Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686821

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic dictated new priorities in biomedicine research. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. In this pilot study, we optimized our padlock assay to visualize genomic and subgenomic regions using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental samples obtained from a confirmed case of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized in trophoblastic cells. We also checked the presence of the virion by immunolocalization of its glycoprotein spike. In addition, we imaged mitochondria of placental villi keeping in mind that the mitochondrion has been suggested as a potential residence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We observed a substantial overlapping of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and mitochondria in trophoblastic cells. This intriguing linkage correlated with an aberrant mitochondrial network. Overall, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that provides evidence of colocalization of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and mitochondria in SARS-CoV-2 infected tissue. These findings also support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 infection can reprogram mitochondrial activity in the highly specialized maternal-fetal interface.


Subject(s)
Mitochondria/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Placenta/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , DNA Probes/metabolism , Female , Humans , Pilot Projects , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Brain Sci ; 12(2)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650062

ABSTRACT

Smell alteration and cognitive impairment are common features of the Long-COVID Syndrome. Mental clouding, often described as brain fog, might affect smell by altering recollection of odors or through a share mechanism of neuroinflammation. We investigated mental clouding, headache, and cognitive function in adult patients with persistent COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction. This multi-center cross-sectional study enrolled 152 adults with self-reported olfactory dysfunction from 3 tertiary centers specialized in COVID-19 olfactory disorders. Inclusion criteria were smell alterations after COVID-19 persisting over 6 months from infection, age >18 and < 65. Exclusion criteria included smell alterations, headache, or memory problems prior to COVID-19 infection. The patients were evaluated by olfactometry, nasal endoscopy, headache scale, cognitive assessment, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and self-reported measures. Smell dysfunction was stratified and classified based on olfactory deficit severity and presence of olfactory distortion (parosmia, cacosmia). Data on smell disorder, mental clouding, MMSE, and headache were analyzed to assess correlations. Among the 152 patients studied, 50 (32.8%) presented with anosmia, 25 (16.4%) with hyposmia, 10 (6.6%) with parosmia/cacosmia, and 58 patients (38.2%) with a combination of hyposmia and parosmia; seven (4.6%) patients suffered from headache exclusively, and two (1.4%) had headache and mental clouding as their primary symptom. Headache was reported by 76 (50%) patients, and mental clouding by 71 (46.7%). The patients reporting headache, mental clouding, or both, had significantly increased risk of suffering from anosmia and/or hyposmia when compared with their counterparts without these neurological symptoms. No patients had reduced MMSE scores. In our cohort of adult patients with post-COVID-19, smell alterations persisting over 6 months, cognitive impairment and headache were associated with more severe olfactory loss, consistent with neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediating a variety of Long-COVID symptoms.

4.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2021(10): rjab493, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501088

ABSTRACT

Bezold abscess (BA) can be a rare complication of different forms of otitis media. We describe a rare case of BA determined by Escherichia Coli. Because of COVID-19 restriction, the surgery had to be delayed up to the swab results. To avoid infection spread, the patient was treated by blind antibiotic treatment until the surgical drainage of mastoid and neck. Thanks to the treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, the progression and the spread of the infection during COVID-19 investigation was avoided. Delayed surgery could expose the patient to the risk of severe brain infection caused by the E. Coli.

7.
Front Neurol ; 12: 707207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369684

ABSTRACT

Patients affected by COVID-19 present a series of different symptoms; despite some of these are common, other less likely appear. Auditory symptoms seem to be less frequent, maybe because rarer or, alternatively, because they are underestimated during the clinical investigation. The hearing impairment might be related to the central or peripheral involvement of the auditory pathways; in particular, the likelihood of thrombosis might be one of the causes. To date, the prevalence of auditory symptoms such as sudden or progressive sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus is unclear in COVID-19 patients. However, their presence might be an early sign of thrombosis or spread of the infection into the brain. In this systematic review of the literature we investigated the presence of auditory symptoms in COVID-19 patients and discussed their potential origin and causal relationship with SARS-CoV-2. Results showed that, despite rarely, auditory impairment can appear in patients with COVID-19 and should always be investigated for an early treatment and potential indicator of involvement of the central nervous system.

8.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211029783, 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this observational retrospective study was to evaluate, in patients with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, the association between the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory illness and the risk of infected patients to develop obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Ninety-six patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were enrolled in the study. The STOP-BANG questionnaire to investigate the risk of the OSA syndrome was filled in by the patients at admission. The enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups according to the respiratory disease: group 1 (72 patients), hospitalized patients undergoing conventional oxygen therapy; group 2 (24 patients), patients requiring enhanced respiratory support. STOP-BANG results of these 2 groups were compared to observe whether patients with high OSA risk more frequently presented a severe form of COVID-19. RESULTS: 41.6% of the patients in group 2 had a STOP-BANG score between 5 and 8 (high risk of having apnea); in contrast, 20.8% of the patients in group 1 had a STOP-BANG score between 5 and 8, with a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .05). A complementary trend was observed regarding the proportion of patients in the range 0 to 2, which classifies patients at a low risk of OSA (48.6% vs 20.8% for groups 1 and 2, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: According to our data, the chances of having a severe case of COVID-19 should be considered in patients at high risk of OSA. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE/STUDY RATIONALE: Emerging research suggests that OSA could represent a potentially important risk factor for the severe forms of COVID-19. The purpose of this observational retrospective study was to evaluate the potential association between OSA and the severity of COVID-19 disease. STUDY IMPACT: According to our data, the likelihood of contracting a severe form of COVID-19 disease should be considered in patients at high risk of OSA.

