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1.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology ; 12:S48-S49, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1859851

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to affect liver and GI tract in addition to primary involvement of lungs. Liver injury in COVID-19 is hypothesized to be multifactorial with 14- 73% of patients showing evidence of deranged liver functional. Data regarding the liver injury due to SARS CoV-2 infection in a large cohort of unselected patients, is limited, especially from India. So, we conducted a retrospective study among consecutive patients admitted with COVID-19 disease to a tertiary care hospital during the first wave of pandemic. Methods: It was a retrospective observational study. Consecutive patients infected with SARS- CoV-2 and admitted to the COVID-19 ward or ICU of our hospital between 1/4/2020 to 30/6/2020 were included. Patients, < 18 years of age, pregnant ladies and those with underlying liver disease were excluded. Detail history along with data on laboratory parameters, treatment given and outcomes (need for oxygen therapy, ICU admission, need for ventilatory support and in-hospital mortality) was collected and analysed. Results: Data on 303 patients was analysed after exclusions. The mean age was 47.9(15.9) years and 214(69.5%) were males. Out of 303 patients 149 (49.2%) had liver injury. Mild liver injury was present in 95(31.3%), moderate to severe liver injury in 54 (17.8%) patients and only 5 (1.6%) had severe liver injury. Pure cholestatic liver injury was present 19 (6.2%) cases. Male sex (82.1% vs 58.5%;P<0.001) and presence of symptoms (97.3% vs 90.8%;P= 0.01) were associated with presence of liver injury. Patients who had liver injury had significantly longer duration of symptoms before presentation [6 (3-8) days vs 4 (3-7) days);P=0.02] and higher serum ferritin levels [322(156-552) vs 151(44.9-299.5) ng/ml;P=0.02]. On multivariate analysis, serum ferritin was the only factor, independently associated with liver injury (OR- 1.002;95% CI- 1.001-1.004;P=0.006). Serum ferritin had a positive correlation with AST [r=0.416;P=0.0001] and ALT [R=0.458;P =0.0001] in the entire cohort. Liver injury was not significantly associated with need of oxygen therapy, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation or mortality but patients with moderate-severe liver injury had a longer hospital stay than those without [12.2 (5.07) vs 10.3 (4.84) days;P=0.01]. Conclusion: In COVID-19 patients, liver injury at presentation is common in symptomatic male patients and occurs around the end of first week and correlates strongly with serum ferritin levels, suggesting that it might be driven by immuno-inflammation.

2.
Journal of Business Research ; 145:117-129, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1720264

ABSTRACT

Natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes and pandemics) negatively affect firms and their stakeholders. These disasters disrupt the operations of firms and lives of people by generating a shock in the system. Small firms are especially vulnerable to the shocks and disturbances resulting from these disasters. Since small firms, especially family firms, are key economic contributors and agents of recovery in any community, understanding their post-disaster recovery processes is critical. Therefore, this study examines the post-disaster recovery processes of small family firms. We utilize a grounded theory approach to analyze and propose that resources and socioemotional wealth priorities influence the post-disaster recovery of small family firms. Utilizing the 8.8 Richter scale earthquake in Chile in 2010 as a natural disaster, we examine the eight-year lagged data of 20 small family firms with disrupted operations. Our findings have important implications for small firms experiencing the negative consequences of disruptions, including those experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic-induced disruption.

3.
International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1642480

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Smart cities in India are going to be a reality very soon by turning challenges into opportunities for the society. However, due to rapid increase in population burden, fast urbanization and growing demand of advanced services in the smart cities, the quantity of per capita municipal solid waste (MSW) has escalated. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has further challenged the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system with the increasing amount of infectious wastes coming from households (HHs), quarantine centers, healthcare facilities, vaccination centers, etc. Therefore, the present study attempts to explore and analyze the various dimensions of sustainable MSWM system in the smart cities. Design/methodology/approach: The study identifies 13 factors of sustainable MSWM system from the literature, field surveys and stakeholders' opinions. Thereafter, stakeholders' opinions are collected and analyzed using total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) approach to explore the interrelationships among the factors of sustainable MSWM system. These relationships are further validated through the empirical investigation of the real-life case study of Rourkela Municipal Corporation (RMC), Odisha, India. Findings: The TISM approach places all 13 factors into six levels in the hierarchical digraph depending upon the inputs received from the various stakeholders on their interrelationships. Study also validates the proposed TISM model by collecting the data of RMC, Odisha, on the development of MSWM system over the period of 2015–2021. Practical implications: The study also highlights various implications for the other developing cities and stakeholders to set up the roadmap for developing the sustainable MSWM system. Study defines “IT platform” and “awareness among citizens” as the base of the sustainable MSWM system in any smart city. Originality/value: The present study is the first of its kind to explore the interrelationships among the factors of sustainable MSWM system by using TISM approach. Moreover, the proposed TISM framework is further validated through the empirical journey of one of the smart cities in India. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

