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1.
10th IEEE International Conference on Serious Games and Applications for Health, SeGAH 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213366

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy and uptake have been important issues in controlling the current COVID-19 pandemic in many regions around the globe, but the increase in vaccination rates has been slow or even halted in some countries. Therefore, people who have hesitated in getting the vaccine need to be addressed. One driver influencing vaccination uptake is closing the knowledge gap among the public by equipping them with a deeper understanding of how a vaccine works inside our cells to activate the immune system and develop immunity. Viral immunology is highly conceptual and requires an appreciation of molecular biology in the cell. To give individuals an intuitive awareness of the operation of a mRNA-type virus vaccine for COVID-19, we designed and developed a Virtual Reality (VR) based serious game called 'Cell Traveler'. Through this innovative VR serious game, the player can control and interact with a sequence of critical real-life events inside a cell triggered by the injected mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. In this paper, we describe the prototype of the 'Cell Traveler'. We utilize the concepts of serious game to create an experience to encourage students and the public to develop deeper mRNA vaccine knowledge through a memorable and fun experience. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Space and Culture, India ; 10(3):110-124, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating economic impact globally and Nepal is no exception. Tourism and migration abroad to work— two of the important sectors that have significantly contributed to the Nepali economy — have suffered tremendously in the face of lockdown and other restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, this paper aims to understand how COVID-19 impacted Nepalis while focusing on Nepal's tourism and migration sector. The paper is based on the review of secondary resources, including newspaper articles available in the public sphere. Data in this paper comes from the period prior to February 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the situation of Nepalis who were recovering from social and economic destruction caused by the global earthquake of 2015. The resulting lockdowns, the closing of land ports and airports, and the limitation of people's mobility have significantly affected Nepal's tourism sector. In addition, thousands of Nepali migrants lost their jobs and incomes in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations, Malaysia, India, and other destination countries as the pandemic struck the global economy. However, Nepali people appear to remain resilient in the face of yet another disaster. © 2022 Pulla et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

3.
Front Big Data ; 5:1051386, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2198743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic since March 2020 by the World Health Organization;identifying the disease progression, predicting patient outcomes early, the possibility of long-term adverse events through effective modeling, and the use of real-world data are of immense importance to effective treatment, resource allocation, and prevention of severe adverse events of grade 4 or 5. METHODS: First, we raise awareness about the different clinical trials on long COVID-19. The trials were selected with the search term "long COVID-19" available in ClinicalTrials.gov. Second, we curated the recent tweets on long-haul COVID-19 and gave an overview of the sentiments of the people. The tweets obtained with the query term #long COVID-19 consisted of 8,436 tweets between 28 August 2022 and 06 September 2022. We utilized the National Research Council (NRC) Emotion Lexicon method for sentiment analysis. Finally, we analyze the retweet and favorite counts are associated with the sentiments of the tweeters via a negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: Our results find that there are two types of clinical trials being conducted: observational and interventional. The retweet counts and favorite counts are associated with the sentiments and emotions, such as disgust, joy, sadness, surprise, trust, negative, and positive. CONCLUSION: We need resources and further research in the area of long COVID-19.

5.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 41:19-24, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2179612

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Antimicrobial resistance [AMR] has emerged as a global and national priority and establishing an effective surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance is an essential prerequisite for generating evidence for informed policymaking at both national and state levels. Method(s): Twenty-four laboratories were enrolled after assessment in the WHO-IAMM Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Delhi [WINSAR-D]. The NARS- NET standard operating procedures were adopted along with its priority pathogen lists and antibiotic panels. The members were trained to use WHONET software and monthly data files were collected, collated, and analyzed. Result(s): Multiple logistic issues such as procurement, erratic supply of consumables, non-availability of standard guidelines, lack of automated systems, high workload and low manpower were reported by the majority of member laboratories. Microbiological challenges such as differentiation between colonization and pathogen in absence of patient details, lack of confirmation of resistance, identification of isolates and lack of dedicated computer and genuine windows software for data were common to most laboratories. The total number of isolates of priority pathogens in 2020 was 31,463. Of these, 50.1% isolates were from urine 20.6% were from blood and 28.3% were from pus aspirate and other sterile body fluids. High levels of resistance were observed for all antibiotics. Conclusion(s): There are many challenges in generating quality AMR data in lower-middle-income countries. There is a need for resource allocation and capacity building at all levels to ensure the collection of quality assured data. Copyright © 2022 Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists

6.
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology ; 04:04, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175182

