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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785694

ABSTRACT

Population health management is an emerging technique to link and analyse patient data across several organisations in order to identify population needs and plan care. It is increasingly used in England and has become more important as health policy has sought to drive greater integration across health and care organisations. This protocol describes a mixed-methods process evaluation of an innovative population health management system in North Central London, England, serving a population of 1.5 million. It focuses on how staff have used a specific tool within North Central London's population health management system designed to reduce inequities in COVID-19 vaccination. The COVID-19 vaccination Dashboard was first deployed from December 2020 and enables staff in North London to view variations in the uptake of COVID-19 vaccinations by population characteristics in near real-time. The evaluation will combine interviews with clinical and non-clinical staff with staff usage analytics, including the volume and frequency of staff Dashboard views, to describe the tool's reach and identify possible mechanisms of impact. While seeking to provide timely insights to optimise the design of population health management tools in North Central London, it also seeks to provide longer term transferable learning on methods to evaluate population health management systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Health Policy , Humans , Vaccination
2.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the first vaccine was administered in December 2020 in England. However, vaccination uptake has historically been lower in London than in other English regions. METHODS: Mixed-methods: This comprised an analysis of cumulative percentage uptake across London between 8 December 2020 and 6 June 2021 by vaccine priority cohorts and ethnicity. We also undertook thematic analyses of uptake barriers, interventions to tackle these and key learning from a qualitative survey of 27 London local authority representatives, vaccine plans from London's five Integrated Care Systems and interviews with 38 London system representatives. RESULTS: Vaccine uptake was lower in Black ethnic (57-65% uptake) compared with the White British group (90% uptake). Trust was a critical issue, including mistrust in the vaccine itself and in authorities administering or promoting it. The balance between putative costs and benefits of vaccination created uptake barriers for zero-hour and shift workers. Intensive, targeted and 'hyper-local' initiatives, which sustained community relationships and were not constrained by administrative boundaries, helped tackle these barriers. CONCLUSIONS: The success of the national vaccination programme depended on conceding local autonomy, investing in responsive and long-term partnerships to engender trust through in-depth understanding of communities' beliefs.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308681

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is resurgent in the UK and health and economic costs of the epidemic continue to rise. There is a need to understand the health and economic costs of different courses of action. Methods: We combine modelling, economic analysis and a user-friendly interface to contrast the impact and costs of different testing strategies: two levels of testing within the current test-trace-isolate (TTI) strategy (testing symptomatic people, tracing and isolating everyone) and a strategy where TTI is combined with universal testing (UT;i.e. additional population testing to identify asymptomatic cases). We also model effective coverage of face masks. Results: Increased testing is necessary to suppress the virus after lockdown. Partial reopening accompanied by scaled-up TTI (at 50% test and trace levels), full isolation and moderately effective coverage of masks (30% reduction in overall transmission) can reduce the current resurgence of the virus and protect the economy in the UK. Additional UT from December 2020 reduces the epidemic dramatically by Jan 2021 when combined with enhanced TTI (70% test-trace levels) and full isolation. UT could then be stopped;continued TTI would prevent rapid recurrence. This TTI+UT combination can suppress the virus further to save ~20,000 more lives and avoid ~£90bn economic losses, though costs ~£8bn more to deliver. We assume that all traced and lab-confirmed cases are isolated. The flexible interface we have developed allows exploration of additional scenarios, including different levels of reopening of society after the second lockdown in England as well as different levels of effective mask coverage. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased TTI is necessary to suppress the virus and protect the economy after the second lockdown in England. Additional UT from December 2020 reduces the epidemic dramatically by Jan 2021 and could then be stopped, as continued TTI would prevent rapid recurrence.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305945

