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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320215

ABSTRACT

Background: Determine the impact of tobacco smoking status on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia in the need for ICU care, mechanical ventilation and mortality. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study, that involved chart review. All adults 18 years or older with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized from March 15 th , 2020 to May 06 th , 2020 with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19. We used chi-squared test for categorical variables and student t-tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. We further used adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression to assess risk factors for mortality and intubation. Results: Among 577 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 268 (46.4%) had a history of smoking including 187 former and 81 active smokers. The former smokers when compared with non-smokers were predominantly older with more comorbidities. Also, when compared with never smokers D Dimer levels were elevated in active (p=0.05) and former smokers (p<0.01). The former smokers versus non-smokers required increased need for advanced non-invasive respiratory support on admission (p<0.05), ICU care (p<0.05) and had higher mortality [1.99 (CI 95% 1.03-3.85, p<0.05)]. Active smokers versus non-smokers received more mechanical ventilation [OR 2.11 (CI 95% 1.06-4.19, p<0.05)]. Conclusions: In our cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, former smokers had higher need for non-invasive respiratory support on admission, ICU care, and mortality compared to non-smokers. Also, active smokers versus non-smokers needed more mechanical ventilation.

3.
Chest ; 162(1): 213-225, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 often exhibit markers of a hypercoagulable state and have an increased incidence of VTE. In response, CHEST issued rapid clinical guidance regarding prevention of VTE. Over the past 18 months the quality of the evidence has improved. We thus sought to incorporate this evidence and update our recommendations as necessary. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This update focuses on the optimal approach to thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients. The original questions were used to guide the search, using MEDLINE via PubMed. Eight randomized controlled trials and one observational study were included. Meta-analysis, using a random effects model, was performed. The panel created summaries using the GRADE Evidence-to-Decision framework. Updated guidance statements were drafted, and a modified Delphi approach was used to obtain consensus. RESULTS: We provide separate guidance statements for VTE prevention for hospitalized patients with acute (moderate) illness and critically ill patients in the ICU. However, we divided each original question and resulting recommendation into two questions: standard prophylaxis vs therapeutic (or escalated dose) prophylaxis and standard prophylaxis vs intermediate dose prophylaxis. This led to a change in one recommendation, and an upgrading of three additional recommendations based upon higher quality evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in care for patients with COVID-19 have improved overall outcomes. Despite this, rates of VTE in these patients remain elevated. Critically ill patients should receive standard thromboprophylaxis for VTE, and moderately ill patients with a low bleeding risk might benefit from therapeutic heparin. We see no role for intermediate dose thromboprophylaxis in either setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
4.
JMIRx Med ; 2(3): e29062, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of high-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) to treat COVID-19 pneumonia has been greatly debated around the world due to concerns about increased health care worker transmission and delays in invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Herein, we analyzed the utility of the noninvasive ROX (ratio of oxygen saturation) index to predict the need for and timing of IMV. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether the ROX index can be a useful score to predict intubation and IMV in patients receiving HFNT as treatment for COVID-19-related hypoxemic respiratory failure. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of 129 consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, PA, from March 10, 2020, to May 17, 2020. This is a single-center study conducted in designated COVID-19 units (intensive care unit and other wards) at Temple University Hospital. Patients with moderate and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with HFNT were included in the study. HFNT patients were divided into two groups: HFNT only and intubation (ie, patients who progressed from HFNT to IMV). The primary outcome was the value of the ROX index in predicting the need for IMV. Secondary outcomes were mortality, rate of intubation, length of stay, and rate of nosocomial infections in a cohort treated initially with HFNT. RESULTS: Of the 837 patients with COVID-19, 129 met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 60.8 (SD 13.6) years, mean BMI was 32.6 (SD 8) kg/m², 58 (45%) were female, 72 (55.8%) were African American, 40 (31%) were Hispanic, and 48 (37.2%) were nonsmokers. The mean time to intubation was 2.5 (SD 3.3) days. An ROX index value of less than 5 at HFNT initiation was suggestive of progression to IMV (odds ratio [OR] 2.137, P=.052). Any further decrease in ROX index value after HFNT initiation was predictive of intubation (OR 14.67, P<.001). Mortality was 11.2% (n=10) in the HFNT-only group versus 47.5% (n=19) in the intubation group (P<.001). Mortality and need for pulmonary vasodilators were higher in the intubation group. CONCLUSIONS: The ROX index helps decide which patients need IMV and may limit eventual morbidity and mortality associated with the progression to IMV.