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is effective in preventing the occurrence or reduction in the severity of the infection. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are on immunomodulators, which may alter serological response to vaccination against COVID-19. Accordingly, we studied (i) the serological response to vaccination against COVID-19 in IBD patients and (ii) a comparison of serological response in IBD patients with that in healthy controls. A prospective study was undertaken during a 6-month period (July 2021 to January 2022). Seroconversion was assessed among vaccinated, unvaccinated IBD patients and vaccinated healthy controls using anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G (anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG) antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and optical density (OD) was measured at 450 nm. OD is directly proportional to the antibody concentration. One hundred and thirty-two blood samples were collected from 97 IBD patients (85 [87.6%] ulcerative colitis and 12 [12.4%] Crohn's disease). Forty-one of the seventy-one (57.7%) unvaccinated and 60/61 (98.4%) vaccinated IBD patients tested positive (OD > 0.3) for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Fourteen of the sixteen (87.5%) healthy controls tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Vaccinated IBD patients had higher ODs than unvaccinated IBD patients (1.31 [1.09-1.70] vs. 0.53 [0.19-1.32], p < 0.001) and 16 vaccinated healthy controls (1.31 [1.09-1.70] vs. 0.64 [0.43-0.78], p < 0.001). Three of the seventy-one (4.2%) unvaccinated IBD patients reported having recovered from COVID-19. Most IBD patients seroconvert after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, similar to a healthy population. A large proportion of IBD patients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies even before vaccination, suggesting the occurrence of herd immunity.

7.
International Journal of Academic Medicine and Pharmacy ; 4(4):544-549, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164781

ABSTRACT

Background: To control the COVID-19 pandemic, the only measure could be vaccination drive among country individuals. Pathetically, immunization refusal has been a common story in the media for well longer than 10 years. The study aimed to enlist the reasons for COVID-19 vaccine refusal among health workers of L3 level hospital and also to study the reasons for COVID-19 vaccination refusal by health care workers of L3 level hospital. To carry out this present study research question, the objectives were to prepare a detail list comprising of refusal reasons and also to find out correlations between refusal reasons and selected demographical variables like age/sex. Material(s) and Method(s): The present study consisted of 192 subjects from the Out-Patient Department at the Department of Medicine of Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, U.P. conducted between late December 2020 and March 2021. Informed written consent were obtained from all the study group subjects. A Questionnaire based research design was adopted for this study to assess the reasons for COVID -19 vaccination refusal by Health care workers of L3 level hospital. Result(s): The total study subjects involved in the present project were 192 with the mean age of the study population being 26.33 +/- 5.31 years. Majority of the hesitant respondents were females (56.8%). Out of all the 192 healthcare workers involved in the study, maximum (n=75) were from the allied courses followed by paramedical staff (n=61) and clinical doctors (n=56). Out of all the reasons enlisted for refusal of vaccination, sickness (n=51, 26.6%) was the single most dominant reason followed by drug allergy (n=23;12%), pregnancy (n=18;9.4%), food allergy (n=12;6.2%) and lactation (n=8;4.2%), with 79 respondents giving various other reasons for refusal like parents' denial (n=26), followed by presence of a medical condition (n=18), travel and scheduled appointments for personal/official tasks (n=4 each). A total of 27 respondents had failed to cite any specific reason for refusal. Reasons for refusal showed a significant variation for different age groups, sexes and professional categories (p<0.001). In effect, there was a statistically significant difference among different professional categories with respect to reasons for vaccine hesitancy (p=0.001). Conclusion(s): Improving intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in India is influenced by the effectiveness of the vaccine. To retard the progress of the pandemic, it will require acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine along with targeted health communication strategies that effectively reach the populace. Copyright © 2022 Necati Ozpinar. All right reserved.

8.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(12):1267-1274, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164054

ABSTRACT

Background: Long-lasting physical, cognitive, and mental health sequelae including depression and anxiety are common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Aim(s): This study was aimed to assess the immediate and medium-term mental health sequelae - depression and anxiety among coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ICU survivors. Method(s): The COVID-19 ICU Survivors of a tertiary level ICU were recruited into this study from 1 July 2020 to 31 October 2020. Willing participants were circulated with an electronic questionnaire. It consisted of demographics and questionnaires related to COVID-19 disease, comorbidities, and a patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale for depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale for anxiety. Responses were collected at the time of discharge. Follow-up was done at 2 weeks and 6 months. Result(s): Among the 133 COVID-19 ICU survivors contacted, 91 survivors submitted the baseline data at the time of discharge. Fourteen and another 11 survivors were lost to follow-up at 2 weeks and at 6 months. The median age was 52.75 and 68.1% (n = 62/91) were male. The median PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores showed a statistically significant decrease at 2 weeks and a non-significant decrease at 6 months compared to baseline scores. The GAD-7 score was the same or worse between baselines to 2 weeks, but it reduced between baseline to 6 months for all variables and their subgroups. Conclusion(s): This study revealed a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the immediate post-discharge period. These findings suggest the need for better mental rehabilitation strategies to deal with the well-being of critically ill survivors in future pandemics. Copyright © The Author(s). 2022.

