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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222092, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285920

ABSTRACT

Importance: There are concerns that low- and no-calorie sweetened beverages (LNCSBs) do not have established benefits, with major dietary guidelines recommending the use of water and not LNCSBs to replace sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Whether LNCSB as a substitute can yield similar improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors vs water in their intended substitution for SSBs is unclear. Objective: To assess the association of LNCSBs (using 3 prespecified substitutions of LNCSBs for SSBs, water for SSBs, and LNCSBs for water) with body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with and without diabetes. Data Sources: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception through December 26, 2021. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with at least 2 weeks of interventions comparing LNCSBs, SSBs, and/or water were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers. A network meta-analysis was performed with data expressed as mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was body weight. Secondary outcomes were other measures of adiposity, glycemic control, blood lipids, blood pressure, measures of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and uric acid. Results: A total of 17 RCTs with 24 trial comparisons were included, involving 1733 adults (mean [SD] age, 33.1 [6.6] years; 1341 women [77.4%]) with overweight or obesity who were at risk for or had diabetes. Overall, LNCSBs were a substitute for SSBs in 12 RCTs (n = 601 participants), water was a substitute for SSBs in 3 RCTs (n = 429), and LNCSBs were a substitute for water in 9 RCTs (n = 974). Substitution of LNCSBs for SSBs was associated with reduced body weight (MD, -1.06 kg; 95% CI, -1.71 to -0.41 kg), body mass index (MD, -0.32; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.07), percentage of body fat (MD, -0.60%; 95% CI, -1.03% to -0.18%), and intrahepatocellular lipid (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.14). Substituting water for SSBs was not associated with any outcome. There was also no association found between substituting LNCSBs for water with any outcome except glycated hemoglobin A1c (MD, 0.21%; 95% CI, 0.02% to 0.40%) and systolic blood pressure (MD, -2.63 mm Hg; 95% CI, -4.71 to -0.55 mm Hg). The certainty of the evidence was moderate (substitution of LNCSBs for SSBs) and low (substitutions of water for SSBs and LNCSBs for water) for body weight and was generally moderate for all other outcomes across all substitutions. Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review and meta-analysis found that using LNCSBs as an intended substitute for SSBs was associated with small improvements in body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors without evidence of harm and had a similar direction of benefit as water substitution. The evidence supports the use of LNCSBs as an alternative replacement strategy for SSBs over the moderate term in adults with overweight or obesity who are at risk for or have diabetes.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Adult , Body Weight , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity , Overweight , Water
2.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 23(1): 31, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Citations are used to assess the importance of authors, articles and journals in the scientific community, but do not examine how they affect general public journal readership. The Altmetric Attention Score (AAS) is a new metric for measuring media attention of the published paper. METHODS: We examined cardiovascular (CV) randomized clinical trials (RCTs), published in the 3 highest Web of Science Impact Factor journals (Journal Citation Reports 2019: category "Medicine, General & Internal") and in the 3 highest Web of Science Impact Factor CV journals (Journal Citation Reports 2019: category "Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems"), through the calendar year of 2017, 2018 and 2019. The primary outcomes were the assessment of the difference between number of citations and AAS among positive and negative CV RCTs. RESULTS: Among the included 262 RCTs, more positive CV RCTs were published (p = 0.002). There was no significant statistical difference between the positive and negative trials, considering the number of citations (p = 0.61). Interestingly, positive trials had a tendency towards a higher AAS (p = 0.058). The correlation between the AAS and the number of citations was moderate positively correlated (ρ = 0.47, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We did not find any differences between CV RCTs with positive vs CV RCTs with negative results considering the number of their citations. A tendency towards a higher AAS among positive CV RCTs could indicate higher activity on social media regarding CV trials with positive results. A higher number of published positive CV RCTs among all published CV RCTs could indicate the presence of publication bias but further investigation of unpublished RCTs in trial registries (e.g., clinicaltrials.gov) is needed.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Social Media , Bibliometrics , Humans , Journal Impact Factor , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 32(1): 010903, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955676