4.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 767493, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526773

ABSTRACT

Abnormal accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and their aggregation causes inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This promotes accumulation of toxic proteins in the body tissues especially brain leading to manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases. The studies suggest that deregulation of proteostasis, particularly aberrant unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling, may be a common morbific process in the development of neurodegeneration. Curcumin, the mixture of low molecular weight polyphenolic compounds from turmeric, Curcuma longa has shown promising response to prevents many diseases including current global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and neurodegenerative disorders. The UPR which correlates positively with neurodegenerative disorders were found affected by curcumin. In this review, we examine the evidence from many model systems illustrating how curcumin interacts with UPR and slows down the development of various neurodegenerative disorders (ND), e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The recent global increase in ND patients indicates that researchers and practitioners will need to develop a new pharmacological drug or treatment to manage and cure these neurodegenerative diseases.

5.
BJS Open ; 5(SUPPL 1):i11, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1493706

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 led to global disruption of healthcare and many students volunteered to provide clinical support. Volunteering to work was a unique medical education opportunity;however, it is unknown whether this was a positive learning experience. Methods: The COVID Ready 2 study is a national cross-sectional study of all medical students at UK medical schools. We will compare opinions of those who did and did not volunteer to determine the educational benefit and issues they faced. We will use thematic analysis to identify themes in qualitative responses, in addition to quantitative analysis. Results: The primary objective is to explore the effect of volunteering during the pandemic on medical education in comparison to those who did not volunteer. Our secondary objectives are to identify: whether students would be willing to assume similar roles in a non-pandemic setting;if students found the experience more or less beneficial than traditional hospital placements and reasons for this;what the perceived benefits and disadvantages of volunteering were;the difference in perceived preparedness between students who did and did not volunteer for foundation training year one and the next academic year;training received by volunteers;and to explore issues associated with volunteering, including safety issues and issues with role and competence. Conclusions: We anticipate this study will help identify volunteer structures that have been beneficial for students, so that similar infrastructures can be used in the future;and help determine whether formal voluntary roles should be introduced into the non-pandemic medical curriculum.

6.
R&D Management ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1373908

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 crisis has hit SMEs particularly hard. Numerous business models (BM) have been limited or rendered downright impossible due to decreased social contact. SMEs can respond to this exogenous crisis via temporary business model innovation (BMI). This empirical study investigates these temporary BMs using a multiple case study approach based on five SMEs in Austria, Germany, and Liechtenstein who within a short period of time applied their core competencies and networks to integrate new BMs, which were in some cases very different from existing ones. These had a positive effect on strategic flexibility, and if desired can also be incorporated into the firm long-term. The paper contributes to SME crisis management during the Covid-19 pandemic by pointing out and developing a successful management mechanism that allows to survive a crisis or even improve during this time. Moreover, we contribute to BMI literature by explaining temporary BMI as a new form of BMI. It also makes clear to managers that temporary BMs add value to firms and create new revenue streams.

7.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314590

ABSTRACT

Recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-1 and -2 initiate virus infection by binding of their spike glycoprotein with the cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and enter into the host cells mainly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. However, the internalization process post attachment with the receptor is not clear for both SARS-CoV-1 and -2. Understanding the cellular factor/s or pathways used by these CoVs for internalization might provide insights into viral pathogenesis, transmission, and development of novel therapeutics. Here, we demonstrated that the cytoplasmic tail of ACE2 is not essential for the entry of SARS-CoV-1 and -2 by using bioinformatics, mutational, confocal imaging, and pseudotyped SARS-CoVs infection studies. ACE2 cytoplasmic domain (cytACE2) contains a conserved internalization motif and eight putative phosphorylation sites. Complete cytoplasmic domain deleted ACE2 (∆cytACE2) was properly synthesized and presented on the surface of HEK293T and BHK21 cells like wtACE2. The SARS-CoVs S1 or RBD of spike protein binds and colocalizes with the receptors followed by internalization into the host cells. Moreover, pseudotyped SARS-CoVs entered into wtACE2- and ∆cytACE2-transfected cells but not into dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)-expressing cells. Their entry was significantly inhibited by treatment with dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, and NH4Cl, an endosomal acidification inhibitor. Furthermore, SARS-CoV antibodies and the soluble form of ACE2-treated pseudotyped SARS-CoVs were unable to enter the wtACE2 and ∆cytACE2-expressing cells. Altogether, our data show that ACE2 cytoplasmic domain signaling is not essential for the entry of SARS-CoV-1 and -2 and that SARS-CoVs entry might be mediated via known/unknown host factor/s.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Domains , Vero Cells
8.
7th IEEE International Conference on Bio Signals, Images and Instrumentation, ICBSII 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1280219