9.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(5): 2383-2389, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293367

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare and analyze the incidence of otitis media with effusion (OME), before and during the COVID-19-related pandemic period, to evaluate the effects of the social changes (lockdown, continuous use of facial masks, social distancing, reduction of social activities) in the OME incidence in children and adults. METHODS: The number of diagnosed OME in e five referral centers, between 1 March 2018 and 1 March 2021, has been reviewed and collected. To estimate the reduction of OME incidence in children and adults during the COVID-19 pandemic period the OME incidence in three period of time were evaluated and compared: group 1-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2018 and 01/03/2019 (not pandemic period). Group 2-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2019 and 1/03/2020 (not pandemic period). Group 3-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2020 and 1/03/2021 (COVID-19 pandemic period). RESULTS: In the non-pandemic periods (group 1 and 2), the incidence of OME in the five referral centers considered was similar, with 482 and 555 diagnosed cases, respectively. In contrast, the OME incidence in the same centers, during the pandemic period (group 3) was clearly reduced with a lower total number of 177 cases of OME estimated. Percentage variation in OME incidence between the first non-pandemic year considered (group 1) and the pandemic period (group 3) was-63, 3%, with an absolute value decrease value of-305 cases. Similarly, comparing the second non-pandemic year (group 2) and the pandemic year (group 3) the percentage variation of OME incidence was-68, 1% with an absolute value of-305 cases decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed a lower incidence of OME during the pandemic period compared with 2 previous non pandemic years. The drastic restrictive anti-contagion measures taken by the Italian government to contain the spread of COVID-19 could have had a positive impact on the lower OME incidence during the last pandemic year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Otitis Media with Effusion , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Otitis Media with Effusion/surgery , Pandemics
11.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 36850421998487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207543

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic had a significant impact on the Italian healthcare system, although geographical differences were present; regions in northern Italy have been the most severely affected while regions in the south of the country were relatively spared. Otolaryngologists were actively involved in the management of the pandemic. In this work, we analyzed and compared the otolaryngology surgical activity performed during the pandemic in two large public hospitals located in different Italian regions. In northern Italy, otolaryngologists were mainly involved in performing surgical tracheotomies in COVID-19 positive patients and contributed to the management of these patients in intensive care units. In central Italy, where the burden of the infection was significantly lower, otolaryngologists focused on diagnosis and treatment of emergency and oncology patients. This analysis confirms the important role of the otolaryngology specialists during the pandemic, but also highlights specific differences between two large hospitals in different Italian regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/surgery , COVID-19/virology , Geography , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tracheotomy
12.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(2): 232-233, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160530
13.
J Intern Med ; 290(1): 213-219, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the changes in volume and characteristics of medical activities in the Vatican City State during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data for general / emergency procedures , specialty consultations, radiology examinations and diagnostic procedures delivered by the Directorate of Health and Hygiene of the Vatican City State were retrospectively analysed. Analysis focused on the entire year 2020 and on the lockdown period 9 March - 18 May 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, 73.932 procedures were performed compared to 95.218 in 2019 (-22.4%). During lockdown, general / emergency activities decreased by 61.1%, specialty consultations by 85.3%, radiology examinations by 95.8%, and diagnostic procedures by 96.5%. A decrease was found for nearly all specialties; the most affected were occupational medicine and dermatology, whilst an increase was found for legal medicine, psychiatry and angiology. CONCLUSION: Medical activities of the Vatican City State have been severely impacted, especially during the first months of the pandemic. However, organizational efforts allowed rapid restoration to near-normal volumes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vatican City/epidemiology
14.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 11, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079792

ABSTRACT

The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development promotes the "Leaving no one behind" principle and sets goals in areas of critical importance. This principle has become extraordinarily important during the COVID-19 pandemic, and is especially relevant for fragile populations, such as people experiencing homelessness. Homeless persons live in congregate and poor hygiene settings that may favor virus transmission, often have underling physical and mental comorbidities that place them at high risk of severe forms of COVID-19, and have limited access to public healthcare and social services. In addition, the homeless are often overlooked by safety and health monitoring actions. All of these factors, taken together, place homeless persons at high risk of being left behind. It is therefore of utmost importance to put in place adequate public health measures to limit spread of infection among homeless persons, rapidly identify and isolate asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic subjects, promptly and appropriately treat positive cases, and correctly handle the entire socioeconomic environment of vulnerable people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Homeless Persons , Housing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mass Screening , Patient Isolation , Public Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vatican City
15.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(1): 247-255, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The presence of many asymptomatic COVID-19 cases may increase the risks of disease dissemination, mainly for physicians. There are numerous reports on the frequent findings of sudden anosmia or hyposmia, before or at the same time of the typical COVID-19 symptoms onset. The aim of this study was to verify the association of olfactory impairment and COVID-19, providing a basis for subsequent research in the field of COVID-19 clinical heterogeneity. METHODS: We developed a 15-item online questionnaire on "Sudden Olfactory Loss (SOL) and COVID-19" that was administered during March 2020 to Italian general practitioners registered to a social media group. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty responses were received. SOL was identified as a significant sign of infection in COVID-19 patients, mainly aged between 30 and 40 years, even in the absence of other symptoms. SOL was present as an initial symptom in 46.7% of subjects, and in 16.7%, it was the only symptom. Among the COVID-19 confirmed cases, SOL occurred as the only symptom in 19.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: SOL could represent a possible early symptom in otherwise asymptomatic COVID-19 subjects. Subjects affected by SOL should be considered as potential COVID-19 cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Adult , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/epidemiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 21(1): 117-119, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052562