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Based on the hypothesis that there is a substantial rate of adults with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM), our aim was to perform haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-based screening in a cohort of Croatian adults and estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed DM according to American Diabetes Association criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multi-center, cross-sectional study performed in six Croatian hospitals included 5527 patients aged 40 to 70 years admitted to the Emergency Department or undergoing a primary care check-up. Haemoglobin A1c was measured from leftover whole blood samples using the enzymatic method on either Alinity c or Architect c-series analyser (Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, USA). Haemoglobin A1c between 39-47 mmol/mol was classified as prediabetes, while ≥ 48 mmol/mol as undiagnosed DM. RESULTS: After exclusion of 435 patients with known DM, the final cohort included 5092 patients (median age 57; 56% males). A total of 882 (17.3%) patients had HbA1c values between 39 and 47 mmol/mol. There were 214 (4.2%) patients with HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol. Prediabetes prevalence ranged from 14.2% to 20.5%, while undiagnosed DM from 3.3% to 7.3%, with statistically significant differences among settings (P < 0.001). Age-stratified analysis showed that prediabetes and undiagnosed DM prevalence increase with age (P < 0.001), being 25.4% and 5.8%, respectively, in patients aged 60 to 70 years. CONCLUSION: Underlying impairment of glucose metabolism was identified in about one in five adults, with significant number of patients with already overt DM. These results should serve as a starting point for further steps directed towards promotion of preventive measures for DM in Croatia.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Adult , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/epidemiology
4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102355, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to assess the role of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) in the development of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) without chronic kidney disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 94 T2DM. Hcy, serum 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D, vitamin B12, and folate were determined by the CMIA method. NPDR was determined according to the EURODIAB retinal photography methodology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula. RESULTS: Compared to patients without NPDR, patients with NPDR had longer diabetes duration (p < 0.001), higher Hcy (p < 0.001), lower vitamin B12 (p = 0.028) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = 0.004). NPDR was positively associated with diabetes duration (p < 0.001), HbA1c (p = 0.049) and Hcy (p < 0.001), and negatively with vitamin B12 (p = 0.027) and eGFR (p = 0.005). Logistic regression analyses showed that diabetes duration (OR = 1.13, p < 0.001), Hcy (OR = 1.06, p = 0.047), and eGFR (OR = 0.96, p = 0.004) were the main predictors of NPDR in T2DM. Stepwise regression analyses showed that the best model for predicting Hcy (R2 = 0.104) included vitamins B12 and D. CONCLUSIONS: Higher Hcy is associated with NPDR and may play a role as a risk factor for its development in T2DM. Vitamins B12 and D seem to modify this association.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology , Folic Acid , Homocysteine , Humans , Vitamin B 12
5.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836045

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic altered adults' and children's lifestyles and habits, causing an increase in body weight. Adolescents are sensitive to habit changes and, because of their insufficient capacity to deal with the unexpected COVID-19 changes, were at greater risk of noncommunicable disease development due to the consequences of adopting unhealthy habits. The survey aimed to reveal the changes in nutritional status and lifestyle habits of school children in Croatia and to assess their nutrition knowledge and emotional state and feelings about COVID-19 lockdown. Self-reported data from 1370 school children aged 10 to 15 years were obtained to examine the influence of the lockdown on their nutritional status, lifestyle and emotional status, and to assess their nutrition knowledge. The study revealed that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused an increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity among Croatian school children who changed their lifestyle habits towards being less physically active, spending more time using screen-based media and revealing potential psychological distress. However, the schoolchildren had a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents KIDMED index and had good nutrition knowledge. Public health programs promoting a healthy lifestyle and involving the whole family, in a school environment, could provide children with a healthy adulthood.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Diet, Healthy , Diet, Mediterranean , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Age Factors , Child , Child Behavior , Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Time Factors
6.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836420