9.
Kathmandu University Medical Journal ; 20(79):186-192, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2156556

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, which have emerged due to several mutations in spike protein, have a potential to escape immune protection provided by the first-generation vaccines, thereby resulting in breakthrough infections. Objective To identify the socio-demographic factors, clinical features, and outcomes in both vaccinated and unvaccinated hospitalized patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Method Socio-demographic details, clinical features, and the outcomes among fully vaccinated (double for Covishield/AstraZeneca and BBIBP-CorV and single for Janssen), partially vaccinated, and unvaccinated hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Result Among the hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n=299), 175 (58.5%) patients received a single-dose, 82 (27.4%) double-dose, and 124 (41.5%) did not receive any dose of the COVID-19 vaccines. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection when compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients was found to be associated among professional degree holders (23.4% versus 9.7%) (p<0.05), professional workers (43.4% vs. 25.0%) (p<0.05), hospitalization to general ward (76.6% vs. 72.6%) (p<0.05), and presence of multiple symptoms (>=3) (86.8% vs. 75.0%) (p>0.05) and comorbidities (>=2) (15.5% vs. 13.7%) (p>0.05). Despite such approximate incidences, the risk of in-hospital mortality among the vaccinated patients was reduced (0.6% vs. 3.2%) (p>0.05), when compared to the unvaccinated patients. The risk of in-hospital mortality was associated with the older age and the presence of multiple comorbidities including bronchial asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusion Full or partial vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns might be effective in preventing in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients. Copyright © 2022, Kathmandu University. All rights reserved.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1):915, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2153522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several methodological tests are available to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibody. Tests are mostly used in the aid of diagnosis or for serological assessment. No tests are fully confirmatory and have variable level of diagnostic ability. We aimed at assessing agreement with three serological tests: quantitative anti receptor binding domain ELISA (Q-RBD), qualitative ELISA (WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 Ab) and qualitative chemiluminescence assay (CLIA). METHODS: This study was a part of a large population based sero-epidemiological cohort study. Participants aged 1 year or older were included from 25 randomly selected clusters each in Delhi urban (urban resettlement colony of South Delhi district) and Delhi rural (villages in Faridabad district, Haryana). Three type of tests were applied to all the baseline blood samples. Result of the three tests were evaluated by estimating the total agreement and kappa value. RESULTS: Total 3491 blood samples collected from March to September, 2021, out of which 1700 (48.7%) from urban and 1791 (51.3%) from rural. Overall 44.1% of participants were male. The proportion of sero-positivity were 78.1%, 75.2% and 31.8% by Wantai, QRBD and CLIA tests respectively. The total agreement between Wantai and QRBD was 94.5%, 53.1% between Wantai and CLIA, and 56.8% between QRBD and CLIA. The kappa value between these three tests were 0.84 (95% CI 0.80-0.87), 0.22 (95% CI 0.19-0.24) and 0.26 (95% CI 0.23-0.28). CONCLUSIONS: There was strong concordance between Wantai and QRBD test. Agreement between CLIA with other two tests was low. Wantai and QRBD tests measuring the antibody to same S protein can be used with high agreement based on the relevant scenario.

11.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109(Supplement 5):v147, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2134965

ABSTRACT

Aims: Low doctor morale and mental well-being is associated with poor patient care, especially during The COVID-19 pandemic. We report on a local initiative, Feel Good Factor (FGF), and its impact on doctors and The department. Method(s): FGF is a monthly presentation at The departmental meeting implemented at WHH, started in December 2019;where kind acts are applauded. A 10-item questionnaire was distributed to doctors working in two Surgery Departments (WHH and QEQM) in May 2021. Questionnaires collected demographic data, awareness of both positive/negative events and mental well-being using Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS). Data was collected on audits, QIp's, sickness due to mental health, junior progression and publications. Result(s): 48 doctors responded (58.3% QEQM). There was no significant difference in overall WEMWBS score. Doctors in The WHH Department were more decisive (70% vs 25%, P = 0.043);positive incident reporting was higher at WHH (25.0% vs 0.0%, P = 0.025). A trust-wide record number of 45 audits, 22 publications, 6 national studies and 11 juniors progressed in 2020. Patient clinical marker of NELA mortality was one of The leaSt. There was no sickness leave due to mental health. FGF was also shortlisted for The annual BMJ awards. Conclusion(s): FGF is associated with increased awareness of positive events. Improved doctor morale led to widespread participation in projects and departmental output leading to national recognition. Initiatives such as FGF should be encouraged and advertised to other departments, to improve The hospital rating.

