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1.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-19, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984697

ABSTRACT

The number of studies and reviews conducted for the Carboxylesterase gene is limited in comparison with other enzymes. Carboxylesterase (CES) gene or human carboxylesterases (hCES) is a multigene protein belonging to the α/ß-hydrolase family. Over the last decade, two major carboxylesterases (CES1 and CES2), located at 16q13-q22.1 on human chromosome 16 have been extensively studied as important mediators in the metabolism of a wide range of substrates. hCES1 is the most widely expressed enzyme in humans, and it is found in the liver. In this review, details regarding CES1 substrates include both inducers (e.g. Rifampicin) and inhibitors (e.g. Enalapril, Diltiazem, Simvastatin) and different types of hCES1 polymorphisms (nsSNPs) such as rs2244613 and rs71647871. along with their effects on various CES1 substrates were documented. Few instances where the presence of nsSNPs exerted a positive influence on certain substrates which are hydrolyzed via hCES1, such as anti-platelets like Clopidogrel when co-administered with other medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were also recorded. Remdesivir, an ester prodrug is widely used for the treatment of COVID-19, being a CES substrate, it is a potent inhibitor of CES2 and is hydrolyzed via CES1. The details provided in this review could give a clear-cut idea or information that could be used for further studies regarding the safety and efficacy of CES1 substrate.

3.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 32: 101003, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914505

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been circulating since 2019, and its global dominance is rising. Evidences suggest the respiratory illness SARS-CoV-2 has a sensitive affect on causing organ damage and other complications to the patients with autoimmune diseases (AD), posing a significant risk factor. The genetic interrelationships and molecular appearances between SARS-CoV-2 and AD are yet unknown. We carried out the transcriptomic analytical framework to delve into the SARS-CoV-2 impacts on AD progression. We analyzed both gene expression microarray and RNA-Seq datasets from SARS-CoV-2 and AD affected tissues. With neighborhood-based benchmarks and multilevel network topology, we obtained dysfunctional signaling and ontological pathways, gene disease (diseasesome) association network and protein-protein interaction network (PPIN), uncovered essential shared infection recurrence connectivities with biological insights underlying between SARS-CoV-2 and AD. We found a total of 77, 21, 9, 54 common DEGs for SARS-CoV-2 and inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD), SARS-CoV-2 and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), SARS-CoV-2 and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and SARS-CoV-2 and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The enclosure of these common DEGs with bimolecular networks revealed 10 hub proteins (FYN, VEGFA, CTNNB1, KDR, STAT1, B2M, CD3G, ITGAV, TGFB3). Drugs such as amlodipine besylate, vorinostat, methylprednisolone, and disulfiram have been identified as a common ground between SARS-CoV-2 and AD from drug repurposing investigation which will stimulate the optimal selection of medications in the battle against this ongoing pandemic triggered by COVID-19.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(31): 46527-46550, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906476

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly spread over the world, posing a global health concern. The ongoing epidemic has necessitated the development of novel drugs and potential therapies for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Advances in vaccination and medication development, no preventative vaccinations, or viable therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection have been developed to date. As a result, additional research is needed in order to find a long-term solution to this devastating condition. Clinical studies are being conducted to determine the efficacy of bioactive compounds retrieved or synthesized from marine species starting material. The present study focuses on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of marine-derived phytochemicals, which has been investigated utilizing in in silico, in vitro, and in vivo models to determine their effectiveness. Marine-derived biologically active substances, such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, peptides, lectins, polysaccharides, and lipids, can affect SARS-CoV-2 during the viral particle's penetration and entry into the cell, replication of the viral nucleic acid, and virion release from the cell; they can also act on the host's cellular targets. COVID-19 has been proven to be resistant to several contaminants produced from marine resources. This paper gives an overview and summary of the various marine resources as marine drugs and their potential for treating SARS-CoV-2. We discussed at numerous natural compounds as marine drugs generated from natural sources for treating COVID-19 and controlling the current pandemic scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(34): 51384-51397, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864443

