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3.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613925

ABSTRACT

Despite the ongoing vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to help curb the debilitating effects of COVID-19 disease. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplemental curcumin treatment on clinical outcomes and inflammation-related biomarker profiles in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Ovid databases up to 30 June 2021 to find studies that assessed the effects of curcumin-related compounds in mild to severe COVID-19 patients. Six studies were identified which showed that curcumin supplementation led to a significant decrease in common symptoms, duration of hospitalization and deaths. In addition, all of these studies showed that the intervention led to amelioration of cytokine storm effects thought to be a driving force in severe COVID-19 cases. This was seen as a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1ß and IL6, with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-α. Taken together, these findings suggested that curcumin exerts its beneficial effects through at least partial restoration of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation may offer an efficacious and safe option for improving COVID-19 disease outcomes. We highlight the point that future clinical studies of COVID-19 disease should employ larger cohorts of patients in different clinical settings with standardized preparations of curcumin-related compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Hospitalization , Phytotherapy/methods , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Male , Patient Acuity , Transforming Growth Factor alpha/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1327: 139-147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316244

ABSTRACT

Background and aims Non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT) scanning is one of the important tools for evaluating of lung lesions. The aim of this study was to use a deep learning approach for predicting the outcome of patients with COVID-19 into two groups of critical and non-critical according to their CT features. Methods This was carried out as a retrospective study from March to April 2020 in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. From total of 1078 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who underwent chest CT, 169 were critical cases and 909 were non-critical. Deep learning neural networks were used to classify samples into critical or non-critical ones according to the chest CT results. Results The best accuracy of prediction was seen by the presence of diffuse opacities and lesion distribution (both=0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). The largest sensitivity was achieved using lesion distribution (0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.93), and the largest specificity was for presence of diffuse opacities (0.95, 95% CI: 0.9-1). The total model showed an accuracy of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79-0.99), and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.51-0.91) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), respectively. Conclusions The results showed that CT scan can accurately classify and predict critical and non-critical COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , Iran , Lung , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1327: 49-59, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316237

ABSTRACT

The emerging COVID-19 disease affects not only the physical health but also the emotional and psychological health of patients. This study aimed to explain the experiences of 22 recovered COVID-19 patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, Iran. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. This resulted in emergence of 3 themes "emotional-sensational paradox", "spiritual growth", and "experienced mental-psychological effects", with 11 main categories and 33 subcategories. The results of the study can be used to develop instructions and guidelines for the families of patients as well as healthcare teams to provide effective measures and interventions to minimize the suffering of patients and the damage to mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals , Humans , Iran , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(6): 1650-1659, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We designed this single-centre clinical trial to assess the potential benefits of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients with COVID19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Ninety-two patients with mild-to-moderate COVID19-associated ARDS were allocated to the placebo (45-cases) or NAC groups (47-cases). Besides standard-of-care treatment, the patients received either intravenous NAC at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day or the placebo for three consecutive days. The efficacy outcomes were overall mortality over 28-day, clinical status on day 28, based on the WHO Master Protocol, the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation, changes in ARDS-severity (based on the PaO2/FiO2 ratio), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores 48 and 96 h after intervention, RESULTS: No differences were found in the 28-day mortality rate between the two groups (25.5% vs. 31.1% in the NAC and placebo groups, respectively). Although the distribution of the clinical status at day 28 shifted towards better outcomes in the NAC-treated group, it did not reach a statistical significance level (p value = 0.83). Similar results were achieved in terms of the proportion of patients who required invasive ventilator support (38.3% vs. 44.4%), the number of ventilator-free days (17.4 vs. 16.6), and median time of ICU and hospital stay. Results regarding the change in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and SOFA scores also showed no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study did not support the potential benefits of intravenous NAC in treating patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. More studies are needed to determine which COVID-19 patients benefit from the NAC administration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier code: IRCT20120215009014N355). Registration date: 2020-05-18.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Acetylcysteine/adverse effects , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 325-333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114260

