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1.
Exp Physiol ; 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227711

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? The emerging condition of long COVID, its epidemiology, pathophysiological impacts on patients of different backgrounds, physiological mechanisms emerging as explanations of the condition, and treatment strategies being trialled. The review leads from a Physiological Society online conference on this topic. What advances does it highlight? Progress in understanding the pathophysiology and cellular mechanisms underlying Long COVID and potential therapeutic and management strategies. ABSTRACT: Long COVID, the prolonged illness and fatigue suffered by a small proportion of those infected with SARS-CoV-2, is placing an increasing burden on individuals and society. A Physiological Society virtual meeting in February 2022 brought clinicians and researchers together to discuss the current understanding of long COVID mechanisms, risk factors and recovery. This review highlights the themes arising from that meeting. It considers the nature of long COVID, exploring its links with other post-viral illnesses such as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, and highlights how long COVID research can help us better support those suffering from all post-viral syndromes. Long COVID research started particularly swiftly in populations routinely monitoring their physical performance - namely the military and elite athletes. The review highlights how the high degree of diagnosis, intervention and monitoring of success in these active populations can suggest management strategies for the wider population. We then consider how a key component of performance monitoring in active populations, cardiopulmonary exercise training, has revealed long COVID-related changes in physiology - including alterations in peripheral muscle function, ventilatory inefficiency and autonomic dysfunction. The nature and impact of dysautonomia are further discussed in relation to postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, fatigue and treatment strategies that aim to combat sympathetic overactivation by stimulating the vagus nerve. We then interrogate the mechanisms that underlie long COVID symptoms, with a focus on impaired oxygen delivery due to micro-clotting and disruption of cellular energy metabolism, before considering treatment strategies that indirectly or directly tackle these mechanisms. These include remote inspiratory muscle training and integrated care pathways that combine rehabilitation and drug interventions with research into long COVID healthcare access across different populations. Overall, this review showcases how physiological research reveals the changes that occur in long COVID and how different therapeutic strategies are being developed and tested to combat this condition.