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become one of the few leading causes of death and has evolved into a pandemic that disrupts everyone's routine, and balanced way of life worldwide, and will continue to do so. To bring an end to this pandemic, scientists had put their all effort into discovering the vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection. For their dedication, now, we have a handful of COVID-19 vaccines. Worldwide, millions of people are at risk due to the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Despite the lack of clinically authorized antiviral medications and vaccines for COVID-19, clinical trials of many recognized antiviral agents, their combination, and vaccine development in patients with confirmed COVID-19 are still ongoing. This discovery gave us a chance to get immune to this disease worldwide and end the pandemic. However, the unexpected capacity of mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus makes it difficult, like the recent SAS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Therefore, there is a great necessity to spread the vaccination programs and prevent the spread of this dreadful epidemic by identifying and isolating afflicted patients. Furthermore, several COVID-19 tests are thought to be expensive, time-consuming, and require the use of adequately qualified persons to be carried out efficiently. In addition, we also conversed about how the various COVID-19 testing methods can be implemented for the first time in a developing country and their cost-effectiveness, accuracy, human resources requirements, and laboratory facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Developing Countries , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820346

ABSTRACT

Since ancient times, plants have been used for their medicinal properties. They provide us with many phytomolecules, which serve a synergistic function for human well-being. Along with anti-microbial, plants also possess anti-viral activities. In Western nations, about 50% of medicines were extracted from plants or their constituents. The spread and pandemic of viral diseases are becoming a major threat to public health and a burden on the financial prosperity of communities worldwide. In recent years, SARS-CoV-2 has made a dramatic lifestyle change. This has promoted scientists not to use synthetic anti-virals, such as protease inhibitors, nucleic acid analogs, and other anti-virals, but to study less toxic anti-viral phytomolecules. An emerging approach includes searching for eco-friendly therapeutic molecules to develop phytopharmaceuticals. This article briefly discusses numerous bioactive molecules that possess anti-viral properties, their mode of action, and possible applications in treating viral diseases, with a special focus on coronavirus and various nano-formulations used as a carrier for the delivery of phytoconstituents for improved bioavailability.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331474

ABSTRACT

The precise role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the pathophysiology of the nasopharyngeal tract (NT) is still unfathomable. Therefore, we used the machine learning methods to analyze 22 RNAseq datasets from COVID 19 patients (n=8), recovered individuals (n=7), and healthy individuals (n=7) to find disease-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In comparison to healthy controls, we found 1960 and 153 DEG signatures in COVID 19 patients and recovered individuals, respectively. We compared dysregulated DEGs to detect critical pathways and gene ontology (GO) connected to COVID 19 comorbidities. In COVID-19 patients, the DEG miRNA and DEG transcription factors (TFs) interactions network analysis revealed that E2F1, MAX, EGR1, YY1, and SRF were the most highly expressed TFs, whereas hsa-miR-19b, hsa-miR-495, hsa miR 340, hsa miR 101, and hsa-miR-19a were the overexpressed miRNAs. Three chemical agents (Valproic Acid, Alfatoxin B1, and Cyclosporine) were abundant in COVID 19 patients and recovered individuals. Mental retardation, mental deficit, intellectual disability, muscle hypotonia, micrognathism, and cleft palate were the significant diseases associated with COVID-19 by sharing DEGs. Finally, we detected DEGs impacted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and mediated by TFs and miRNA expression, indicating that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may contribute to various comorbidities. These pathogenetic findings can provide some crucial insights into the complex interplay between COVID 19 and the recovery stage and support its importance in the therapeutic development strategy to combat against COVID 19 pandemic.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(19): 28062-28069, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603944

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the world gained dramatic experience of the development of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent researches notice an increasing prevalence of anxiety and circadian rhythm disorders during COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was describing clinical features of circadian rhythm disorders and the level of anxiety in persons who have had COVID-19. We have conducted a cohort retrospective study that included 278 patients who were divided into 2 study groups according to medical history: group 1 includes patients with a history of COVID-19; group 2 consists of patients who did not have clinically confirmed COVID-19 and are therefore considered not to have had this disease. To objectify circadian rhythm disorders, they were verified in accordance with the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-3. The level of anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The most common circadian rhythm disorders were sleep phase shifts. We found that COVID-19 in the anamnesis caused a greater predisposition of patients to the development of circadian rhythm disorders, in particular delayed sleep phase disorder. In addition, it was found that after COVID-19 patients have increased levels of both trait and state anxiety. In our study, it was the first time that relationships between post-COVID-19 anxiety and circadian rhythm disorders had been indicated. Circadian rhythm disorders are associated with increased trait and state anxiety, which may indicate additional ways to correct post-COVID mental disorders and their comorbidity with sleep disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronobiology Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 28: 100840, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587499