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, Italy has been one of the most affected countries in Europe and the second for number of deaths. In this commentary, we discuss some lessons that we learned as health-care providers working in a large public hospital during the pandemic, with a special focus on the importance of infection containment and early diagnosis, the role of swab, serological tests, home isolation and individual protection  devices, and the available therapies and management indications to better face a possible new outbreak in the near future. These comments should stimulate a more diffused, efficient, and efficacious management of COVID-19 patients, also reducing the number of admissions to hospital emergency departments and the related spread of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Critical Care , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Treatment Outcome
18.
J Public Health Res ; 9(4): 1986, 2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013433

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of COVID-19 pandemic has affected all segments of the population; however, it had a significant impact on vulnerable subjects, such as in people experiencing homelessness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of COVID-19 spread in homeless persons in the city of Rome, Italy. Design and Methods: Patients included in the study underwent a clinical evaluation and rapid antibody analysis on capillary blood for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 virus. Symptomatic patients were not included in the screening and immediately referred to local hospitals for further evaluation. Results: One-hundred seventy-three patients of both sexes were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection through rapid serological test. Age range was 10-80 years; people came from 35 different countries of origin and 4 continents. Test results were negative for most patients (170-98.2%); two patients had positive IgM (1.2%) and one patient had positive IgG (0.6%). Conclusions: Our study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people experiencing homelessness in the city of Rome, Italy. Most patients were negative for COVID- 19, although several factors may have had an impact on this result, such as the exclusion of symptomatic patients, the limited sensitivity of rapid serological tests in the initial stage of infection and the prevention measures adopted in these populations. Larger studies on fragile populations are needed to prevent and intercept new clusters of infection in the upcoming months.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 243-245, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Asymptomatic carriers account for over a third of all Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) cases and are characterized by the absence of symptoms but the same infectivity as symptomatic infections. The high percentage of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients is significant in settings with specific vulnerabilities, such as homeless shelters, where the consequences of an outbreak may be dramatic. In this work, we briefly report our experience on residents and staff of homeless shelters in the City of Rome, Italy, with a particular focus on asymptomatic transmission, and compare it with the available evidence. METHODS: We performed routine Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nasopharyngeal swab tests in all residents and staff of homeless shelters managed by the Eleemosynaria Apostolica of the Vatican City State in the city of Rome, Italy, in addition to daily symptom screening, body temperature monitoring, and application of other prevention measures. RESULTS: We evaluated 298 persons and identified twelve positive cases (4%). Most of the positive cases (75%) were asymptomatic, while only three patients reported symptoms that included fever, diarrhea, and cough. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the importance of early identification of asymptomatic carriers that could, in vulnerable conditions such as homeless shelters, spread the infection and cause outbreaks with severe consequences on individual and public health.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Homeless Persons , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(10): 3725-3730, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888175

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tinnitus and equilibrium disorders such as dizziness and vertigo have been reported by patients with COVID-19; however, they have been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of subjective tinnitus and dizziness in a sample of COVID-19 patients using an online 10-item close-ended questionnaire. METHODS: A multicentric study that included 15 Italian hospitals in different regions was conducted using an online 10-item close-ended questionnaire developed to identify the presence of tinnitus and balance disorders in patients with COVID-19 between May 5 and June 10, 2020. The questionnaire was administered to 185 patients in a period of > 30 - < 60 days after diagnosis of COVID-19; responses were recorded in an online Excel spreadsheet. The questionnaire was composed of three sections: (1) demographic information; (2) presence and characteristics of tinnitus and dizziness after COVID-19 diagnosis; (3) possible association with migraine. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (18.4%) reported equilibrium disorders after COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these, 32 patients reported dizziness (94.1%) and 2 (5.9%) reported acute vertigo attacks. Forty-three patients (23.2%) reported tinnitus; 14 (7.6%) reported both tinnitus and equilibrium disorders. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the presence of subjective otoneurological symptoms such as tinnitus and balance disorders can affect COVID-19 patients; further studies are necessary to investigate the prevalence and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these subjective symptoms in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tinnitus , COVID-19 Testing , Dizziness/epidemiology , Dizziness/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tinnitus/epidemiology , Vertigo/diagnosis , Vertigo/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL