenced in June, the second in prevalence after P.1. Also, it is circulating in 30 cities from the state of São Paulo, and it was also detected in one sample from the state of Sergipe and two from the state of Rio de Janeiro. Further studies are needed to understand whether P.4 should be considered a new threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
J Virus Erad ; 7(3): 100054, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433618

ABSTRACT

New variants of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha (B.1.1.7); Beta (B.1.351) Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2) quickly spread in the UK, South Africa, Brazil and India, respectively. To address whether mutations in SARS-CoV-2 RBD spike protein could affect virus infectivity, peptides containing RBD amino acids mutations have been constructed and interacted with human ACE2 by computational methods. Our results suggest that mutations in RBD amino acids K417, E484, L452, T478 and N501 are expressively increasing the affinity of this protein with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), consequently, variants Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2) could be more infective in human cells compared with SARS-CoV-2 isolated in Wuhan-2019 and the Gamma and Delta variants could be the most infective among them.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117818, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333397

ABSTRACT

Knowledge about how the COVID-19 pandemic can affect aquatic wildlife is still extremely limited, and no effect of SARS-CoV-2 or its structural constituents on invertebrate models has been reported so far. Thus, we investigated the presence of the 2019-new coronavirus in different urban wastewater samples and, later, evaluated the behavioral and biochemical effects of the exposure of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to two SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peptides (PSPD-2002 and PSPD-2003) synthesized in our laboratory. Initially, our results show the contamination of wastewater by the new coronavirus, via RT-qPCR on the viral N1 gene. On the other hand, our study shows that short-term exposure (48 h) to a low concentration (40 µg/L) of the synthesized peptides induced changes in the locomotor and the olfactory-driven behavior of the C. quinquefascitus larvae, which were associated with increased production of ROS and AChE activity (cholinesterase effect). To our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the larval phase of a freshwater invertebrate species. The results raise concerns at the ecological level where the observed biological effects may lead to drastic consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Culicidae , Animals , Biota , Humans , Larva , Pandemics , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289023

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of efficacious and safe vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been instrumental in mitigating the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Moreover, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants raised concerns on the efficacy of these vaccines. Herein, we report two cases of breakthrough infections with the P1 variant in patients vaccinated with CoronaVac, which is one of the two vaccines authorized for emergency use in the Brazilian immunization program. Our observations suggest that the vaccine reduced the severity of the disease and highlight the potential risk of illness following vaccination and subsequent infection with the P1 variant as well as for continued efforts to prevent and diagnose infection in vaccinated persons.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Brazil , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Clinical Trials as Topic , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
8.
Microb Ecol ; 79(1): 203-212, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326842

ABSTRACT

Bats are flying mammals distributed worldwide known to host several types of Coronavirus (CoV). Since they were reported as the probable source of spillover of highly pathogenic CoV into the human population, investigating the circulation of this virus in bats around the world became of great importance. We analyzed samples from 103 bats from two distinct regions in Brazil. Coronavirus from the Alphacoronavirus genus was detected in 12 animals, 11 from São José do Rio Preto-SP region and 1 from Barreiras-BA region, resulting in a prevalence of 17.18% and 2.56% respectively. The virus was detected not only in intestines but also in lungs and liver. Phylogenetic analysis based on nsP12 genomic region suggests that the sequences group according to host family and sampling location. Studies on the circulation of these viruses in bats remain important to understand the ecology and evolutionary relationship of these pathogens.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chiroptera/virology , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Biological Evolution , Brazil , Genome, Viral , Intestines/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Phylogeny
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