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Journal of Mathematics ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2194243


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among people with AIDS, cases of COVID-19 have been reported in many countries. COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this manuscript, we are going to present a within-host COVID-19/AIDS coinfection model to study the dynamics and influence of the coinfection between COVID-19 and AIDS. The model is a six-dimensional delay differential equation that describes the interaction between uninfected epithelial cells, infected epithelial cells, free SARS-CoV-2 particles, uninfected CD4+ T cells, infected CD4+ T cells, and free HIV-1 particles. We demonstrated that the proposed model is biologically acceptable by proving the positivity and boundedness of the model solutions. The global stability analysis of the model is carried out in terms of the basic reproduction number. Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate that if COVID-19/AIDS coinfected individuals have a poor immune response or a low number of CD4+ T cells, then the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 and the number of infected epithelial cells will rise. On the contrary, the existence of time delays can rise the number of uninfected CD4+ T cells and uninfected epithelial cells, thus reducing the viral load within the host.

Eur Phys J Plus ; 137(2): 174, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846545


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease caused by a virus called the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this paper, we analyze a within-host SARS-CoV-2/HIV coinfection model. The model is made up of eight ordinary differential equations. These equations describe the interactions between healthy epithelial cells, latently infected epithelial cells, productively infected epithelial cells, SARS-CoV-2 particles, healthy CD 4 + T cells, latently infected CD 4 + T cells, productively infected CD 4 + T cells, and HIV particles. We confirm that the solutions of the developed model are bounded and nonnegative. We calculate the different steady states of the model and derive their existence conditions. We choose appropriate Lyapunov functions to show the global stability of all steady states. We execute some numerical simulations to assist the theoretical contributions. Based on our results, weak CD 4 + T cell immunity in SARS-CoV-2/HIV coinfected patients causes an increase in the concentrations of productively infected epithelial cells and SARS-CoV-2 particles. This may lead to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV patients. This result agrees with many studies that discussed the high risk of severe infection and death in HIV patients when they get SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, increasing the death rate of infected epithelial cells during the latency period can reduce the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV patients. More studies are needed to understand the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2/HIV coinfection and find better ways to treat this vulnerable group of patients.

Pharmazie ; 75(8): 375-380, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435671


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for COVID-19 complications as it is one of the chronic immune-compromising conditions especially if patients have uncontrolled diabetes, poor HbA1c and/or irregular blood glucose levels. Diabetic patients' mortality rates with COVID-19 are higher than those of cardiovascular or cancer patients. Recently, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has shown successful results in reversing diabetes in both rats and clinical trials based on different mechanisms from aerobic glycolysis to beta cells regeneration. BCG is a multi-face vaccine that has been used extensively in protection from tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy and has been repositioned for treatment of bladder cancer, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Recently, COVID-19 epidemiological studies confirmed that universal BCG vaccination reduced morbidity and mortality in certain geographical areas. Countries without universal policies of BCG vaccination (Italy, Nederland, USA) have been more severely affected compared to countries with universal and long-standing BCG policies that have shown low numbers of reported COVID-19 cases. Some countries have started clinical trials that included a single dose BCG vaccine as prophylaxis from COVID-19 or an attempt to minimize its side effects. This proposed research aims to use BCG vaccine as a double-edged weapon countering both COVID-19 and diabetes, not only as protection but also as therapeutic vaccination. The work includes a case study of regenerated pancreatic beta cells based on improved C-peptide and PCPRI laboratory findings after BCG vaccination for a 9 year old patient. The patient was re-vaccinated based on a negative tuberculin test and no scar at the site of injection of the 1st BCG vaccination at birth. The authors suggest and invite the scientific community to take into consideration the concept of direct BCG re-vaccination (after 4 weeks) because of the reported gene expressions and exaggerated innate immunity consequently. As the diabetic MODY-5 patient (mutation of HNF1B, Val2Leu) was on low dose Riomet® while eliminating insulin gradually, a simple analytical method for metformin assay was recommended to ensure its concentration before use as it is not approved yet by the Egyptian QC labs.

BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rats , Regeneration/immunology , Risk Factors , Vaccination/methods