ABSTRACT

The glycemic response to ingested glucose for the treatment of hypoglycemia following exercise in type 1 diabetes patients has never been studied. Therefore, we aimed to characterize glucose dynamics during a standardized bout of hypoglycemia-inducing exercise and the subsequent hypoglycemia treatment with the oral ingestion of glucose. Ten male patients with type 1 diabetes performed a standardized bout of cycling exercise using an electrically braked ergometer at a target heart rate (THR) of 50% of the individual heart rate reserve, determined using the Karvonen equation. Exercise was terminated when hypoglycemia was reached, followed by immediate hypoglycemia treatment with the oral ingestion of 20 g of glucose. Arterialized blood glucose (ABG) levels were monitored at 5 min intervals during exercise and for 60 min during recovery. During exercise, ABG decreased at a mean rate of 0.11 ± 0.03 mmol/L·min-1 (minimum: 0.07, maximum: 0.17 mmol/L·min-1). During recovery, ABG increased at a mean rate of 0.13 ± 0.05 mmol/L·min-1 (minimum: 0.06, maximum: 0.19 mmol/L·min-1). Moreover, 20 g of glucose maintained recovery from hypoglycemia throughout the 60 min postexercise observation window.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Exercise , Glucose/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemia/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Adult , Bicycling , Blood Glucose/analysis , Heart Rate , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Pilot Projects
7.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(12): 3107-3135, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694585

ABSTRACT

In both pediatric and adult populations with type 1 diabetes (T1D), technologies such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), or sensor-augmented pumps (SAP) can consistently improve glycemic control [measured as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and time in range (TIR)] while reducing the risk of hypoglycemia. Use of technologies can thereby improve quality of life and reduce the burden of diabetes management compared with self-injection of multiple daily insulin doses (MDI). Novel hybrid closed-loop (HCL) systems represent the latest treatment modality for T1D, combining modern glucose sensors and insulin pumps with a linked control algorithm to offer automated insulin delivery in response to blood glucose levels and trends. HCL systems have been associated with increased TIR, improved HbA1c, and fewer hypoglycemic events compared with CSII, SAP, and MDI, thereby potentially improving quality of life for people with diabetes (PwD) while reducing the costs of treating short- and long-term diabetes-related complications. However, many barriers to their use and regional inequalities remain in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Published data suggest that access to diabetes technologies is hindered by lack of funding, underdeveloped health technology assessment (HTA) bodies and guidelines, unfamiliarity with novel therapies, and inadequacies in healthcare system capacities. To optimize the use of diabetes technologies in CEE, an international meeting comprising experts in the field of diabetes was held to map the current regional access, to present the current national reimbursement guidelines, and to recommend solutions to overcome uptake barriers. Recommendations included regional and national development of HTA bodies, efficient allocation of resources, and structured education programs for healthcare professionals and PwD. The responsibility of the healthcare community to ensure that all individuals with T1D gain access to modern technologies in a timely and economically responsible manner, thereby improving health outcomes, was emphasized, particularly for interventions that are cost-effective.