2.
ERJ open research ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2168013

ABSTRACT

Background Persistence of respiratory symptoms—particularly breathlessness—after acute COVID-19 infection has emerged as a significant clinical problem. We aimed to characterise and identify risk factors for patients with persistent breathlessness following COVID-19 hospitalisation. Methods PHOSP-COVID is a multi-centre prospective cohort study of UK adults hospitalised for COVID-19. Clinical data were collected during hospitalisation and at a follow-up visit. Breathlessness was measured by a numeric rating scale of 0–10. We defined post-COVID breathlessness as an increase in score of 1 or more compared to the pre-COVID-19 level. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, and to develop a prediction model for post-COVID breathlessness. Results We included 1226 participants (37% female, median age 59 years, 22% mechanically ventilated). At a median five months after discharge, 50% reported post-COVID breathlessness. Risk factors for post-COVID breathlessness were socio-economic deprivation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67;95% confidence interval, 1.14–2.44), pre-existing depression/anxiety (1.58;1.06–2.35), female sex (1.56;1.21–2.00) and admission duration (1.01;1.00–1.02). Black ethnicity (0.56;0.35–0.89) and older age groups (0.31;0.14–0.66) were less likely to report post-COVID breathlessness. Post-COVID breathlessness was associated with worse performance on the shuttle walk test and forced vital capacity, but not with obstructive airflow limitation. The prediction model had fair discrimination (concordance-statistic 0.66;0.63–0.69), and good calibration (calibration slope 1.00;0.80–1.21). Conclusions Post-COVID breathlessness was commonly reported in this national cohort of patients hospitalised for COVID-19 and is likely to be a multifactorial problem with physical and emotional components.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize myocardial injury in a multicenter cohort of patients with COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement referred for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 1,047 patients from 18 international sites with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 infection who underwent CMR. Myocardial injury was characterized as acute myocarditis, nonacute/nonischemic, acute ischemic, and nonacute/ischemic patterns on CMR. RESULTS: In this cohort, 20.9% of patients had nonischemic injury patterns (acute myocarditis: 7.9%; nonacute/nonischemic: 13.0%), and 6.7% of patients had ischemic injury patterns (acute ischemic: 1.9%; nonacute/ischemic: 4.8%). In a univariate analysis, variables associated with acute myocarditis patterns included chest discomfort (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.17-3.40, P = 0.01), abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.12-3.23; P = 0.02), natriuretic peptide elevation (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.60-5.58; P = 0.0006), and troponin elevation (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 2.41-7.36; P < 0.0001). Variables associated with acute ischemic patterns included chest discomfort (OR: 3.14; 95% CI: 1.04-9.49; P = 0.04), abnormal ECG (OR: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.10-14.92; P = 0.04), known coronary disease (OR: 33.30; 95% CI: 4.04-274.53; P = 0.001), hospitalization (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.55-16.05; P = 0.007), natriuretic peptide elevation (OR: 4.19; 95% CI: 1.30-13.51; P = 0.02), and troponin elevation (OR: 25.27; 95% CI: 5.55-115.03; P < 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, troponin elevation was strongly associated with acute myocarditis patterns (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.76-14.05; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study of patients with COVID-19 with clinical suspicion for cardiac involvement referred for CMR, nonischemic and ischemic patterns were frequent when cardiac symptoms, ECG abnormalities, and cardiac biomarker elevations were present.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 87: 104402, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most studies of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 focus on circulating antibody, giving limited insights into mucosal defences that prevent viral replication and onward transmission. We studied nasal and plasma antibody responses one year after hospitalisation for COVID-19, including a period when SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was introduced. METHODS: In this follow up study, plasma and nasosorption samples were prospectively collected from 446 adults hospitalised for COVID-19 between February 2020 and March 2021 via the ISARIC4C and PHOSP-COVID consortia. IgA and IgG responses to NP and S of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron (BA.1) variants were measured by electrochemiluminescence and compared with plasma neutralisation data. FINDINGS: Strong and consistent nasal anti-NP and anti-S IgA responses were demonstrated, which remained elevated for nine months (p < 0.0001). Nasal and plasma anti-S IgG remained elevated for at least 12 months (p < 0.0001) with plasma neutralising titres that were raised against all variants compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Of 323 with complete data, 307 were vaccinated between 6 and 12 months; coinciding with rises in nasal and plasma IgA and IgG anti-S titres for all SARS-CoV-2 variants, although the change in nasal IgA was minimal (1.46-fold change after 10 months, p = 0.011) and the median remained below the positive threshold determined by pre-pandemic controls. Samples 12 months after admission showed no association between nasal IgA and plasma IgG anti-S responses (R = 0.05, p = 0.18), indicating that nasal IgA responses are distinct from those in plasma and minimally boosted by vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The decline in nasal IgA responses 9 months after infection and minimal impact of subsequent vaccination may explain the lack of long-lasting nasal defence against reinfection and the limited effects of vaccination on transmission. These findings highlight the need to develop vaccines that enhance nasal immunity. FUNDING: This study has been supported by ISARIC4C and PHOSP-COVID consortia. ISARIC4C is supported by grants from the National Institute for Health and Care Research and the Medical Research Council. Liverpool Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre provided infrastructure support for this research. The PHOSP-COVD study is jointly funded by UK Research and Innovation and National Institute of Health and Care Research. The funders were not involved in the study design, interpretation of data or the writing of this manuscript.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Follow-Up Studies , Vaccination , Hospitalization , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
5.
Radiology ; 305(3): 709-717, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138184

