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1.
1st Conference on Online Teaching for Mobile Education (OT4ME) ; : 116-117, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1794807

ABSTRACT

Virtual Innovation & Research Acceleration Lab (VIRAL) is an ongoing teaching pedagogy project between SRM Institute of Science & Technology, Ramapuram Campus, Chennai and MIT Square, London. In the higher education sector, the year 2020 posed new obstacles. All three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a shift in the mentality of educators, teachers, and students from all over the world. The concerns and obstacles associated with higher educational institutions' rapid and abrupt transition from face-to-face learning to technology-assisted virtual learning. This study examines the effectiveness of Virtual Innovation & Research Acceleration Labs (VIRAL) teaching in developing Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) among engineering students. The researchers employed a Quasi-Experimental method. The sample consisted of 98 Engineering students who have regular laboratory classes as part of their curriculum. A group consisting of 49 students was selected as a control group and another group was selected as an experimental group randomly. The result of the study indicates that the experimental group has a greater mean of higher-order thinking skills than the control group. Thus it is concluded that the virtual lab teaching method for research and innovation has a significant positive effect in enhancing higher thinking skills in engineering. The study also has implications for facilitation in the higher order of inquiry processes and improvement of slow learners.

2.
Development Policy Review ; n/a(n/a):e12636, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1794711

ABSTRACT

Summary Motivation COVID-19 has disrupted the lives of millions of people worldwide. Migrants in developing economies have been among the most affected. This vulnerable population faces a threat to their livelihood and way of life. Hence, there is an urgent need to understand the impact of pandemic on their lives to be able to tackle subsequent waves of the pandemic or similar exogenous shocks in future. Purpose We delve into the economic and social disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on employment, sources of income, and lives of different categories of migrant labourers in the Indian state of Kerala. Methods and approach Using the livelihood portfolio theory, we dissect this impact in relation to a wide range of issues. This was corroborated by the in-depth semi-structured interviews with three categories of respondents. The interview data was analysed by using the directed qualitative content analysis method. We created themes from the data and juxtaposed them with the livelihood portfolio theory in addressing the research objectives. Findings Results highlight the impact on livelihood, lifestyles, migration prospects and gender aspects. First, the households dependent on international migrants were more severely affected than those with family members who were internal migrants. Second, a considerable lifestyle change (more reliance on a plant-based diet) and borrowing patterns (more reliance on informal money lending) was reported. Third, opinions on future migration prospects were pessimistic, and a trend in favour of reverse migration was noted. We also captured the resilience measures for each of the themes. Policy implications We find that blanket responses to mitigate migrants' hardships could be counterproductive. Policy-makers ought to implement tailor-made policies keeping in mind the migrants? classification and socio-economic demographics. Further, we recommend specific measures to address challenges that women face, to ease their workload and mitigate the loss of income. Specific measures aimed at initiating attitudinal change such as creating mental health awareness, curbing misinformation and providing counselling services could also add immense value in tackling the pandemic.

3.
2021 International Conference on Smart Generation Computing, Communication and Networking, SMART GENCON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1685140

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the Pandemic in last few months, rapid increase in the transmission of the virus and also the new emerging various strains of COVID-19 corona virus has led to complete Iockdown in the entire world. Meanwhile Iockdown imposed on various countries for longer duration has affected almost every sector of the society causing loss leading to hunger and poverty in the world. By considering all the situations and difficulties underwent by the human society a clear scenario where country not only needs Iockdown as it cannot be the effective solution in slowing down the rate of disease affecting people, So Society is Constantly looking for the alternatives that could help every sector in their business without loss is the topic of the hour. An alternative which could satisfy the above conditions is by Social Distancing and Wearing the Face mask. There by proposing our Real Time System which will detect whether required distance is maintained between two people and detect whether the face mask is worn or not by people with the aid of Web Camera using the most trending technologies Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning Algorithms, Deep Learning, CNN and few more. © 2021 IEEE.

