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BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1079, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463249


BACKGROUND: The safety of health care workers (HCWs) in Bangladesh and the factors associated with getting COVID-19 have been infrequently studied. The aim of this study was to address this gap by assessing the capacity development and safety measures of HCWs in Bangladesh who have been exposed to COVID-19 and by identifying the factors associated with respondents' self-reported participation in capacity development trainings and their safety practices. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on an online survey of 811 HCWs working at 39 dedicated COVID-19 hospitals in Bangladesh. A pretested structured questionnaire consisting of questions related to respondents' characteristics, capacity development trainings and safety measures was administered. Binary logistic regressions were run to assess the association between explanatory and dependent variables. RESULTS: Among the respondents, 58.1% had been engaged for at least 2 months in COVID-19 care, with 56.5% of them attending capacity development training on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), 44.1% attending training on hand hygiene, and 35% attending training on respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Only 18.1% reported having read COVID-19-related guidelines. Approximately 50% of the respondents claimed that there was an inadequate supply of PPE for hospitals and HCWs. Almost 60% of the respondents feared a high possibility of becoming COVID-19-positive. Compared to physicians, support staff [odds ratio (OR) 4.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.25-8.51] and medical technologists (OR 8.77, 95% CI 3.14-24.47) were more exhausted from working in COVID-19 care. Respondents with longer duty rosters were more exhausted, and those who were still receiving infection prevention and control (IPC) trainings were less exhausted (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86). Those who read COVID-19 guidelines perceived a lower risk of being infected by COVID-19 (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.29-0.67). Compared to the respondents who strongly agreed that hospitals had a sufficient supply of PPE, others who disagreed (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.31-5.51) and strongly disagreed (OR 5.05, 95% CI 2.15-11.89) had a higher apprehension of infection by COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The findings indicated a need for necessary support, including continuous training, a reasonable duty roster, timely diagnosis of patients, and an adequate supply of quality PPE.

COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Trials ; 21(1): 883, 2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892368


OBJECTIVES: General: To assess the safety, efficacy and dose response of convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion in severe COVID-19 patients Specific: a. To identify the appropriate effective dose of CP therapy in severe patients b. To identify the efficacy of the therapy with their end point based on clinical improvement within seven days of treatment or until discharge whichever is later and in-hospital mortality c. To assess the clinical improvement after CP transfusion in severe COVID-19 patients d. To assess the laboratory improvement after CP transfusion in severe COVID-19 patients TRIAL DESIGN: This is a multicentre, multi-arm phase II Randomised Controlled Trial. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex matched COVID-19 positive (by RT-PCR) severe cases will be enrolled in this trial. Severe case is defined by the World Health Organization (W.H.O) clinical case definition. The inclusion criteria are 1. Respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min; PLUS 2. Severe respiratory distress; or SpO2 ≤ 88% on room air or PaO2/FiO2≤ 300 mm of Hg, PLUS 3. Radiological (X-ray or CT scan) evidence of bilateral lung infiltrate, AND OR 4. Systolic BP < 90 mm of Hg or diastolic BP <60 mm of Hg. AND/OR 5. Criteria 1 to 4 AND or patient in ventilator support Patients' below18 years, pregnant and lactating women, previous history of allergic reaction to plasma, patients who have already received plasma from a different source will be excluded. Patients will be enrolled at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) hospital, Dhaka medical college hospital (DMCH) and Mugda medical college hospital (MuMCH). Apheretic plasma will be collected at the transfusion medicine department of SHNIBPS hospital, ELISA antibody titre will be done at BSMMU and CMBT and neutralizing antibody titre will be checked in collaboration with the University of Oxford. Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 will be recruited as donors of CP. The recovery criteria are normality of body temperature for more than 3 days, resolution of respiratory symptoms, two consecutively negative results of sputum SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR assay (at least 24 hours apart) 22 to 35 days of post onset period, and neutralizing antibody titre ≥ 1:160. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This RCT consists of three arms, a. standard care, b. standard care and 200 ml CP and c. standard care and 400 ml CP. Patients will receive plasma as a single transfusion. Intervention arms will be compared to the standard care arm. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome will be time to clinical improvement within seven days of treatment or until discharge whichever is later and in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcome would be improvement of laboratory parameters after therapy (neutrophil, lymphocyte ratio, CRP, serum ferritin, SGPT, SGOT, serum creatinine and radiology), length of hospital stay, length of ICU stay, reduction in proportion of deaths, requirement of ventilator and duration of oxygen and ventilator support. RANDOMISATION: Randomization will be done by someone not associated with the care or assessment of the patients by means of a computer generated random number table using an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open level study; neither the physician nor the patients will be blinded. However, the primary and secondary outcome (oxygen saturations, PaO2/FiO2, BP, day specific laboratory tests) will be recorded using an objective automated method; the study staff will not be able to influence the recording of these data. NUMBER TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): No similar study has been performed previously. Therefore no data are available that could be used to generate a sample size calculation. This phase II study is required to provide some initial data on efficacy and safety that will allow design of a larger study. The trial will recruit 60 participants (20 in each arm). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.4 dated May 5, 2020 and amended version 1.5, dated June 16, 2020. First case was recruited on May 27, 2020. By August 10, 2020, the trial had recruited one-third (21 out of 60) of the participants. The recruitment is expected to finish by October 31, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ID: NCT04403477 . Registered 26 May, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trial's website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.

Betacoronavirus/genetics , Blood Transfusion/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serotherapy