8.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(5): 475-481, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes have up to five times higher incidence of cataract, mainly at a younger age, and cataract in these patients progresses more rapidly than senile cataract, especially in eyes affected with sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (DR). AIM: This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with cataract development in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: This case-control cross-sectional study included 90 T2DM (56M/34F). Metabolic risk factors glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined using routine laboratory methods. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer after a 10-min resting period. Lens opacity was graded according to the Lens Opacity Classification System version III (LOCS III). RESULTS: According to the LOCS III, patients were divided into two groups: group 1-patients with clear crystalline lens, and group 2-patients with initial cataract. Compared to patients with a clear crystalline lens, those with initial cataract had longer diabetes duration (p = 0.002), higher HbA1c (p = 0.037), higher total cholesterol (p = 0.029), higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p = 0.014), and lower creatinine clearance (p = 0.017). Cataract was positively associated with diabetes duration (p = 0.001), HbA1c (p = 0.035), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042), and DBP (p = 0.009), while negatively with creatinine clearance (p = 0.005). Logistic regression analysis showed that the influence of DBP (AOR = 1.06, p = 0.014) and creatinine clearance (AOR = 2.93, p = 0.045) on cataract development remained significant even after adjustment for diabetes duration and HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes duration and various metabolic risk factors, particularly poor glycemic control, hypercholesterolemia, DBP, and diabetic nephropathy's coexistence, are associated with cataract development in T2DM.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypertension , Case-Control Studies , Cataract/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
9.
BMJ ; 374: n1651, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To inform the update of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library searched up to 13 May 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials of three or more weeks investigating the effect of diets with low glycaemic index (GI)/glycaemic load (GL) in diabetes. OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondary outcomes included other markers of glycaemic control (fasting glucose, fasting insulin); blood lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, apo B, triglycerides); adiposity (body weight, BMI (body mass index), waist circumference), blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)), and inflammation (C reactive protein (CRP)). DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled by random effects models. GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: 29 trial comparisons were identified in 1617 participants with type 1 and 2 diabetes who were predominantly middle aged, overweight, or obese with moderately controlled type 2 diabetes treated by hyperglycaemia drugs or insulin. Low GI/GL dietary patterns reduced HbA1c in comparison with higher GI/GL control diets (mean difference −0.31% (95% confidence interval −0.42 to −0.19%), P<0.001; substantial heterogeneity, I2=75%, P<0.001). Reductions occurred also in fasting glucose, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apo B, triglycerides, body weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure (dose-response), and CRP (P<0.05), but not blood insulin, HDL-C, waist circumference, or diastolic blood pressure. A positive dose-response gradient was seen for the difference in GL and HbA1c and for absolute dietary GI and SBP (P<0.05). The certainty of evidence was high for the reduction in HbA1c and moderate for most secondary outcomes, with downgrades due mainly to imprecision. CONCLUSIONS: This synthesis suggests that low GI/GL dietary patterns result in small important improvements in established targets of glycaemic control, blood lipids, adiposity, blood pressure, and inflammation beyond concurrent treatment with hyperglycaemia drugs or insulin, predominantly in adults with moderately controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The available evidence provides a good indication of the likely benefit in this population. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04045938.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Glycemic Index , Glycemic Load , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Diet, Diabetic , Glycemic Control , Humans
10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920947

ABSTRACT

For the past 80 years, the effect of the Mediterranean diet on overall health has been a constant topic of interest among medical and scientific researchers. Parallel with the persistent global rise of cases of type 2 diabetes, many studies conducted in the past 20 years have shown the benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle for people with, or at risk of developing, type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, despite the large body of evidence, concerns exist amongst scientists regarding the reliability of the data related to this topic. This review offers a glimpse of the onset of the Mediterranean diet and follows its significant impact on the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. There is a constant rise in type 2 diabetes cases on the Balkan Peninsula and North Macedonia in particular. Having in mind that North Macedonia, as well as most of the countries on the Balkans have low to middle income, there is a need for a certain affordable dietary pattern to ameliorate the rise in diabetes incidence, as well as improve the glycemic control. We did a review based on the available literature regarding Mediterranean diet and people with or at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, its effects on glycemic control, lipid profile and metabolic outcome.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diet, Mediterranean , Glycemic Control/methods , Prediabetic State/diet therapy , Adult , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Female , Humans , Lipids/blood , Male , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/blood , Systematic Reviews as Topic
11.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 5582813, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763391