ABSTRACT

Robotics in the medical field is an ongoing trend in both research and commercial sectors. Robots are used in every hospital department for assistance in delivering things, surgery, checking vital signs, telepresence, etc. Medical prototype robot is a scenario-based assistive robot with a customized design to help the hospital staff fight against Covid-19 (Coronavirus disease) outbreak, ensuring social distancing. It has basic features like delivering medicine and small handheld devices, remote temperature sensing using IR (infrared) and UVC (ultraviolet type C) disinfection unit. The main aim of this prototype is to make the nurse not to handle the devices which was handled by the patients in which we can convey the information through an audio system (which is already available in the hospital) or a nurse will be assisting the initial instructions required (by ensuring the social distance) that is in the isolated ward so that the patient can do the task properly. For this prototype, we are using the basic microcontroller, that is, Arduino UNO. We were successful in taking readings with the help of a temperature sensor and were able to supply power to the UVC lamp in which it sterilized the objects inside the unit when it was exposed for 2-3 minutes. And finally, the robot was able to move successfully with the help of Arduino and Bluetooth setup. © 2021 IEEE.

9.
Chinese Journal of Physics ; 72:214-222, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1258350

ABSTRACT

Cough signal analysis for understanding the pathological condition has become important from the outset of the exigency posed by the epidemic COVID-19. The present work suggests a surrogate approach for the classification of cough signals - croup cough (CC) and pertussis (PT) – based on spectral, fractal, and nonlinear time-series techniques. The spectral analysis of CC reveals the presence of more frequency components in the short duration cough sound compared to PT. The musical nature of CC is unveiled not only through the spectral analysis but also through the phase portrait features – sample entropy (S), maximal Lyapunov exponent (L), and Hurst exponent (Hb). The modifications in the internal morphology of the respiratory tract, giving rise to more frequency components associated with the complex airflow dynamics, get staged through the higher fractal dimension of CC. Among the two supervised classification tools, cubic KNN (CKNN) and neural net pattern recognition (NNPR), used for classifying the CC and PT signals based on nonlinear time series parameters, NNPR is found better. Thus, the study opens the possibility of identification of pulmonary pathological conditions through cough sound signal analysis. © 2021

11.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066050

ABSTRACT

Virtually all SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently in clinical testing are stored in a refrigerated or frozen state prior to use. This is a major impediment to deployment in resource-poor settings. Furthermore, several of them use viral vectors or mRNA. In contrast to protein subunit vaccines, there is limited manufacturing expertise for these nucleic-acid-based modalities, especially in the developing world. Neutralizing antibodies, the clearest known correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2, are primarily directed against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein, suggesting that a suitable RBD construct might serve as a more accessible vaccine ingredient. We describe a monomeric, glycan-engineered RBD protein fragment that is expressed at a purified yield of 214 mg/l in unoptimized, mammalian cell culture and, in contrast to a stabilized spike ectodomain, is tolerant of exposure to temperatures as high as 100 °C when lyophilized, up to 70 °C in solution and stable for over 4 weeks at 37 °C. In prime:boost guinea pig immunizations, when formulated with the MF59-like adjuvant AddaVax, the RBD derivative elicited neutralizing antibodies with an endpoint geometric mean titer of ∼415 against replicative virus, comparing favorably with several vaccine formulations currently in the clinic. These features of high yield, extreme thermotolerance, and satisfactory immunogenicity suggest that such RBD subunit vaccine formulations hold great promise to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Female , Guinea Pigs , HEK293 Cells , Hot Temperature , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Stability , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccine Potency
12.
Brazilian Journal of Physics ; : 7, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1064634

ABSTRACT

A first report of unveiling the fractality and fractal nature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV-2) responsible for the pandemic disease widely known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is presented. The fractal analysis of the electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images of 40 coronaviruses (CoV), by the normal and differential box-counting method, reveals its fractal structure. The generalised dimension indicates the multifractal nature of the CoV. The higher value of fractal dimension and lower value of Hurst exponent (H) suggest higher complexity and greater roughness. The statistical analysis of generalised dimension and H is understood through the notched box plot. The study on CoV clusters also confirms its fractal nature. The scale-invariant value of the box-counting fractal dimension of CoV yields a value of 1.820. The study opens the possibility of exploring the potential of fractal analysis in the medical diagnosis of SARS CoV-2.