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in the development of a highly contagious respiratory ailment known as new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Despite the fact that the prevalence of COVID-19 continues to rise, it is still unclear how people become infected with SARS-CoV-2 and how patients with COVID-19 become so unwell. Detecting biomarkers for COVID-19 using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may aid in drug development and treatment. This research aimed to find blood cell transcripts that represent levels of gene expression associated with COVID-19 progression. Through the development of a bioinformatics pipeline, two RNA-Seq transcriptomic datasets and one microarray dataset were studied and discovered 102 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were shared by three datasets derived from PBMCs. To identify the roles of these DEGs, we discovered disease-gene association networks and signaling pathways, as well as we performed gene ontology (GO) studies and identified hub protein. Identified significant gene ontology and molecular pathways improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of COVID-19, and our identified blood-based hub proteins TPX2, DLGAP5, NCAPG, CCNB1, KIF11, HJURP, AURKB, BUB1B, TTK, and TOP2A could be used for the development of therapeutic intervention. In COVID-19 subjects, we discovered effective putative connections between pathological processes in the transcripts blood cells, suggesting that blood cells could be used to diagnose and monitor the disease's initiation and progression as well as developing drug therapeutics.

12.
Sens Int ; 2: 100131, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514296

ABSTRACT

In the absence of a proper cure for the disease, the recent pandemic caused by COVID-19 has been focused on isolation strategies and government measures to control the disease, such as lockdown, media coverage, and improve public hygiene. Mathematical models can help when these intervention mechanisms find some optimal strategies for controlling the spread of such diseases. We propose a set of nonlinear dynamic systems with optimal strategy including practical measures to limit the spread of the virus and to diagnose and isolate infected people while maintaining consciousness for citizens. We have used Pontryagin's maximum principle and solved our system by the finite difference method. In the end, several numerical simulations have been executed to verify the proposed model using Matlab. Also, we pursued the resilience of the parameters of control of the nonlinear dynamic systems, so that we can easily handle the pandemic situation.

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(48): 68071-68089, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474079

ABSTRACT

In the light of thousands of infections and deaths, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a worldwide pandemic. It has spread to about 22 million people worldwide, with a total of 0.45 million expiries, limiting the movement of most people worldwide in the last 6 months. However, COVID-19 became the foremost health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. Measures intended to curb the pandemic of COVID-19 included travel bans, lockdowns, and social distances through shelter orders, which will further stop human activities suddenly and eventually impact the world and the national economy. The viral disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After SARS-CoV-2 virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-related CoV, COVID-19 is the third most significant lethal disease to humans. According to WHO, COVID-19 mortality exceeded that of SARS and MERS since COVID-19 was declared an international public health emergency. Genetic sequencing has recently established that COVID-19 is close to SARS-CoV and bat coronavirus which has not yet been recognized as the key cause of this pandemic outbreak, its transmission, and human pathogen mechanism. This review focuses on a brief introduction of novel coronavirus pathogens, including coronavirus in humans and animals, its taxonomic classification, symptoms, pathogenicity, social impact, economic impact, and potential treatment therapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Social Change
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(46): 64951-64966, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446196