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is responsible for the current pandemic which has already resulted in considerable mortality worldwide. This systematic review was conducted to summarize the results of the published articles assessing the incidence of heart diseases in patients infected with COVID-19. The electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, Science Direct, and ProQuest were used to search for potentially relevant articles. Articles published from Dec 2019 to April 2020 were included. All cross-sectional, retrospective or prospective observational cohort and case-control studies were selected which reported the incidence or prevalence of myocardial injury, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Based on the inclusion criteria, 12 articles were selected. The incidence of cardiac injury was reported in 8 articles and 8 articles focused on the cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19 infection. The incidence of new cardiac injury was reported to be 7.2-77% in live and dead patients, respectively. The results showed that patients with cardiac injury had worse outcomes including higher mortality than those without cardiac injury. The most common cardiac injury outcomes were shock and malignant arrhythmias. The most common radiographic findings in patients with cardiac injury were multiple mottling and ground-glass opacities in the lungs (64.6%). A significant number of patients with cardiac injury required noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46.3%) or invasive mechanical ventilation (22.0%). Acute respiratory distress syndrome was seen in 58.5%, acute kidney injury in 8.5%, electrolyte disturbances in 15.9%, hypoproteinemia in 13.4%, and coagulation disorders in 7.3% of patients with cardiac injuries. In addition, survival days were negatively correlated with cardiac troponin I levels (r = -0.42, 95%, p = 0.005). The results of this review showed that myocardial injury in patients with COVID 19 has a poor prognosis. Hence, cardiac investigation and management in these patients are crucial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 309-324, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114259

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a fatal complication of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 disease. Here, we performed a scoping review and meta-analysis including clinical studies on patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with data on AKI assessment and characteristics, and the overall prevalence of AKI was estimated using a random-effects model. We identified 21 articles which passed the search criteria. All were quantitative observational studies which used a cross-sectional, retrospective, case report, or cohort methodology. This showed that aging, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, previous chronic disease, and other comorbidities were risk factors of AKI. Although the prevalence of proteinuria, hematuria, and increased serum creatinine was reported for up to 60% of the patients with COVID-19, the overall prevalence of AKI was estimated to be 8%. We conclude that although approximately two-thirds of patients with COVID-19 had symptoms of kidney damage, most of these did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AKI. Further studies should be performed to validate biomarkers for improved AKI diagnosis in COVID-19 patients and new treatment options are required to reduce the rate of mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 277-286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114256

ABSTRACT

There is data from individual clinical trials suggesting that procalcitonin (PCT) may be a prognostic factor in the severity of COVID-19 disease. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate PCT levels in severe COVID-19 patients. We searched Embase, ProQuest, MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and ISI/Web of Science for studies that reported the level of PCT of patient with severe COVID-19. We included all studies regardless of design that reported the level of PCT in patients with severe COVID-19. We excluded articles not regarding COVID-19 or not reporting PCT level, studies not in severe patients, review articles, editorials or letters, expert opinions, comments, and animal studies. Nine studies were included in the analysis. The odds of having more severe COVID-19 disease was higher in subjects with elevated PCT (≥0.05 ng/mL) compared with those having low procalcitonin (<0.05 ng/mL) [n = 6, OR(95% CI) = 2.91(1.14, 7.42), p = 0.025). After estimating the mean and standard deviation values from the sample size, median, and interquartile range, a pooled effect analysis indicated higher serum PCT concentrations in patients with severe versus less severe disease [n = 6, SMD(95% CI) = 0.64(0.02, 1.26), p = 0.042]. The results of this study showed that PCT is increased in patients with severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Procalcitonin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 265-275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114255

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims Non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT) scans can accurately evaluate the type and extent of lung lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the chest CT features associated with critical and non-critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods A total of 1078 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who underwent chest CT scans, including 169 critical cases and 909 non-critical cases, were enrolled in this retrospective study. The scans of all participants were reviewed and compared in two groups of study. In addition, the risk factors associated with disease in critical and non-critical patients were analyzed. Results Chest CT scans showed bilateral and multifocal involvement in most (86.4%) of the participants, with 97.6 and 84.3% reported in critical and non-critical patients, respectively. The incidences of pure consolidation (p = 0.019), mixed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidation (p < 0.001), pleural effusion (p < 0.001), and intralesional traction bronchiectasis (p = 0.007) were significantly higher in critical compared to non-critical patients. However, non-critical patients showed higher incidence of pure GGOs than the critical patients (p < 0.001). Finally, the total opacity scores of the critical patients were significantly higher than those of non-critical patients (13.71 ± 6.26 versus 4.86 ± 3.52, p < 0.001), with an area under the curve of 0.91 (0.88-0.94) for COVID-19 detection. Conclusions Our results revealed that the chest CT examination was an effective means of detecting pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities in the natural course of COVID-19. It can distinguish the critical patients from the non-critical patients (AUC = 0.91), which is helpful for the judgment of clinical condition and has important clinical value for the diagnosis and follow-up of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 253-260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114253