ABSTRACT

Aims: To investigate morbidity and mortality in a real-life cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in relation to prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Patients with T2D were referred for assessment of liver fibrosis by the FIB-4 test and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE). Liver steatosis was quantified by the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). These patients were followed until death or censored date. Results: Among 454 patients (52% males, mean age 62.5 years, BMI 30.9 kg/m2), 82.6% was overweight, 77.8% had fatty liver, and 9.9% and 3.1% had LSM and FIB-4 values suggestive of advanced fibrosis, respectively. During the follow-up period of median 2 years, 106 (23%) patients experienced adverse event (11% cardiovascular) and 17 (3.7%) died, whereas no liver-related morbidity or mortality was observed. Independent predictors of adverse outcomes were age and higher platelet count, while FIB-4, LSM, and CAP were not. Conclusion: In a cohort of T2D patients, no liver-related morbidity or mortality occurred during 2 years. Our patients probably have low real prevalence of advanced fibrosis which is likely overestimated by LSM ≥ 9.6 kPa. Liver fibrosis may be safely reassessed in the 2 years interval in noncirrhotic patients with T2D.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology
12.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(5): 1575-1589, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721212

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic inertia related to insulin treatment, i.e. delays in initiation, especially titration of basal insulin, is a significant problem in daily practice in Southeast European countries. This phenomenon can be traced back to several patient-, physician- and health system-related factors. In recognition of the issue of inadequate insulin titration, 11 leading experts from countries in this region held a consensus-seeking meeting to review the current status of insulin initiation after non-insulin treatment and the potential barriers to insulin titration to provide an algorithm and tools for outpatient physicians and for patients aimed at optimizing basal insulin titration. The experts reached a consensus on the majority of the topics and proposed recommendations on how clinical inertia can be overcome. The outcomes of the meeting have been summarized in this paper.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of FreeStyle Libre Flash Glucose Monitoring (FGM) implementation in a real life clinical setting with the emphasis on the effect of initial education on the use of the FGM system. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 425 diabetes type 1 subjects followed up for 3 to 12 months (320 were followed up to 3 months, 267 up to 6 months and 147 up to period of one year). An FGM sensor was placed at study entry and all participants were educated through a period of 5 days on sensor usage and self-management of glycemia with follow up visits every 3 months. RESULTS: HbA1c values significantly decreased from baseline (T0) to 3 months (T3) (p < 0.001), with a drop from 7.48% ± 0.1% to 7.30 ± 0.1%. There was no change in time spent in hypoglycemia from T3 to T12, although there was a decreasing trend present. The change in HbA1c values in the entire cohort was driven by change in the subgroup of patients with HbA1c ≥7% with a drop from 8.22% ± 1.14% to 7.68% ± 1.26% (p < 0.0001) in the first 3 months. Also, in individuals performing SMBG less than 5 times per day, there was a steady decrease in HbA1c levels up to 6 months (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) as opposed to those who performed SMBG ≥5 times per day. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in HbA1c was mainly driven by the increase in the number of scans per day. The subjects with poorer glycemic control and those who seldom performed SMBG benefited the most.

14.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 6649142, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628758

ABSTRACT

Background: Associated with epidemics of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most prevalent liver disease worldwide. The cornerstone of therapy for NAFLD is lifestyle intervention, mainly focused on weight loss. Significant weight loss results from energy-restricted diets, regardless of macronutrient distribution. An anti-inflammatory diet was related to lower odds of NAFLD among daily alcohol drinkers and individuals with metabolic syndrome. This study aims to evaluate the effect of an energy-reduced anti-inflammatory diet on liver status in younger adults with obesity after a 6-month follow-up. Methods: A two-arm randomized controlled trial surveyed 81 participants' (mean age, 43 years) anthropometric and body composition changes. Metabolic status was determined with glycaemic and lipid status, inflammatory status with hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α, and liver status with liver enzymes, NAFLD-FLS, FLI, and FIB-4 indices. The inflammatory potential of the diet was assessed by the Dietary Inflammatory Index, DII®. Results: Energy-restricted anti-inflammatory diet resulted in significant weight loss (-7.1%, p < 0.001), in reducing the visceral adiposity (-22.3%, p < 0.001), metabolic (HOMA-IR, -15.5%; total cholesterol, -5.3%; LDL-C, -4.6%; triglycerides, -12.2%), and inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, -29.5%; IL-6, -18.2%; TNF-α, -34.2%), with significant improvement of liver parameters (NAFLD-FLS, -143.4%; FLI, -14.3%; FIB-4, -2.5%). Conclusion: The study showed the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory diet with significant improvement of liver parameters in younger adults with obesity, which may reinforce the effectiveness of nutrition-based lifestyle programs, with an anti-inflammatory dietary approach for the treatment and resolution of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Diet , Humans
15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 172: 108637, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352263