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak began in late 2019 in Wuhan, China, and have since spread globally. Deep sequencing analysis identified the disease within a few weeks, and on February 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) named it "COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2." SARS-CoV-2 was declared a global pandemic by the WHO in March 2020. Coronavirus disease has become a global challenge for researchers and health care workers, affecting over 174 million people and causing over 3 million deaths. Because of the widespread nature, extensive measures are being taken to reduce person-to-person contact, and special precautions are being taken to prevent the transmission of this infection to vulnerable populations such as geriatrics, pediatrics, and health care professionals. We summarized the genesis of COVID-19 spread, its pathology, clinical perspectives, and the use of natural ingredients as a possible cure for COVID-19 in this review. This article has highlighted information about current vaccines approved for emergency use as well as those in various stages of clinical trials. Vaccine availability around the world is a promising development in the fight against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We conducted a narrative review to present the current state and research on this situation, specific diagnosis, clinical manifestation, emergency approaches, herbal-based remedies, and COVID vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
15.
Comput Biol Med ; 138: 104859, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433102

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) still tends to propagate and increase the occurrence of COVID-19 across the globe. The clinical and epidemiological analyses indicate the link between COVID-19 and Neurological Diseases (NDs) that drive the progression and severity of NDs. Elucidating why some patients with COVID-19 influence the progression of NDs and patients with NDs who are diagnosed with COVID-19 are becoming increasingly sick, although others are not is unclear. In this research, we investigated how COVID-19 and ND interact and the impact of COVID-19 on the severity of NDs by performing transcriptomic analyses of COVID-19 and NDs samples by developing the pipeline of bioinformatics and network-based approaches. The transcriptomic study identified the contributing genes which are then filtered with cell signaling pathway, gene ontology, protein-protein interactions, transcription factor, and microRNA analysis. Identifying hub-proteins using protein-protein interactions leads to the identification of a therapeutic strategy. Additionally, the incorporation of comorbidity interactions score enhances the identification beyond simply detecting novel biological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and its NDs comorbidities. By computing the semantic similarity between COVID-19 and each of the ND, we have found gene-based maximum semantic score between COVID-19 and Parkinson's disease, the minimum semantic score between COVID-19 and Multiple sclerosis. Similarly, we have found gene ontology-based maximum semantic score between COVID-19 and Huntington disease, minimum semantic score between COVID-19 and Epilepsy disease. Finally, we validated our findings using gold-standard databases and literature searches to determine which genes and pathways had previously been associated with COVID-19 and NDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Nervous System Diseases , Computational Biology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430776

ABSTRACT

The worldwide transmission of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a deadly or devastating disease is known to affect thousands of people every day, many of them dying all over the planet. The main reason for the massive effect of COVID-19 on society is its unpredictable spread, which does not allow for proper planning or management of this disease. Antibiotics, antivirals, and other prescription drugs, necessary and used in therapy, obviously have side effects (minor or significant) on the affected person, there are still not clear enough studies to elucidate their combined effect in this specific treatment, and existing protocols are sometimes unclear and uncertain. In contrast, it has been found that nutraceuticals, supplements, and various herbs can be effective in reducing the chances of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also in alleviating COVID-19 symptoms. However, not enough specific details are yet available, and precise scientific studies to validate the approved benefits of natural food additives, probiotics, herbs, and nutraceuticals will need to be standardized according to current regulations. These alternative treatments may not have a direct effect on the virus or reduce the risk of infection with it, but these products certainly stimulate the human immune system so that the body is better prepared to fight the disease. This paper aims at a specialized literary foray precisely in the field of these "cures" that can provide real revelations in the therapy of coronavirus infection.

17.
Mar Drugs ; 18(10)2020 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389432

ABSTRACT

For a long time, algal chemistry from terrestrial to marine or freshwater bodies, especially chlorophytes, has fascinated numerous investigators to develop new drugs in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. As such, chlorophytes comprise a diverse structural class of secondary metabolites, having functional groups that are specific to a particular source. All bioactive compounds of chlorophyte are of great interest due to their supplemental/nutritional/pharmacological activities. In this review, a detailed description of the chemical diversity of compounds encompassing alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, fatty acids and glycerides, their subclasses and their structures are discussed. These promising natural products have efficiency in developing new drugs necessary in the treatment of various deadly pathologies (cancer, HIV, SARS-CoV-2, several inflammations, etc.). Marine chlorophyte, therefore, is portrayed as a pivotal treasure in the case of drugs having marine provenience. It is a domain of research expected to probe novel pharmaceutically or nutraceutically important secondary metabolites resulting from marine Chlorophyta. In this regard, our review aims to compile the isolated secondary metabolites having diverse chemical structures from chlorophytes (like Caulerpa ssp., Ulva ssp., Tydemania ssp., Penicillus ssp., Codium ssp., Capsosiphon ssp., Avrainvillea ssp.), their biological properties, applications and possible mode of action.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/pharmacology , Chlorophyta/chemistry , Chlorophyta/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(5)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180574