ABSTRACT

Aim The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has not only had an impact on physical health but also on psychological health. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of psychological distress in the community due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted in February and March 2020 in Tehran, Iran. We analyzed demographic characteristics and assessed depression, anxiety, and stress levels in 241 people using convenience sampling and the DASS-21 questionnaire. All statistical analyses were performed using R. Results The study population included 241 community-dwelling participants, of whom 145 were women and 96 were males. The mean age was 49.16 ± 8.01 years. Approximately two-thirds of participants (n = 158) reported no history of comorbid illness. The mean scores of depression and stress were at a "severe" level, while anxiety levels were at an "extremely severe" level. The prevalence of severe and extremely severe depression readings was 51.45 and 38.17%, respectively. In the anxiety subscale, the prevalence of severe and extremely severe depression was 95.90 and 4.1%, and in the stress subscale the prevalence was 48.97 and 4.98%, respectively. Conclusion In this study, people reported experiencing severe and extremely severe psychological distress. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement mental health intervention policies to cope with this ongoing challenge. We suggest that the incorporation of molecular biomarker tests into the algorithm could aid in assessment of patients and guide the most appropriate therapeutic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 245-251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114252

ABSTRACT

Aim The COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in early 2020 and is associated with high public anxiety all over the world. The healthcare community is at the highest risk of infection and thereby prone to most distress. The aim of this study was to explore and evaluate the degree of depression, anxiety, and stress levels among medical college students during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2020, 3 weeks after the first reported COVID-19 infection was identified in Iran. All medical college students who entered clinical courses were eligible for the study. Depression, stress, and anxiety were evaluated in these students using the DASS-21 questionnaire. Participants were selected by using availability sampling. All statistical analyses were performed using R version 3.5.1. Results The total number of participants was 207, with 143 males and 64 females. More than half of the participants (57.97%) were married. The mean duration of working experience among students with COVID-19 infection and experience in a medical ward was 3.00 ± 1.27 days and 17.40 ± 7.26 months, respectively. The majority of students had 2 or 3 days working experience with COVID-19 infection. The mean anxiety score of participants was 28.56 ± 4.68, the depression score was 29.36 ± 4.42, and the stress score was 28.99 ± 4.53. Our findings indicated that the mean scores of depression were at an "extremely severe" level, while stress and anxiety were at "severe" levels. The prevalence of "severe" symptoms of depression, stress, and anxiety was 69.57%, 60.87%, and 99.04%, respectively. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical students who were exposed to COVID-19-infected patients. Our results highlight the need to establish psychological support programs, training, and self-care for medical college students in relation to mental health. We recommend incorporation of molecular biomarker tests into an algorithm to aid in assessments and consideration of the appropriate therapeutic responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Psychological Distress , Students, Medical , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 237-243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114251

ABSTRACT

AIM: The outbreak of COVID-19 has laid unprecedented psychological stress on healthcare workers (HCWs). We aimed to assess the immediate psychological impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the HCWs at Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs using questionnaires in February and March 2020 in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran. We evaluated depression, stress, and anxiety levels using the DASS-21 questionnaire. Participants were selected by using census sampling. All statistical analyses were performed using R version 3.5.1. RESULTS: The study population included 217 HCWs (111 male, 116 female) and the mean age of the study group was 39.6 years old. Approximately two-thirds of the HCWs stayed in the hospital for 2-3 weeks. The mean scores of depression and stress were at a "severe" level, while anxiety scores were at an "extremely severe" level. The prevalence of severe scores was 38.71%, 2.30%, and 48.97% for depression, anxiety, and stress, and the prevalence of extremely severe scores was 46.54%, 97.24%, and 4.98% depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. In stress subscale, moderate stress was 47.46%. Female HCWs reported higher levels of depression compared with males. CONCLUSION: In this study, HCWs reported experiencing severe and extremely severe psychological burdens. Timely interventions to promote mental health in HCWs exposed to patients with COVID-19 need to be immediately implemented, with female nurses requiring particular attention. This process could be facilitated via tests for molecular biomarkers in accessible body fluids, such as saliva, plasma, and serum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 229-236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114250