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has made abundantly clear that Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk of more frequent and more severe viral infections. At the same time, pro-inflammatory cytokines of an anti-viral Type-I profile promote insulin resistance and form a risk factor for development of T2D. What this illustrates is that there is a reciprocal, detrimental interaction between the immune and endocrine system in the context of T2D. Why these two systems would interact at all long remained unclear. Recent findings indicate that transient changes in systemic metabolism are induced by the immune system as a strategy against viral infection. In people with T2D, this system fails, thereby negatively impacting the antiviral immune response. In addition, immune-mediated changes in systemic metabolism upon infection may aggravate glycemic control in T2D. In this review, we will discuss recent literature that sheds more light on how T2D impairs immune responses to viral infection and how virus-induced activation of the immune system increases risk of development of T2D.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Risk Factors
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 172: 108617, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310175

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major effect on healthcare during 2020. Current evidence suggests that, while individuals with diabetes and obesity are no more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection than those without, the risk of hospitalisation if someone has diabetes or obesity and then contracts COVID-19 is three times higher - and 4.5 times higher if they have diabetes and obesity. We assembled a panel of experts from South and East Europe, the Middle East, and Africa to discuss the challenges to management of diabetes and obesity during and post the COVID-19 pandemic. The experience and learnings of this panel cover a heterogeneous patient population, wide range of clinical settings, healthcare organisations, disease management strategies, and social factors. We discuss the importance of timely and effective disease management via telemedicine, providing reassurance and guidance for patients unable or unwilling to visit healthcare settings at this time. We address the use of novel therapies and their role in managing diabetes and obesity during the pandemic, as well as the importance of controlling hypoglycaemia and preventing cardiovascular complications, particularly in vulnerable people. Finally, we consider post-COVID-19 management of diabetes and obesity, and how these learnings and experiences should impact upon future clinical guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Management , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology
17.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266499

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence of the dietary impact on obesity-induced low-grade chronic inflammation and the associated chronic non-communicable diseases modification. We determined changes in body composition and cardiometabolic and inflammatory status of participants with obesity after 24 weeks of a dietary intervention based on an energy-reduced anti-inflammatory diet and examined the relationship of these changes with changes in the inflammatory potential of the diet. The anthropometric and body composition parameters of 81 participants (average age of 43 years, 74 women) were assessed. Metabolic status was determined using the glycemic and lipid statuses, and the cardiometabolic index and inflammatory status were determined using the concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The inflammatory potential of the diet was assessed using the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®). Intervention with an anti-inflammatory diet resulted in a significant reduction in body weight and visceral adipose tissue and caused improvements in the participants' cardiometabolic and inflammatory statuses. The anti-inflammatory diet was shown to be effective regarding obesity management. The study data could advance current scientific knowledge in the field of inflammation and diet, provide guidelines for obesity management, and find its application in routine clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Caloric Restriction , Diet, Mediterranean , Obesity/diet therapy , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Composition , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Female , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/physiopathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Weight Loss
18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 185, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097060