12.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13(4):1167-1171, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121072

ABSTRACT

Pandemic challenges demanded immediate solutions and continues improvement in solutions on field which motivated the entire world's research community to find an opportunity to provide speedy solutions to problems. Agile developments provide immediate improvements which functioned on the grounds of assorted health care units, medical facilities, pharmaceuticals and variants of COVID 19 cases. Agile developments proved its effectiveness for immediate solutions which take full advantage of aids to health and pharmaceutical organizations and also exploits worth rapport with health stakeholders. This springs a thirst for carrying out the study on agile developments and its effectiveness for health and pharmaceuticals so, the study focuses to design generic adaptive emergency agile model for Health care and pharmaceuticals to deal with Crisis pressure which will support COVID 19 medical research field.

13.
Colorectal Disease ; 24(Supplement 2):62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2078384

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Colon Capsule Endoscopy (CCE) is a painless, minimally invasive camera in a capsule (PillCam Colon 2) that can be swallowed to examine the colon with reliable accuracy. Because of the risk of COVID -19 transmission, renewed interest in CCE has emerged. However, concerns remain about the subsequent need for invasive colonoscopy. Method(s): Our Trust is one of the 42 centers taking part in this NHS-England sponsored pilot study. Patients with moderate risk of colon cancer returning a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) value of 10 to 100 mug/g and willing to participate will be included in the study. Bowel preparation is standardized as per the study guidelines. Our initial experience includes data from 52 patients recruited over the past 6 months. Result(s): There were 52 patients who consented for the study (16 males and 36 females) with mean age of 60 (24-80) years. Complete CCE, with capsule elimination during recording, was achieved in 38 (73%) patients. Fourteen (27%) patients had an incomplete examination, of which 7 (13.5%) patients underwent colonoscopy, 4 of whom needed colonoscopy anyway due to the presence of polyps and IBD. The remaining 7 (13.5%) required only flexible sigmoidoscopy.Of those who underwent a full CCE, 13 (25%) needed colonoscopy and 2 (4%) needed flexible sigmoidoscopy only, due to findings noted on CCE. Thus, altogether CCE avoided colonoscopy in 32 (62%) patients. Conclusion(s): Colon capsule endoscopy reduces the need for invasive colonoscopy. It is a safe, reliable, and noninvasive diagnostic tool.

14.
10th International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media, SocialNLP 2022 ; : 54-63, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2073637

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we present a minimally-supervised approach to identify human needs expressed in tweets. Taking inspiration from Frustration-Aggression theory, we trained RoBERTa model to classify tweets expressing frustration which serves as an indicator of unmet needs. Although the notion of frustration is highly subjective and complex, the findings support the use of pretrained language model in identifying tweets with unmet needs. Our study reveals the major causes behind feeling frustrated during the lockdown and the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Our proposed approach can be useful in timely identification and prioritization of emerging human needs in the event of a crisis. © 2022 Association for Computational Linguistics.

16.
Technology and Culture ; 63(2):471-476, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1981020

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented spread of the COVID-19 pandemic compelled academic institutions and public repositories worldwide to come up with novel ideas in order to keep themselves functional. Adoption of new technology often constituted the fulcrum of such institutional responses. This article delves into some of the measures adopted by the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, one of India's premier research institutes in social sciences. While doing so, it delineates a few anecdotal references from the past as well. The article emphasizes that the technological shifts in the wake of COVID-19 have far-reaching consequences so far as dissemination of knowledge through seminars and access to primary sources are concerned.

17.
Journal of the Nepal Medical Association ; 60(252):727-731, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1979940

ABSTRACT

The in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 could be correlated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 induced hyper-inflammation, which is attributed to an unconstrained inflammatory cytokine storm. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, specifically, interleukin-6 plays a prominent role in the cytokine storm and may result in alveolar-capillary blood-gas exchange dysfunction. Therefore, the method to block the signal transduction pathway of interleukin-6 could be a potential treatment for severe COVID-19 patients. In this case series of three patients with severe COVID-19, we focus on the rationale for utilization of tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, which could block the signal transduction pathway of interleukin-6. The observations from this study allowed us to hypothesize that the infusions of tocilizumab may not reduce the elevated level of interleukin-6, and hence may not be a significant therapeutic for reducing in-hospital mortality associated with COVID-19. Additionally, it could also be speculated that interleukin-6 may not be a potentially actionable target cytokine to treat COVID-19-associated cytokine storms.