13.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association ; 118(6):35-42, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-678615

ABSTRACT

Over the last few weeks, there is an increase in the number of cases of Corona VIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) reported in India. Every clinician is likely to manage one or other form of presentation of the disease in his or her practice. Therefore, every clinician needs to be aware of the imaging appearances of the COVID-19. Chest radiograph is not a good diagnostic tool and higher imaging modality such as Computed Tomography (CT) may be appropriate. The risk of spread of infection amongst patients and to the healthcare workers can be a challenge in performing CT studies for patients with COVID-19. In this review, we describe common CT appearances of COVID-19 infection and its complications. We also discuss the role of CT in assessing disease severity, prognosis and its utility in monitoring of disease progression. National and international guidelines relating to the use of CT imaging in COVID-19 are also highlighted.

14.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association ; 118(5):14-19, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-678614

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease and has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. COVID-19 presents with lower respiratory tract infectionrelated symptoms and many patients might be asymptomatic carriers. Reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test used for diagnosis is not robust and has limited availability. Chest radiograph (CXR) is an easily available test and universally used for assessment of patients with respiratory symptoms. In this review, we discuss the various imaging appearances of COVID-19 on a CXR. We also look at the role of CXR in the diagnosis/screening of COVID-19, the utility of artificial intelligence and highlight various guidelines on imaging in COVID-19. Practical aspects relating to infection control and quality control are also discussed.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 55: 102743, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses pose a serious threat to global health as evidenced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19. SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the novel coronavirus, previously dubbed 2019-nCoV, and now officially named SARS-CoV-2, are the causative agents of the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 disease outbreaks, respectively. Safe vaccines that rapidly induce potent and long-lasting virus-specific immune responses against these infectious agents are urgently needed. The coronavirus spike (S) protein, a characteristic structural component of the viral envelope, is considered a key target for vaccines for the prevention of coronavirus infection. METHODS: We first generated codon optimized MERS-S1 subunit vaccines fused with a foldon trimerization domain to mimic the native viral structure. In variant constructs, we engineered immune stimulants (RS09 or flagellin, as TLR4 or TLR5 agonists, respectively) into this trimeric design. We comprehensively tested the pre-clinical immunogenicity of MERS-CoV vaccines in mice when delivered subcutaneously by traditional needle injection, or intracutaneously by dissolving microneedle arrays (MNAs) by evaluating virus specific IgG antibodies in the serum of vaccinated mice by ELISA and using virus neutralization assays. Driven by the urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines, we utilized this strategy to rapidly develop MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines and tested their pre-clinical immunogenicity in vivo by exploiting our substantial experience with MNA MERS-CoV vaccines. FINDINGS: Here we describe the development of MNA delivered MERS-CoV vaccines and their pre-clinical immunogenicity. Specifically, MNA delivered MERS-S1 subunit vaccines elicited strong and long-lasting antigen-specific antibody responses. Building on our ongoing efforts to develop MERS-CoV vaccines, promising immunogenicity of MNA-delivered MERS-CoV vaccines, and our experience with MNA fabrication and delivery, including clinical trials, we rapidly designed and produced clinically-translatable MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines within 4 weeks of the identification of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 sequence. Most importantly, these MNA delivered SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit vaccines elicited potent antigen-specific antibody responses that were evident beginning 2 weeks after immunization. INTERPRETATION: MNA delivery of coronaviruses-S1 subunit vaccines is a promising immunization strategy against coronavirus infection. Progressive scientific and technological efforts enable quicker responses to emerging pandemics. Our ongoing efforts to develop MNA-MERS-S1 subunit vaccines enabled us to rapidly design and produce MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines capable of inducing potent virus-specific antibody responses. Collectively, our results support the clinical development of MNA delivered recombinant protein subunit vaccines against SARS, MERS, COVID-19, and other emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Injections, Subcutaneous , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Time Factors , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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