4.
1st Conference on Online Teaching for Mobile Education, OT4ME 2021 ; : 116-117, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1672845

ABSTRACT

Virtual Innovation & Research Acceleration Lab (VIRAL) is an ongoing teaching pedagogy project between SRM Institute of Science & Technology, Ramapuram Campus, Chennai and MIT Square, London. In the higher education sector, the year 2020 posed new obstacles. All three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a shift in the mentality of educators, teachers, and students from all over the world. The concerns and obstacles associated with higher educational institutions' rapid and abrupt transition from face-to-face learning to technology-assisted virtual learning. This study examines the effectiveness of Virtual Innovation & Research Acceleration Labs (VIRAL) teaching in developing Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) among engineering students. The researchers employed a Quasi-Experimental method. The sample consisted of 98 Engineering students who have regular laboratory classes as part of their curriculum. A group consisting of 49 students was selected as a control group and another group was selected as an experimental group randomly. The result of the study indicates that the experimental group has a greater mean of higher-order thinking skills than the control group. Thus it is concluded that the virtual lab teaching method for research and innovation has a significant positive effect in enhancing higher thinking skills in engineering. The study also has implications for facilitation in the higher order of inquiry processes and improvement of slow learners. © 2021 IEEE.

5.
IMISCOE Research Series ; : 227-248, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1575384

ABSTRACT

This chapter looks at the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on internal migrants in India. According to the 2011 Census, there are over 450 million internal migrants, of which a massive 54 million are inter-state migrants. A large number of these migrants consist of labourers who comprise a huge percentage of the informal sector workforce, both in the rural and urban areas of India, and are vital to the country’s economy. These workers are also some of the most vulnerable, with inadequacies in terms of working conditions and coverage of social safety nets, and are also largely absent from India’s policy discourses. This chapter highlights the size and extent of internal migration as well as its distribution across different states in India. It shows how the current crisis and lockdowns have affected their lives and livelihoods. It particularly looks at the responses of central and various state governments – at destinations and origins – to ensure migrants’ wellbeing. It also analyses the socioeconomic impact of the migrant exodus from major destinations and looks at solutions to enable and ensure that migration patterns in the future are sustainable, and more importantly, ensure migrants’ rights and dignity. © 2022, The Author(s).

6.
IMISCOE Research Series ; : 207-225, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1575383

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has directly affected the millions of migrant workers in Gulf countries, mostly employed as temporary labour in construction and allied sectors. The Gulf region historically has been the most favoured destination for such jobs. However, the pandemic crisis has halted construction projects in these countries as the drastic fall in oil prices has affected Gulf oil and non-oil economies severely. This has had an adverse effect on Indian migrant workers as they face the threat of unemployment, leading to their voluntary or forced return to India. For example, at the end of 2020, half a million Kerala emigrants, most of them in the Gulf, had lost their jobs abroad due to the pandemic, making their return inevitable given their temporary status in these countries. This chapter examines how India is prepared to handle the changing trends in Indo-Gulf migration corridor and the subsequent return emigration from the Gulf. The chapter highlights major sending-state perspectives, such as that of Kerala and others, and their responses towards Gulf returnees. Moreover, it provides insights by revisiting the existing economic and social security measures for returning migrants and their families within the framework of state welfare schemes, thereby examining rehabilitation and re-integration mechanisms for return migrants at the central and state levels in India. © 2022, The Author(s).