ABSTRACT

AIM: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection can develop several psychological consequences. Epidemiological data on mental health and psychological disorder inpatients infected with COVID-19 pneumonia are not available in Iranian patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anxiety, stress, and depression of patients with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2020. All confirmed patients with COVID-19 were included in the study by census sampling. Assessment of depression, stress, and anxiety was performed using the DASS-21 questionnaire. All statistical analyses were performed using R version 3.5.1. RESULTS: The questionnaires were completed by 221 patients with COVID-19 infection (204 males, 17 females). The mean age was 45.90 ± 7.73 years. Our results indicated that the mean scores of depression and anxiety were at "extremely severe" levels, while stress levels were "severe." The prevalence of "extremely severe" symptoms of depression and anxiety was 54.29% and 97.29%, respectively. The prevalence of severe stress was 46.61%. CONCLUSION: In this study, patients infected with COVID-19 reported severe and extremely severe experience psychological distress. Further studies should focus on the combined use of psychological and molecular biomarker testing to increase accuracy. Overall, the findings demonstrate the necessity of special intervention programs for the confirmed patients with emerging infectious disease COVID-19 to promote mental health needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 211-228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114249

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal complication of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19 disease. This scoping review was carried out with international, peer-reviewed research studies and gray literature published up to July 2020 in Persian and English languages. Using keywords derived from MESH, databases including Magiran, IranMedex, SID, Web of Sciences, PubMed, Embase via Ovid, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were searched. After screening titles and abstracts, the full texts of selected articles were evaluated, and those which passed the criteria were analyzed and synthesized with inductive thematic analysis. Study quality was also evaluated using a standard tool. The overall prevalence of ARDS was estimated using a random-effects model. This led to identification of 23 primary studies involving 2880 COVID-19 patients. All articles were observational with a cross-sectional, retrospective, case report, and cohort design with moderate to strong quality. The main findings showed that COVID-19-related ARDS has a high prevalence and is different to ARDS due to other etiologies. Elderly and patients with comorbidities and organ failure should be closely surveyed for respiratory organ indications for several weeks after the onset of respiratory symptoms. There is currently no definitive treatment for ARDS in COVID-19 disease, and supportive therapies and their effects are somewhat controversial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 199-210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114248

ABSTRACT

AIM: We aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Iranian patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this single-center and retrospective study, patients with confirmed COVID-19 infections were enrolled. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with outcomes. RESULTS: Of 179 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, 12 remained hospitalized at the end of the study and 167 were included in the final analysis. Of these, 153 (91.6%) were discharged and 14 (8.38%) died in hospital. Approximately half (50.9%) of patients suffered from a comorbidity, with diabetes or coronary heart disease being the most common in 20 patients. The most common symptoms on admission were fever, dyspnea, and cough. The mean durations from first symptoms to hospital admission was 8.64 ± 4.14 days, whereas the mean hospitalization time to discharge or death was 5.19 ± 2.42 and 4.35 ± 2.70 days, respectively. There was a significantly higher age in non-survivor patients compared with survivor patients. Multivariate regression showed increasing odds ratio (OR) of in-hospital death associated with respiratory rates >20 breaths/min (OR: 5.14, 95% CI: 1.19-22.15, p = 0.028) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) >19 mg/dL (OR: 4.54, 95% CI: 1.30-15.85, p = 0.017) on admission. In addition, higher respiratory rate was associated with continuous fever (OR: 4.08, 95% CI: 1.18-14.08, p = 0.026) and other clinical symptoms (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: 1.05-11.87, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The potential risk factors including high respiratory rate and BUN levels could help to identify COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis at an early stage in the Iranian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 53-68, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114236

ABSTRACT

Following the outbreaks of SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has become an increasing threat to human health around the world. Numerous studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 appears similar to the SARS-CoV as it uses angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor to gain entry into cells. The main aims of this scoping review were to identify the primary hosts of coronaviruses, the relationship between the receptor binding domain of coronaviruses and ACE2, the organ specificity of ACE2 expression compared with clinical manifestations of the disease, and to determine if this information can be used in the development of novel treatment approaches for the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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