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), better known as COVID-19, has become a current threat to humanity. The second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has hit many countries, and the confirmed COVID-19 cases are quickly spreading. Therefore, the epidemic is still passing the terrible stage. Having idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the risk factors of the COVID-19, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie IPF, COPD, and CVOID-19 are not well understood. Therefore, we implemented transcriptomic analysis to detect common pathways and molecular biomarkers in IPF, COPD, and COVID-19 that help understand the linkage of SARS-CoV-2 to the IPF and COPD patients. Here, three RNA-seq datasets (GSE147507, GSE52463, and GSE57148) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) is employed to detect mutual differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for IPF, and COPD patients with the COVID-19 infection for finding shared pathways and candidate drugs. A total of 65 common DEGs among these three datasets were identified. Various combinatorial statistical methods and bioinformatics tools were used to build the protein-protein interaction (PPI) and then identified Hub genes and essential modules from this PPI network. Moreover, we performed functional analysis under ontologies terms and pathway analysis and found that IPF and COPD have some shared links to the progression of COVID-19 infection. Transcription factors-genes interaction, protein-drug interactions, and DEGs-miRNAs coregulatory network with common DEGs also identified on the datasets. We think that the candidate drugs obtained by this study might be helpful for effective therapeutic in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Computational Biology/methods , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Systems Biology/methods , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(5)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132434

ABSTRACT

Discovering drug-target (protein) interactions (DTIs) is of great significance for researching and developing novel drugs, having a tremendous advantage to pharmaceutical industries and patients. However, the prediction of DTIs using wet-lab experimental methods is generally expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, different machine learning-based methods have been developed for this purpose, but there are still substantial unknown interactions needed to discover. Furthermore, data imbalance and feature dimensionality problems are a critical challenge in drug-target datasets, which can decrease the classifier performances that have not been significantly addressed yet. This paper proposed a novel drug-target interaction prediction method called PreDTIs. First, the feature vectors of the protein sequence are extracted by the pseudo-position-specific scoring matrix (PsePSSM), dipeptide composition (DC) and pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC); and the drug is encoded with MACCS substructure fingerings. Besides, we propose a FastUS algorithm to handle the class imbalance problem and also develop a MoIFS algorithm to remove the irrelevant and redundant features for getting the best optimal features. Finally, balanced and optimal features are provided to the LightGBM Classifier to identify DTIs, and the 5-fold CV validation test method was applied to evaluate the prediction ability of the proposed method. Prediction results indicate that the proposed model PreDTIs is significantly superior to other existing methods in predicting DTIs, and our model could be used to discover new drugs for unknown disorders or infections, such as for the coronavirus disease 2019 using existing drugs compounds and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 protein sequences.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Proteins/chemistry , Datasets as Topic , Machine Learning , Protein Binding
20.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 21(3): 228-234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125178

ABSTRACT

Increasing reports of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patient's warrant clinicians to adopt and define the standardized diagnostic and managing protocols in order to investigate the linkage of neurological symptoms in COVID-19. Encephalitis, anosmia, acute cerebrovascular disease and ageusia are some of the emerging neurological manifestations which are reported in several cohort studies on hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Although the COVID-19 pandemic is primarily associated with infection of the respiratory tract system, but measures like lockdown and restricted physical movements to control the spread of this infection will certainly have neurobehavioural implications. Additionally, some of the patients with pre-existing neurological manifestations like epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease are more prone to infection and demand extra care as well as improvised treatment. In this review, we have focused on the neurovirological clinical manifestations associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the prevalence of neurovirological manifestations is rare increasing reports cannot be ignored and needs to be discussed thoroughly with respect to risk analysis and considerations for developing a management strategy. This also helps in defining the burden of neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/trends , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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