7.
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology ; 4(5):22-23, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471071
8.
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology ; 4(5):S28-S29, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471076
9.
Chest ; 160(4):A2092, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1466191

ABSTRACT

TOPIC: Pulmonary Manifestations of Systemic Disease TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case Reports INTRODUCTION: Anti-MDA5 (anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5) associated dermatomyositis (DM) is a rare presentation of idiopathic inflammatory myositis, often presenting with treatment refractory rapidly progressing interstitial lung disease (ILD). Diagnosis is difficult as patients can present without symptoms or biochemical evidence of DM. We report a rare adult case of anti-MDA5 ILD with only pulmonary manifestations. CASE PRESENTATION: 74-year-old female with past medical history of atrial fibrillation status post pacemaker, reactive airway disease, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, was referred to pulmonary clinic for abnormal CT scan and dyspnea that began 4 months prior while living in India. Initial chest CT was significant for bi-apical consolidations and bronchiectasis. Bronchoscopy with lavage was positive for Aspergillus galactomannan, and she was treated with isavuconazole, prednisone, and Septra (for pneumocystis prophylaxis). Chest CT 4 weeks later showed improvement in consolidations. 3 months later, dyspnea recurred. She was re-started on prednisone 20 mg daily, and dyspnea resolved. She subsequently relocated to the USA. She had serial negative COVID tests. Pulmonary function test showed a restrictive ventilatory defect with decreased diffusion capacity. Follow-up CT chest revealed bi-apical scarring, and multifocal airspace consolidation. ESR 44 (elevated) and CRP 11.2 (elevated). IGE, aldolase, CK, hypersensitivity pneumonitis antibody panel, Aspergillus antibody, nuclear antibody panel, RF, and anti-CCP were negative. Extended myositis panel revealed high positive titer for anti-MDA5 and RNA polymerase 3 antibodies;subsequently confirmed with a different extended myositis assay. She was referred to a rheumatologist who recommended aggressive immune modulating treatment with prednisone, tacrolimus and cyclophosphamide. After discussion, she opted for mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. DISCUSSION: Anti-MDA5 associated DM can present with rapidly progressive ILD and is associated with poor prognosis. In a small prospective study, a triple therapy regimen consisting of high dose glucocorticoid, Tacrolimus, and intravenous Cyclophosphamide showed 6-month survival benefit compared to a step-up approach (which entailed starting with high dose glucocorticoids and later combining with immunomodulators). Plasmapheresis has been used for patients who have failed combination immunomodulators in multiple small case studies. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-MDA5 associated ILD should be considered in patients with new ILD, since it can present without evidence of DM. Intense multiple drug immune suppression is recommended from the beginning. Plasmapheresis and lung transplant can be considered if patients become refractory to combination immunosuppression. REFERENCE #1: Gupta R, Kumar S, Gow P, Hsien-Cheng Chang L, Yen L. Anti-MDA5-associated dermatomyositis. Intern Med J. 2020 Apr;50(4):484-487. doi: 10.1111/imj.14789. PMID: 32270621. REFERENCE #2: Fiorentino D, Chung L, Zwerner J, Rosen A, Casciola-Rosen L. The mucocutaneous and systemic phenotype of dermatomyositis patients with antibodies to MDA5 (CADM-140): a retrospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Jul;65(1):25-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2010.09.016. Epub 2011 Apr 29. PMID: 21531040;PMCID: PMC3167687. REFERENCE #3: Hall JC, Casciola-Rosen L, Samedy LA, Werner J, Owoyemi K, Danoff SK, Christopher-Stine L. Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5-associated dermatomyositis: expanding the clinical spectrum. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Aug;65(8):1307-15. doi: 10.1002/acr.21992. PMID: 23436757;PMCID: PMC3689861. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Peter Huh, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Sudhir Rajan, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Eduardo Solbes, source=Web Response

10.
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; 24(SUPPL 2):182, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1458237