ABSTRACT

Background: Most biomedical research has focused on sampling COVID-19 patients presenting to hospital with advanced disease, with less focus on the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic. We established a bioresource with serial sampling of health care workers (HCWs) designed to obtain samples before and during mainly mild disease, with follow-up sampling to evaluate the quality and duration of immune memory. Methods: : We conducted a prospective study on HCWs from three hospital sites in London, initially at a single centre (recruited just prior to first peak community transmission in London), but then extended to multiple sites 3 weeks later (recruitment still ongoing, target n=1,000). Asymptomatic participants attending work complete a health questionnaire, and provide a nasal swab (for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR tests) and blood samples (mononuclear cells, serum, plasma, RNA and DNA are biobanked) at 16 weekly study visits, and at 6 and 12 months. Results: : Preliminary baseline results for the first 731 HCWs (400 single-centre, 331 multicentre extension) are presented. Mean age was 38±11 years;67% are female, 31% nurses, 20% doctors, and 19% work in intensive care units. COVID-19-associated risk factors were: 37% black, Asian or minority ethnicities;18% smokers;13% obesity;11% asthma;7% hypertension and 2% diabetes mellitus. At baseline, 41% reported symptoms in the preceding 2 weeks. Preliminary test results from the initial cohort (n=400) are available: PCR at baseline for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 28 of 396 (7.1%, 95% CI 4.9-10.0%) and 15 of 385 (3.9%, 2.4-6.3%) had circulating IgG antibodies. Conclusions: : This COVID-19 bioresource established just before the peak of infections in the UK will provide longitudinal assessments of incident infection and immune responses in HCWs through the natural time course of disease and convalescence. The samples and data from this bioresource are available to academic collaborators by application <ns3:ext-link xmlns:ns4="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" ext-link-type="uri" ns4:href="https://covid-consortium.com/application-for-samples/">https://covid-consortium.com/application-for-samples/</ns3:ext-link>.

5.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health ; 75(Suppl 1):A80, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1394175

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSocial welfare legal problems are root causes of health inequality. Legal advice services can improve socio-economic circumstances and mitigate the financial and social costs of illness. With these aims, partnerships between healthcare and legal services exist across England to support patients with welfare needs. They occur in diverse health settings and take many forms. Success is markedly variable in developing collaborative working and sustaining cross-sector partnerships. This study investigates how such partnerships are implemented and what factors determine differences in implementation outcomes.MethodsA comparative case study of health-justice partnerships across England was undertaken. Services were recruited from different regions, representing diverse health settings and service models. Data were collected through: i) One-to-one semi-structured interviews with staff members and funding organisations;ii) Service records and documentation. In-depth qualitative analysis using the process tracing method was applied to each case study individually. Cross-case comparison of the resulting themes identified key patterns and determinants of implementation success.ResultsNine services participated in the study. Four were based in primary care, four in acute or specialist care (cancer services, mental health services, a children’s hospital and an HIV clinic) and one spanned both primary and secondary care. Thirty-eight interviews were undertaken with staff members in frontline and management roles. The case studies provide detailed descriptions of service models, including: co-location or remote working arrangements, referral methods and routes, cross-sector communication and data sharing, funding and management arrangements. The partnerships had experienced different trajectories: while some were long-lived (up to two decades), others had been discontinued, cut in size or had failed to properly establish. Factors influencing sustainability included decision-making processes around funding, strategic-level support and leadership characteristics. The extent of collaborative working was highly variable and influenced by: i) willingness to engage;ii) confidence to engage;iii) ability to engage. These factors were amenable to change. All the partnerships indicated benefits for patient access to legal assistance, positive welfare outcomes, improvements in mental wellbeing and patient experience. Benefits were strengthened where health and legal teams collaborated closely, with improved identification of need, professional skills and service efficiency.DiscussionHealth-justice partnerships have a critical role to play in supporting the NHS Covid-19 recovery and tackling health inequalities. Opportunities for cross-sector working are growing with the movements towards Integrated Care Systems and social prescribing. This study provides information to support the successful implementation of heath-justice partnerships in the near and longer term future.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e051687, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290907