5.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1153-1155, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247390

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism associated with COVID-19, particularly acute pulmonary embolism, may represent a challenging and complex clinical scenario. The benefits of having a multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response team (PERT) can be important during such a pandemic. The aim of PERT in the care of such patients is to provide fast, appropriate, multidisciplinary, team-based approach, with the common goal to tailor the best therapeutic decision making, prioritizing always optimal patient care, especially given lack of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in the setting of COVID-19, which potentially confers a significant prothrombotic state. Herein, we would like to briefly emphasize the importance and potential critical role of PERT in the care of patients in which these two devastating illnesses are present together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cardiology/organization & administration , Decision Making , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Medicine/organization & administration , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
6.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 23(7): 44, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230291

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains an important cause of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the USA and worldwide. Catheter-based therapies are emerging as a new armamentarium for improving outcomes in these patients. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to familiarize the clinicians with (1) various types of catheter-based modalities available for patients with acute PE, (2) advantages, disadvantages, and appropriate patient selection for the use of these devices, and (3) evidence base and the relevance of such therapies in the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four main types of catheter-based therapies in acute PE: (1) standard catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), (2) ultrasound-assisted CDT, (3) pharmacomechanical CDT, and (4) mechanical thrombectomy without thrombolysis. Ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis is the most widely studied modality in this group; however, evidence base for other catheter-based technologies is rapidly emerging. SUMMARY: Current use of catheter-based therapies is most suitable for patients with intermediate and high-risk acute PE. The adoption of a multidisciplinary approach like the pulmonary embolism response team (PERT) is desirable for appropriate patient selection and possibly/potentially improving patient outcomes. We discuss the current status of these therapies.

7.
ATS Sch ; 1(4): 416-435, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191227

ABSTRACT

The American Thoracic Society Core Curriculum updates clinicians annually in adult and pediatric pulmonary disease, medical critical care, and sleep medicine in a 3- to 4-year recurring cycle of topics. The topics of the 2020 Pulmonary Core Curriculum include pulmonary vascular disease (submassive pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension) and pulmonary infections (community-acquired pneumonia, pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, and coronavirus disease [COVID-19]).

8.
Lung India ; 38(Supplement): S101-S104, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123939

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pneumonia is a serious health issue in the current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. PCR testing is limited due to a number of factors and imaging has role in decision-making for many of these patients. We present computed tomography chest images of patients hospitalized with suspicion of COVID-19 pneumonia and point out the common and uncommon features on imaging to assist management of these patients.

9.
Chest ; 158(3): 1143-1163, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be complicated by a significant coagulopathy, that likely manifests in the form of both microthrombosis and VTE. This recognition has led to the urgent need for practical guidance regarding prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE. METHODS: A group of approved panelists developed key clinical questions by using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) format that addressed urgent clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID-19. MEDLINE (via PubMed or Ovid), Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials were systematically searched for relevant literature, and references were screened for inclusion. Validated evaluation tools were used to grade the level of evidence to support each recommendation. When evidence did not exist, guidance was developed based on consensus using the modified Delphi process. RESULTS: The systematic review and critical analysis of the literature based on 13 Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions resulted in 22 statements. Very little evidence exists in the COVID-19 population. The panel thus used expert consensus and existing evidence-based guidelines to craft the guidance statements. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence on the optimal strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat VTE in patients with COVID-19 is sparse but rapidly evolving.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
10.
Chest ; 159(3): 1182-1196, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individual studies have reported widely variable rates for VTE and bleeding among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the incidence of VTE and bleeding among hospitalized patients with COVID-19? METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, 15 standard sources and COVID-19-specific sources were searched between January 1, 2020, and July 31, 2020, with no restriction according to language. Incidence estimates were pooled by using random effects meta-analyses. Heterogeneity was evaluated by using the I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed by using the Begg and Egger tests. RESULTS: The pooled incidence was 17.0% (95% CI, 13.4-20.9) for VTE, 12.1% (95% CI, 8.4-16.4) for DVT, 7.1% (95% CI, 5.3-9.1) for pulmonary embolism (PE), 7.8% (95% CI, 2.6-15.3) for bleeding, and 3.9% (95% CI, 1.2-7.9) for major bleeding. In subgroup meta-analyses, the incidence of VTE was higher when assessed according to screening (33.1% vs 9.8% by clinical diagnosis), among patients in the ICU (27.9% vs 7.1% in the ward), in prospective studies (25.5% vs 12.4% in retrospective studies), and with the inclusion of catheter-associated thrombosis/isolated distal DVTs and isolated subsegmental PEs. The highest pooled incidence estimate of bleeding was reported for patients receiving intermediate- or full-dose anticoagulation (21.4%) and the lowest in the only prospective study that assessed bleeding events (2.7%). INTERPRETATION: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the overall estimated pooled incidence of VTE was 17.0%, with higher rates with routine screening, inclusion of distal DVT, and subsegmental PE, in critically ill patients and in prospective studies. Bleeding events were observed in 7.8% of patients and were sensitive to use of escalated doses of anticoagulants and nature of data collection. Additional studies are required to ascertain the significance of various thrombotic events and to identify strategies to improve patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRY: PROSPERO; No.: CRD42020198864; URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhage , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
11.
JACC Case Rep ; 2(12): 2016-2020, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872176