ABSTRACT

Background: Reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection is a major concern prior to initiation of biologics or tsDMARDs in refractory spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. This study was carried out to observe the utility of TST and QFT-Plus among BCG vaccinated refractory spondyloarthritis patients in Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 51 consecutive refractory SpA patients of both genders were enrolled from July 2019 to July 2020 in the department of Rheumatology, BSMMU, Dhaka. All patients were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests. Chest x-ray, QFT-Plus and TST were done in all patients. For COVID-19 pandemic, estimated sample could not be enrolled. Therefore, a model based simulation test was used to convert the 51 primary data to 97 simulated data using R software with arm' and Himise package to observe the changing trends of results. By observing simulated outcomes researchers can gain insight on the real world. Agreement between TST and QFT-Plus was evaluated using kappa statistics. To identify variables associated with TST or QFT-Plus results bivariate analysis was done. Results: The mean age in years was 35.16 ± 11.24. Number of male and female were 39 (76.5%) and 12 (23.5%) respectively and ratio was 3.25:1. Among the enrolled subjects TST was positive in 5 (9.80%) patients and in simulation model positivity become 12 (12.37%). On the other hand, out of 51 subjects, 8 (15.58%) was QFT-Plus positive and in simulation model positivity turned out 16 (16.49%). Agreement between TST and QFT-Plus was poor;kappa value was 0.39 in primary data and 0.33 in simulated data. In simulated data female gender was associated with QFT-Plus positive results [Odd Ratio (OR) = 4.1;95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.38-12.76;p = 0.01]. Conclusion: QFT-Plus may be preferable than TST in the screening of latent tuberculosis infection in refractory SpA patients.

11.
Environment and Urbanization ASIA ; : 09754253211040195, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1390443

ABSTRACT

The urban?rural divide in India has been the cause of labour flow to Indian cities, which have historically witnessed an insufficiency in planning. Moreover, widening social inequalities exacerbate the living conditions in Indian cities, pushing the migrant labourers from rural areas to the margins of urban spaces. Public policymakers have long turned a blind-eye to migrants, denying them essential social security. This study attempts to review how these factors have made urban space unwelcome to migrants from rural areas, edging them to a state of inability to sustain themselves, especially amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also an attempt to re-evaluate the status of urbanization. The government imposed a sudden lockdown in 2020 to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak, leading to a massive exodus of migrants from cities back to their homes. The study also seeks to account for the significance of economic planning and social security with regard to migrant labour.

14.
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications ; 13(2), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1346614

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has created havoc around the world and has brought life to a disturbing halt claiming thousands of lives worldwide with the infected cases rising every day. With technological advancements in artificial intelligence (AI), AI-based platforms can be used to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic and accelerate the processes ranging from crowd surveillance to medical diagnosis. This paper renders a response to battle the virus through various AI techniques by making use of its subsets such as machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), and natural language processing (NLP). A survey of promising AI methods that could be used in various applications to facilitate the processes in this pandemic along with the potential of AI and challenges imposed are discussed thoroughly. This paper relies on the findings of the most recent research publications and journals on COVID-19 and suggests numerous relevant strategies. A case study on the impact of COVID-19 in various economic sectors is also discussed. The potential research challenges and future directions are also presented in the paper. © This article published as an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

15.
Stroke ; 52(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234381

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We assessed the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on stroke admissions and care metrics within a health system of 10 stroke centers, with 4 comprehensive stroke centers (CSC) in the greater Houston region. Methods: Between January-June 2019 and January-June 2020, we compared the proportion of ischemic strokes (total & direct CSC presentations) & intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) relative to total admissions using logistic regression, and among the direct CSC presentations, we compared door to tPA and thrombectomy times using Wilcoxon Rank Sum. Results: A total of 4808 cases were assessed (Table 1). There was an initial drop of ∼30% in cases at the pandemic onset (Fig.1). Numerically fewer patients in the 2020 period were seen at primary and CSCs (Table 1). Compared to 2019, there was a significant reduction in transferred patients [N(%), 829 (36) vs. 637 (34), p=0.02], in hospital strokes [N(%), 111 (5) vs. 69 (4), p=0.04], and mild strokes (NIHSS 1-5) [N (%), 891 (43) vs. 635 (40),p=0.02], and no significant differences in the proportions of total ischemic strokes [OR (95% CI)=0.92 (0.79, 1.06), p=0.23], direct CSC presentations [OR (95% CI) =0.96 (0.86, 1.08), p=0.48] and ICH [OR (95% CI) =1.14 (0.98, 1.33), p=0.08] in 2020 (Fig. 1). Among the direct ischemic strokes at CSCs, there were similar mean (SD) (mins) door to tPA [44 (17) vs. 42 (17), p=0.14] but significantly prolonged door to thrombectomy times [94 (15) vs. 85 (20), p=0.005] in 2020. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic led to reduced mild stroke admissions, transfers and in hospital stroke alerts, & prolonged door to thrombectomy times. Identifying reasons to mitigate this discrepancy is crucial for next pandemic preparedness. (Figure Presented).

