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Int Immunopharmacol ; 113(Pt A): 109325, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069174


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is cause of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In the last two years, SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions of people worldwide with different waves, resulting in the death of many individuals. The evidence disclosed that the host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 play a pivotal role in COVID-19 pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. In addition to inducing antiviral immune responses, SARS-CoV-2 can also cause dysregulated inflammatory responses characterized by the noticeable release of proinflammatory mediators in COVID-19 patients. Among these proinflammatory mediators, chemokines are considered a subset of cytokines that participate in the chemotaxis process to recruit immune and non-immune cells to the site of inflammation and infection. Researchers have demonstrated that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor (CCR2) are involved in the recruitment of monocytes and infiltration of these cells into the lungs of patients suffering from COVID-19. Moreover, elevated levels of CCL2 have been reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from patients with severe COVID-19, initiating cytokine storm and promoting CD163+ myeloid cells infiltration in the airways and further alveolar damage. Therefore, CCL2/CCR axis plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and targeted therapy of involved molecules in this axis can be a potential therapeutic approach for these patients. This review discusses the biology of the CCL2/CCR2 axis as well as the role of this axis in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis, along with therapeutic options aimed at inhibiting CCL2/CCR2 and modulating dysregulated inflammatory responses in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(5): 1137-1140, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380037


A country's preparedness for a prompt and successful implementation of vaccination programs plays a pivotal role in disease control and prevention. As it stands now, Afghanistan seems to be ill-prepared to embrace a successful implementation of the COVID-19 vaccination program because of a spate of challenges. These include, but are not limited to, the insufficient number of vaccinators, a dearth of fully integrated functioning cold chain, challenging geographical barriers, cultural issues, insecurity, and protracted conflict. The COVID-19 infodemic along with vaccine mistrust in the country will lead to a pervasive public vaccine hesitancy in Afghanistan, which will present serious obstacles to the COVID-19 immunization efforts. The politicization of the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and the complaints of embezzlement and misuse of the pandemic aid have already eroded public trust during the pandemic. To ensure a large-scale and equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, the cold chain infrastructure should be strengthened, and the immunization personnel trained. Antivaccination propaganda and misinformation should be tackled with effective communication approaches and effective community engagement, which consider culturally relevant messages appropriate to the culture and people. The allegations of corruption should be addressed to revive public trust in public health interventions, including COVID-19 vaccination.

COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Public Health/methods , Afghanistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Communication , Female , Geography , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/standards , Public Health/economics , Public Health/standards , Trust , Vaccination