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound effects on the working lives of healthcare workers (HCWs), but the extent to which their well-being and mental health have been affected remains unclear. This longitudinal cohort study aims to recruit a cohort of National Health Service (NHS) HCWs, conducting surveys at regular intervals to provide evidence about the prevalence of symptoms of mental disorders, and investigate associated factors such as occupational contexts and support interventions available. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All staff, students and volunteers working in the 18 participating NHS Trusts in England will be sent emails inviting them to complete a survey at baseline, with email invitations for the follow-up surveys sent 6 months and 12 months later. Opening in late April 2020, the baseline survey collects data on demographics, occupational/organisational factors, experiences of COVID-19, validated measures of symptoms of poor mental health (eg, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder), and constructs such as resilience and moral injury. These surveys will be complemented by in-depth psychiatric interviews with a sample of HCWs. Qualitative interviews will also be conducted, to gain deeper understanding of the support programmes used or desired by staff, and facilitators and barriers to accessing such programmes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the study was granted by the Health Research Authority (reference: 20/HRA/210, IRAS: 282686) and local Trust Research and Development approval. Cohort data are collected via Qualtrics online survey software, pseudonymised and held on secure university servers. Participants are aware that they can withdraw from the study at any time, and there is signposting to support services if participants feel they need it. Only those consenting to be contacted about further research will be invited to participate in further components. Findings will be rapidly shared with NHS Trusts, and via academic publications in due course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
7.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(11): 801-808, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study reports preliminary findings on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, mental health and well-being outcomes of healthcare workers during the early months (April-June) of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. METHODS: Preliminary cross-sectional data were analysed from a cohort study (n=4378). Clinical and non-clinical staff of three London-based NHS Trusts, including acute and mental health Trusts, took part in an online baseline survey. The primary outcome measure used is the presence of probable common mental disorders (CMDs), measured by the General Health Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are probable anxiety (seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder), depression (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (six-item Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder checklist), suicidal ideation (Clinical Interview Schedule) and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test). Moral injury is measured using the Moray Injury Event Scale. RESULTS: Analyses showed substantial levels of probable CMDs (58.9%, 95% CI 58.1 to 60.8) and of PTSD (30.2%, 95% CI 28.1 to 32.5) with lower levels of depression (27.3%, 95% CI 25.3 to 29.4), anxiety (23.2%, 95% CI 21.3 to 25.3) and alcohol misuse (10.5%, 95% CI 9.2 to 11.9). Women, younger staff and nurses tended to have poorer outcomes than other staff, except for alcohol misuse. Higher reported exposure to moral injury (distress resulting from violation of one's moral code) was strongly associated with increased levels of probable CMDs, anxiety, depression, PTSD symptoms and alcohol misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that mental health support for healthcare workers should consider those demographics and occupations at highest risk. Rigorous longitudinal data are needed in order to respond to the potential long-term mental health impacts of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Journal of Public Mental Health ; 19(4):327-332, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1123480

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper aims to introduce the concept of “health-justice partnership” (HJP), the provision of legal assistance for social welfare issues in health-care settings. It discusses the role of these partnerships in supporting health and care for people with mental health issues.Design/methodology/approachThe authors describe an example of an HJP;discuss the rationale and evidence for this approach in relation to mental health;and reflect on implementation challenges and future directions in the UK. The authors draw on both health and legal literature to frame the discussion.FindingsSocial welfare legal needs have negative impacts on mental well-being and are more likely to occur among people with mental health conditions. Integrating legal assistance with healthcare services can improve access to support for those with unmet need. High-quality research has demonstrated positive impacts for mental health and well-being as a result of HJP interventions. Both further research and wider strategies are required to support implementation of HJPs in practice.Originality/valueLegal assistance is rarely positioned as a health intervention, yet it is an effective tool to address social welfare issues that are harmful to mental health and to which people experiencing mental health are at greater risk. This paper highlights the importance of the HJP movement as an approach for supporting people with mental health issues.

10.
ProQuest Central; 2020.
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-2091

ABSTRACT

Background: Most biomedical research has focused on sampling COVID-19 patients presenting to hospital with advanced disease, with less focus on the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic. We established a bioresource with serial sampling of health care workers (HCWs) designed to obtain samples before and during mainly mild disease, with follow-usampling to evaluate the quality and duration of immune memory. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study on HCWs from three hospital sites in London, initially at a single centre (recruited just prior to first peak community transmission in London), but then extended to multiple sites 3 weeks later (recruitment still ongoing, target n=1,000). Asymptomatic participants attending work complete a health questionnaire, and provide a nasal swa(for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR tests) and blood samples (mononuclear cells, serum, plasma, RNA and DNA are biobanked) at 16 weekly study visits, and at 6 and 12 months. Results: Preliminary baseline results for the first 731 HCWs (400 single-centre, 331 multicentre extension) are presented. Mean age was 38±11 years;67% are female, 31% nurses, 20% doctors, and 19% work in intensive care units. COVID-19-associated risk factors were: 37% black, Asian or minority ethnicities;18% smokers;13% obesity;11% asthma;7% hypertension and 2% diabetes mellitus. At baseline, 41% reported symptoms in the preceding 2 weeks. Preliminary test results from the initial cohort (n=400) are available: PCR at baseline for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 28 of 396 (7.1%, 95% C4.9-10.0%) and 15 of 385 (3.9%, 2.4-6.3%) had circulating IgG antibodies. Conclusions: This COVID-19 bioresource established just before the peak of infections in the UK will provide longitudinal assessments of incident infection and immune responses in HCWs through the natural time course of disease and convalescence. The samples and data from this bioresource are available to academic collaborators by application https://covid-consortium.com/application-for-samples/.

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