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1.
Am J Crit Care ; : e1-e9, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomies are highly aerosolizing procedures yet are often indicated in patients with COVID-19 who require prolonged intubation. Robust investigations of the safety of tracheostomy protocols and provider adherence and evaluations are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of COVID-19 infection of health care personnel involved in COVID-19 tracheostomies under a multidisciplinary safety protocol and to investigate health care personnel's attitudes and suggested areas for improvement concerning the protocol. METHODS: All health care personnel involved in tracheostomies in COVID-19-positive patients from April 9 through July 11, 2020, were sent a 22-item electronic survey. RESULTS: Among 107 health care personnel (80.5%) who responded to the survey, 5 reported a positive COVID-19 test result (n = 2) or symptoms of COVID-19 (n = 3) within 21 days of the tracheostomy. Respondents reported 100% adherence to use of adequate personal protective equipment. Most (91%) were familiar with the tracheostomy protocol and felt safe (92%) while performing tracheostomy. Suggested improvements included creating dedicated tracheostomy teams and increasing provider choices surrounding personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary engagement in the development and implementation of a COVID-19 tracheostomy protocol is associated with acceptable safety for all members of the care team.

2.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(9): e0537, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443114

ABSTRACT

To prospectively describe 1-year outcomes, with a focus on functional outcome, cognitive outcome, and the burden of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, in coronavirus disease 2019 patients managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Prospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center in the United States. PATIENTS: Adult coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation March 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Baseline variables, treatment measures, and short-term outcomes were obtained from the medical record. Survivors were interviewed by telephone, a year following the index intensive care admission. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0. Cognitive status was assessed with the 5-minute Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to screen for anxiety and depression. Screening for post-traumatic stress disorder was performed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 5 instrument. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 14 (61%) survived to hospital discharge. Thirteen (57%) were alive at 1 year. One patient was dependent on mechanical ventilation, another intermittently required supplemental oxygen at 1 year. The median modified Rankin Scale score was 2 (interquartile range, 1-2), median World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0 impairment score was 21% (interquartile range, 6-42%). Six of 12 previously employed individuals (50%) had returned to work, and 10 of 12 (83%) were entirely independent in activities of daily living. The median Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 14 (interquartile range, 13-14). Of 10 patients assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, 4 (40%) screened positive for depression and 6 (60%) for anxiety. Four of 10 (40%) screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Functional impairment was common a year following the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in coronavirus disease 2019, although the majority achieved independence in daily living and about half returned to work. Long-term anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder were common, but cognitive impairment was not.

3.
Neurohospitalist ; 12(1): 31-37, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A variety of neurological manifestations have been attributed to COVID-19, but there is currently limited evidence regarding risk factors and outcomes for delirium in critically ill patients with COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to identify delirium in a large cohort of ICU patients with COVID-19, and to identify associated features and clinical outcomes at the time of hospital discharge. METHODS: This is an observational cohort study of 213 consecutive patients admitted to an ICU for COVID-19 respiratory illness. Delirium was diagnosed by trained abstractors using the CHART-DEL instrument. The associations between key clinical features, sedation and delirium were examined, as were the impacts of delirium on clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Delirium was identified in 57.3% of subjects. Delirious patients were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation, had lower P: F ratios, higher rates of renal replacement therapy and ECMO, and were more likely to receive enteral benzodiazepines. Only mechanical ventilation remained a significant predictor of delirium in a logistic regression model. Mortality was not significantly different, but delirious patients experienced greater mechanical ventilation duration, ICU/hospital lengths of stay, worse functional outcomes at discharge, and were less likely to be discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium is common in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and appears to be associated with greater disease severity. When present, delirium is associated with worse functional status at discharge, but not increased mortality. Additional studies are necessary to determine the generalizability of these results and the impact of delirium on longer-term cognitive and functional outcomes.