ABSTRACT

We present the characteristics and outcomes of the first 2 cases of catheter-directed thrombolysis performed in patients presenting with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related iliocaval thrombosis. (Level of Difficulty: Beginner.).

12.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 585-591.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state. Emerging data from China and Europe have consistently shown an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We aimed to identify the VTE incidence and early predictors of VTE at our high-volume tertiary care center. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 147 patients who had been admitted to Temple University Hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from April 1, 2020 to April 27, 2020. We first identified the VTE (pulmonary embolism [PE] and deep vein thrombosis [DVT]) incidence in our cohort. The VTE and no-VTE groups were compared by univariable analysis for demographics, comorbidities, laboratory data, and treatment outcomes. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the early predictors of VTE. RESULTS: The 147 patients (20.9% of all admissions) admitted to a designated COVID-19 unit at Temple University Hospital with a high clinical suspicion of acute VTE had undergone testing for VTE using computed tomography pulmonary angiography and/or extremity venous duplex ultrasonography. The overall incidence of VTE was 17% (25 of 147). Of the 25 patients, 16 had had acute PE, 14 had had acute DVT, and 5 had had both PE and DVT. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-9.55) and the admission D-dimer level ≥1500 ng/mL (adjusted odds ratio, 3.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-9.78) were independent markers associated with VTE. The all-cause mortality in the VTE group was greater than that in the non-VTE group (48% vs 22%; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents one of the earliest reported from the United States on the incidence rate of VTE in patients with COVID-19. Patients with a high clinical suspicion and the identified risk factors (invasive mechanical ventilation, admission D-dimer level ≥1500 ng/mL) should be considered for early VTE testing. We did not screen all patients admitted for VTE; therefore, the true incidence of VTE could have been underestimated. Our findings require confirmation in future prospective studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
13.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733150

ABSTRACT

Invasive mechanical has been associated with high mortality in COVID-19. Alternative therapy of high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) has been greatly debated around the world for use in COVID-19 pandemic due to concern for increased healthcare worker transmission.This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 10 March 2020 to 24 April 2020 with moderate-to-severe respiratory failure treated with HFNT. Primary outcome was prevention of intubation. Of the 445 patients with COVID-19, 104 met our inclusion criteria. The average age was 60.66 (+13.50) years, 49 (47.12 %) were female, 53 (50.96%) were African-American, 23 (22.12%) Hispanic. Forty-three patients (43.43%) were smokers. Saturation to fraction ratio and chest X-ray scores had a statistically significant improvement from day 1 to day 7. 67 of 104 (64.42%) were able to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in our cohort. Incidence of hospital-associated/ventilator-associated pneumonia was 2.9%. Overall, mortality was 14.44% (n=15) in our cohort with 13 (34.4%) in the progressed to intubation group and 2 (2.9%) in the non-intubation group. Mortality and incidence of pneumonia was statistically higher in the progressed to intubation group. CONCLUSION: HFNT use is associated with a reduction in the rate of invasive mechanical ventilation and overall mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , African Americans , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cannula , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/epidemiology
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