ABSTRACT

The disclosure of proven cardiorenal benefits with certain antidiabetic agents was supposed to herald a new era in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially for the many patients with T2D who are at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events. However, as the evidence in favour of various sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) accumulates, prescriptions of these agents continue to stagnate, even among eligible, at-risk patients. By contrast, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) DPP-4i remain more widely used than SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA in these patients, despite a similar cost to SGLT2i and a large body of evidence showing no clear benefit on cardiorenal outcomes. We are a group of diabetologists united by a shared concern that clinical inertia is preventing these patients from receiving life-saving treatments, as well as placing them at greater risk of hospitalisation for heart failure and progression of renal disease. We propose a manifesto for change, in order to increase uptake of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA in appropriate patients as a matter of urgency, especially those who could be readily switched from an agent without proven cardiorenal benefit. Central to our manifesto is a shift from linear treatment algorithms based on HbA1c target setting to parallel, independent considerations of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure and renal risks, in accordance with newly updated guidelines. Finally, we call upon all colleagues to play their part in implementing our manifesto at a local level, ensuring that patients do not pay a heavy price for continued clinical inertia in T2D.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycemic Control , Incretins/therapeutic use , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Global Health , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glycemic Control/adverse effects , Humans , Incretins/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 114, 2020 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690029

ABSTRACT

In the pandemic "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) people with diabetes have a high risk to require ICU admission. The management of diabetes in Intensive Care Unit is always challenging, however, when diabetes is present in COVID-19 the situation seems even more complicated. An optimal glycemic control, avoiding acute hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability may significantly improve the outcome. In this case, intravenous insulin infusion with continuous glucose monitoring should be the choice. No evidence suggests stopping angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-renin-blockers or statins, even it has been suggested that they may increase the expression of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, which is used by "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to penetrate into the cells. A real issue is the usefulness of several biomarkers, which have been suggested to be measured during the COVID-19. N-Terminal-pro-Brain Natriuretic-Peptide, D-dimer and hs-Troponin are often increased in diabetes. Their meaning in the case of diabetes and COVID-19 should be therefore very carefully evaluated. Even though we understand that in such a critical situation some of these requests are not so easy to implement, we believe that the best possible action to prevent a worse outcome is essential in any medical act.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 921-929, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425517

ABSTRACT

Background: The study investigates which physical performance or muscle function/mass tests significantly correlate with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and could potentially serve to identify physically inactive COPD patients in routine clinical practice. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in outpatients with moderate to very severe COPD. PA was measured during one week with the StepWatch Activity Monitor®, an ankle-worn accelerometer, and expressed in steps per day. Physical fitness and peripheral muscle function/mass were evaluated by the 4-meter gait speed (4MGS) test, the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), the 30-second chair stand test (30sCST), the timed up and go test (TUGT), handgrip strength, arm muscle area, calf circumference, the fat-free mass index (FFMI), and ultrasound measurement of the quadriceps muscle. Spearman's rank correlation analysis and ROC analysis were performed. Results: The study population (N=111, 69% men, mean age 68 years) walked a mean of 8059 steps/day. The daily step count strongly correlated with the 6MWD (rho=0.684, p<0.001) and moderately with the 4MGS (rho=0.464, p<0.001), the TUGT (rho= -0.463, p<0.001), and the 30sCST (rho=0.402, p<0.001). The correlation with the FFMI was weak (rho=0.210, p=0.027), while the other parameters did not significantly correlate with the daily step count. The 6MWD had the best discriminative power to identify patients with very low PA defined as <5000 steps/day (AUC=0.802 [95% CI: 0.720-0.884], p<0.001), followed by the TUGT, the 4MGS, and the 30sCST. Conclusion: The 6MWD, the 4MGS, the TUGT, and the 30sCST are easy to perform in any clinical setting and may be used by clinicians in the screening of physically inactive COPD patients.


Subject(s)
Hand Strength , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Exercise Tolerance , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Functional Performance , Postural Balance , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Time and Motion Studies
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