16.
Migration, Workers, and Fundamental Freedoms: Pandemic Vulnerabilities and States of Exception in India ; : 67-82, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1229390

ABSTRACT

The onslaught of COVID-19 thrust upon humanity two major challenges, that of human health and that of the economy;the migrants are mired in both. It has both pushed the world economic order into chaos and challenged even the mightiest of economies. The initial advent of COVID-19 sowed confusion within systems of governance as countries struggled to deal with its unprecedented threat. The pandemic has both exposed the magnitude of India’s dependency upon internal migrants for low-end jobs and the vulnerabilities they face in spite of such dependency. Migration has a history as old as humanity, and India is no exception to this. India has long been the land of the world’s largest voluntary and involuntary migration. The problems with employment that pre-dated the pandemic continue to remain at play with the added shock to the economy, making re-employment and income generation difficult. © 2021 selection and editorial matter, Asha Hans, Kalpana Kannabiran, Manoranjan Mohanty and Pushpendra;individual chapters, the contributors.

17.
European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. European Observatory Policy Briefs ; 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196319

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can cause persistent ill-health. Around a quarter of people who have had the virus experience symptoms that continue for at least a month but one in 10 are still unwell after 12 weeks. This has been described by patient groups as "Long COVID". Our understanding of how to diagnose and manage Long COVID is still evolving but the condition can be very debilitating. It is associated with a range of overlapping symptoms including generalized chest and muscle pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, and cognitive dysfunction, and the mechanisms involved affect multiple system and include persisting inflammation, thrombosis, and autoimmunity. It can affect anyone, but women and health care workers seem to be at greater risk. Long COVID has a serious impact on people's ability to go back to work or have a social life. It affects their mental health and may have significant economic consequences for them, their families and for society. Policy responses need to take account of the complexity of Long COVID and how what is known about it is evolving rapidly. Areas to address include: The need for multidisciplinary, multispecialty approaches to assessment and management;Development, in association with patients and their families, of new care pathways and contextually appropriate guidelines for health professionals, especially in primary care to enable case management to be tailored to the manifestations of disease and involvement of different organ systems;The creation of appropriate services, including rehabilitation and online support tools;Action to tackle the wider consequences of Long COVID, including attention to employment rights, sick pay policies, and access to benefit and disability benefit packages;Involving patients both to foster self-care and self-help and in shaping awareness of Long COVID and the service (and research) needs it generates;and Implementing well-functioning patient registers and other surveillance systems;creating cohorts of patients;and following up those affected as a means to support the research which is so critical to understanding and treating Long COVID.