18.
Education and Self Development ; 17(2):9-25, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965024

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Viva voce or oral examination is widely used to assess the cognitive domain along with attitude and communication skills of students. However, the role of traditional viva voce examinations has always been challenged for high stakes exams due to its poor reliability of assessment. Therefore, it is imperative to train faculty members in the correct procedures and assessment practices in viva voce examinations. Given the challenges faced due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, an online faculty training program was conducted and evaluated. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an online faculty development programme in improving the knowledge of the good practices for the conduct of viva voce among faculty members. Methods: This intervention-based study was carried out among 32 faculty members who were participants of an online workshop on viva voce. It was held at a private medical college in November 2020. Relevant knowledge of the participants before and after the workshop was assessed using multiple choice questions designed in Google Doc. Paired and Unpaired t-tests were used to test associations. Results: The majority of the participants were faculties of clinical science subjects [17(53.1%)]. Their median years of teaching experience was 12.5(4, 25.7). Half of the participants attended this workshop to learn the recommended procedure for conducting a viva voce. The mean pre-test score among participants was 6.3±2.2, and the mean post-test score was 8.8±2.7 (t=4.381, p<0.001). Most participants gave a positive feedback about the workshop. Conclusion: Based on the performance scores and the positive feedback given by the participants, this online workshop was found to improve their knowledge regarding good practice for conducting a viva voce. The training of teachers in the proper conduct of viva voce is essential at every teaching institution and can be effectively delivered using online platforms, as confirmed by this study. © 2022, Kazan Federal University. All rights reserved.

19.
IIUM Medical Journal Malaysia ; 21(3):76-84, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934966

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the global evolution of COVID-19, and Malaysia’s efforts in containing it, the onus of curtailing spread depends on the efforts of Malaysians to comply and adapt to the emerging new social norms. Our aim was to study the attitudes and practices of residents in Penang and Kedah towards COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in late October 2020 via an online self-reported structured questionnaire. A five-point Likert scale was used in both 12-item attitudes and 10-item practices questionnaires. Data scored was converted into categorical data based on median value of good and bad attitudes and practices. Spearman’s correlation was used to analyse the relationship between attitudes and practices, while Chi-square test was used to determine the differences of attitudes and practices between the two states. RESULTS: A total of 834 respondents were enrolled, who were mostly aged 20 to 30, of Malay and Chinese ethnicity, and were from the green zone (40.9%). The mean attitudes score was 44.5 for Kedah and 44.3 for Penang. The mean practices score was the same for both states at 10.8. Gender was significantly associated with good attitudes (p=0.007) in Penang. Gender: Penang (p=0.007) and Kedah (p=-0.001), marital status (p=0.003) and employment status (p=0.001) in Kedah were significantly associated with good practices. Overall, 94.8% agreed to strict enforcement of social distancing and masking. A weak but positive correlation (r=0.30;p<0.001) was found between attitudes and practices. Shortfall in practices relating to not wearing mask properly, not disposing of masks properly and poor cough etiquette. CONCLUSION: Level of compliance to the new norms was generally good with little difference between the two states. A small proportion of people still had poor practices. We need to ensure that the social norms are sustained by the community. © 2022. IIUM Medical Journal Malaysia. All Rights Reserved.

20.
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism ; 13(3):665-673, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893403

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of particulate matter i.e. PM2.5 & PM10 in the selected metropolitan area (Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata & Bengaluru). Data used and analysed in this research was taken from the official website of CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board). Analysis is done before and during the lockdown period. For the current analysis, data from the chosen parameters (Particulate Matter with a diameter equal to or less than 10 microns (PM10) and particulate matter with a diameter equal or less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) are gathered and analysed from the source i.e. CPCP. Site wise, histogram analysis was also performed. The PM concentration is found to be the highest in Delhi, among all locations. During the study period, a clear association between PM10 and PM2.5 was observed at all the sites. A great change was observed in the values of Particulate Matter before and after the lockout cycles. In metro cities, values higher than PM10 were found to be PM2.5, except for Bangalore, where values lower than PM10 were found to be PM2.5. During the lockdown, Bengaluru was least polluted while Delhi was the most polluted city among all these metropolitan cities. During the analysis it was observed that the level of Particulate Matter (PM) got reduced as all kind of anthropogenic activities were stopped. Vehicular activities and other construction work were also stopped so it helped to reduce the PM from the surroundings. COVID-19 brought a meaningful drive to combat all kind of air related pollution and it is observed during this research. © 2022 by ASERS® Publishing. All rights reserved.

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