4.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(7): 4137-4145, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whereas data from the pre-pandemic era have demonstrated that tracheostomy can accelerate liberation from the ventilator, reduce need for sedation, and facilitate rehabilitation, concerns for healthcare worker safety have led to disagreement on tracheostomy placement in COVID-19 patients. Data on COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheostomy may inform best practices. Thus, we report a retrospective institutional cohort experience with tracheostomy in ventilated patients with COVID-19, examining associations between time to tracheostomy and duration of mechanical ventilation in relation to patient characteristics, clinical course, and survival. METHODS: Clinical data were extracted for all COVID-19 tracheostomies performed at a quaternary referral center from April-July 2020. Outcomes studied included mortality, adverse events, duration of mechanical ventilation, and time to decannulation. RESULTS: Among 64 COVID-19 tracheostomies (13% of COVID-19 hospitalizations), patients were 64% male and 42% African American, with a median age of 54 (range, 20-89). Median time to tracheostomy was 22 (range, 7-60) days and median duration of mechanical ventilation was 39.4 (range, 20-113) days. Earlier tracheostomy was associated with shortened mechanical ventilation (R2=0.4, P<0.01). Median decannulation time was 35.3 (range, 7-79) days. There was 19% mortality and adverse events in 45%, mostly from bleeding in therapeutically anticoagulated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy was associated with swifter liberation from the ventilator and acceptable safety for physicians in this series of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patient mortality was not increased relative to historical data on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Future studies are required to establish conclusions of causality regarding tracheostomy timing with mechanical ventilation, complications, or mortality in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Front Neurol ; 11: 964, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853972

ABSTRACT

This article describes the clinical course, radiological findings, and outcome of two patients with the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who remained comatose for a prolonged duration following discontinuation of all sedation. These two male patients, one aged 59-years and another aged 53-years, both with a history of hypertension and neurologically intact on admission, developed worsening COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Both required benzodiazepine, opioid, neuromuscular blockade, therapeutic anticoagulation, and vasopressor infusions in addition to renal replacement therapy. Echocardiography demonstrated normal chamber size and systolic function in both cases. Each patient demonstrated only trace flexion to pain 7-10 days following discontinuation of all sedation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging on both patients demonstrated multifocal lesions on diffusion weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient correlate in bilateral middle/anterior cerebral artery borderzones, and no large-vessel occlusion or severe stenosis. In both patients, continuous electroencephalography demonstrated no seizures. Neither patient had any documented period of sustained hypotension (mean arterial pressure <60 mmHg) or hypoxia (SpO2 <90%). Ninety days following initial presentation, the 59-years-old man was oriented, with fluent speech and able to ambulate with assistance, while the other 53-years-old man was at home and independent, undertaking the basic activities required by daily living. We conclude that critically-ill COVID-19 patients with prolonged coma following sedation discontinuation may demonstrate imaging features of ischemic injury in borderzone regions despite the absence of documented sustained hypotension or hypoxia. However, substantial neurological recovery is possible despite these findings.

6.
Neurocrit Care ; 33(2): 597-603, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations and respiratory failure remain dependent on mechanical ventilation and require tracheostomy, which is an aerosol generating procedure (AGP). The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to healthcare staff during AGPs is well documented, and negative-pressure rooms are often unavailable. Innovative techniques to decrease risk to healthcare providers during AGPs are necessary. Our objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) performed using a novel prefabricated low-cost negative-pressure tent (AerosolVE). METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive PDT procedures performed by neurointensivists on intubated adult patients with COVID-19 using the AerosolVE tent during the pandemic under an innovative clinical care protocol. The AerosolVE negative-pressure tent consists of a clear plastic canopy with slits for hand access attached to a U-shaped base with air vents. Air within the tent is drawn through a high-efficiency particulate air filter and released outside. Preliminary testing during simulated AGPs demonstrated negligible escape of particulate matter beyond the tent. The main outcome measure was successful completion of PDT and bronchoscopy within the AerosolVE tent, without complications. RESULTS: The patients were a 53-year-old man with multifocal ischemic stroke and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 53-year-old woman with cerebellar hemorrhage and ARDS, and a 69-year-old man with ARDS. Pre-procedure FiO2 requirement was 40-50% and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 8-12 cm H2O. The tent was successfully positioned around the patient and PDT completed with real-time ultrasound guidance in all 3 patients. Bronchoscopy was performed to confirm tube position and perform pulmonary toilet. No complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to perform PDT on intubated COVID-19 patients using the AerosolVE negative-pressure tent. This is a promising low-cost device to decrease risk to healthcare providers during AGPs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Protective Devices , Tracheostomy/instrumentation , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pressure , SARS-CoV-2
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