18.
Int. Conf. COMmun. Syst. NETworkS, COMSNETS ; : 685-689, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1132751

ABSTRACT

The novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) is a pandemic of unimaginable proportion and magnitude that is posing a great challenge worldwide to the medical industry in the 21st century. It has completely changed the texture of life to a greater extent. The increasing number of victims succumbing to the disease has created an indelible fear in the minds of the people who are afraid to access even the basic healthcare facilities. This paper deals with the Automatic Health Machine (AHM) which uses IoT and Artificial Intelligence technologies to help users access medical facilities during a pandemic and medical emergency mostly in rural and urban areas. The AHM provides complete virtual health checkup, connects with the doctor or specialist online and books appointments for the swab test or ambulance in case of emergency based on the patient's condition, dispenses the swab test or emergency medicines and electronic prescription to patients for later reference. The services of the AHM are accessible to all individuals using 'Smart Health Card'. According to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG3) proposed by the United Nations, the AHM ensures the wellbeing of all ages in society and increases the survival rate during unprecedented times like a pandemic/epidemic. We collaborated with industries and hospitals to understand healthcare/patients' requirements considering pandemic and post-pandemic. We conducted virtual workshops with the COVID-recovered patients and frontline nurses and doctors. As an overall outcome, the healthcare professionals feel the system can be adopted in an area where medical facility is not available immediately. Thus, our work has led to a patent being published in India and USA. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
Proc. Int. Conf. Smart Technol. Comput., Electr. Electron., ICSTCEE ; : 134-138, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1042049

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the modalities of the Smart Automated Health Machine (AHM) using Internet of Things (IoT), a user-friendly health machine with an interactive graphical user interface for medical necessities. It is a virtual health check-up/self-screening/test system, aimed at being the first point of contact for patient screening, to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, ECG, oxygen saturation, and visual acuity of patients. In case of emergency, a doctor will be available online through a video call, based on the severity of patients' conditions, a call can be placed by a doctor to book an ambulance van or ambulance bike (based on the conditions). If a patient is unconscious, a direct call can be placed by any bystander or patient's carer to book an ambulance. In non-emergency cases, medical appointments can be booked - the system will also dispense medicines based on the health conditions and/or doctor's electronic prescription which can be selected among the list of available medicines. Each individual will be provided with a "smart health card", which will keep a record of patients' personal details, health conditions, prescriptions, and amount of tablets consumed. The AHM will provide all the necessary information, keep a record of different medical problems in different regions and different necessities required to be adopted. The system can also be called as "Self Healthcare Service (SHS)"or "Self Healthcare Units (SHU)"-the initiatives are part of sustainable development goals (SDG-3) proposed by United Nations.We conducted a pilot evaluation with the patients, nurses and doctors. As an overall outcome, the practitioners feel the system can be adopted in an area where medical facility is not available immediately. Adopting this system in such regions not only help in medical emergencies/epidemic/pandemic such as COVID, it also increases the percentage of survival. The system can also be adopted in hospitals, pharmacies, schools, public places like bus/train stations, airports, markets or any commercial areas, zones prone to accidents in rural and urban areas and other places that can be quite useful and helpful to the public. © 2020 IEEE.

20.
Evergreen ; 7(4):458-467, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1028042

ABSTRACT

Worldwide increasing cases of COVID-19 are putting high pressure on healthcare services. The coronavirus epidemic caused announcing emergency cases in India. The virus started with one infected case by 30th January, 2020, in Kerala, where the first death due to corona in Karnataka and 73 announced cases were reported by 12th March, 2020. 1024 announced cases were reported by 29th March, 2020.This indicates that the number of confirmed cases is increasing rapidly, causing national crises for India. This study aims is to fill a gap between previous studies and the current development of COVID-19 spreading, by extracting a relationship between corona positives as independent and corresponding deaths as a dependent variable. This research statistically analyses the mortality in 10 days of every month. A mathematical model to predict the new deceased cases corresponding infected cases in a practical scenario is proposed. An approximate prediction of mortality corresponding to new predicted cases can be easily performed using the proposed model. As most of the other countries have reached their peaks, confirmed cases start decreasing. By analyzing these countries’ data considering the lockdown, the peak ratio is identified using all countries’ population and the decreasing rate of confirmed cases after the peak has been achieved. The same calculation has been done for death and recovered cases. This average peak ratio is used to identify India’s COVID patients’ peak value. The decreasing rate is also used to define the rate of confirmed cases and mortality after the peak has occurred. The model has also been verified in different countries to identify the significance of the model. © 2020, Novel Carbon Resource Sciences. All rights reserved.

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