ABSTRACT

Background Post-COVID-19 condition encompasses symptoms following COVID-19 infection that linger at least 4 weeks after the end of active infection. Symptoms are wide ranging, but breathlessness is common. Purpose To determine if the previously described lung abnormalities seen on hyperpolarized (HP) pulmonary xenon 129 (129Xe) MRI scans in participants with post-COVID-19 condition who were hospitalized are also present in participants with post-COVID-19 condition who were not hospitalized. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, nonhospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (NHLC) and posthospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (PHC) were enrolled from June 2020 to August 2021. Participants underwent chest CT, HP 129Xe MRI, pulmonary function testing, and the 1-minute sit-to-stand test and completed breathlessness questionnaires. Control subjects underwent HP 129Xe MRI only. CT scans were analyzed for post-COVID-19 interstitial lung disease severity using a previously published scoring system and full-scale airway network (FAN) modeling. Analysis used group and pairwise comparisons between participants and control subjects and correlations between participant clinical and imaging data. Results A total of 11 NHLC participants (four men, seven women; mean age, 44 years ± 11 [SD]; 95% CI: 37, 50) and 12 PHC participants (10 men, two women; mean age, 58 years ±10; 95% CI: 52, 64) were included, with a significant difference in age between groups (P = .05). Mean time from infection was 287 days ± 79 (95% CI: 240, 334) and 143 days ± 72 (95% CI: 105, 190) in NHLC and PHC participants, respectively. NHLC and PHC participants had normal or near normal CT scans (mean, 0.3/25 ± 0.6 [95% CI: 0, 0.63] and 7/25 ± 5 [95% CI: 4, 10], respectively). Gas transfer (Dlco) was different between NHLC and PHC participants (mean Dlco, 76% ± 8 [95% CI: 73, 83] vs 86% ± 8 [95% CI: 80, 91], respectively; P = .04), but there was no evidence of other differences in lung function. Mean red blood cell-to-tissue plasma ratio was different between volunteers (mean, 0.45 ± 0.07; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.47]) and PHC participants (mean, 0.31 ± 0.10; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.37; P = .02) and between volunteers and NHLC participants (mean, 0.37 ± 0.10; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.44; P = .03) but not between NHLC and PHC participants (P = .26). FAN results did not correlate with Dlco) or HP 129Xe MRI results. Conclusion Nonhospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (NHLC) and posthospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (PHC) showed hyperpolarized pulmonary xenon 129 MRI and red blood cell-to-tissue plasma abnormalities, with NHLC participants demonstrating lower gas transfer than PHC participants despite having normal CT findings. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Parraga and Matheson in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xenon Isotopes , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea
6.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 133(5): 1175-1191, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108366

ABSTRACT

The longer-term effects of COVID-19 on lung physiology remain poorly understood. Here, a new technique, computed cardiopulmonography (CCP), was used to study two COVID-19 cohorts (MCOVID and C-MORE-LP) at both ∼6 and ∼12 mo after infection. CCP is comprised of two components. The first is collection of highly precise, highly time-resolved measurements of gas exchange with a purpose-built molecular flow sensor based around laser absorption spectroscopy. The second component is estimation of physiological parameters by fitting a cardiopulmonary model to the data set. The measurement protocol involved 7 min of breathing air followed by 5 min of breathing pure O2. One hundred seventy-eight participants were studied, with 97 returning for a repeat assessment. One hundred twenty-six arterial blood gas samples were drawn from MCOVID participants. For participants who had required intensive care and/or invasive mechanical ventilation, there was a significant increase in anatomical dead space of ∼30 mL and a significant increase in alveolar-to-arterial Po2 gradient of ∼0.9 kPa relative to control participants. Those who had been hospitalized had reductions in functional residual capacity of ∼15%. Irrespectively of COVID-19 severity, participants who had had COVID-19 demonstrated a modest increase in ventilation inhomogeneity, broadly equivalent to that associated with 15 yr of aging. This study illustrates the capability of CCP to study aspects of lung function not so easily addressed through standard clinical lung function tests. However, without measurements before infection, it is not possible to conclude whether the findings relate to the effects of COVID-19 or whether they constitute risk factors for more serious disease.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study used a novel technique, computed cardiopulmonography, to study the lungs of patients who have had COVID-19. Depending on severity of infection, there were increases in anatomical dead space, reductions in absolute lung volumes, and increases in ventilation inhomogeneity broadly equivalent to those associated with 15 yr of aging. However, without measurements taken before infection, it is unclear whether the changes result from COVID-19 infection or are risk factors for more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiration, Artificial , Lung , Respiration
7.
Heart ; 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine association of COVID-19 with incident cardiovascular events in 17 871 UK Biobank cases between March 2020 and 2021. METHODS: COVID-19 cases were defined using health record linkage. Each case was propensity score-matched to two uninfected controls on age, sex, deprivation, body mass index, ethnicity, diabetes, prevalent ischaemic heart disease (IHD), smoking, hypertension and high cholesterol. We included the following incident outcomes: myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism (VTE), pericarditis, all-cause death, cardiovascular death, IHD death. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate associations of COVID-19 with each outcome over an average of 141 days (range 32-395) of prospective follow-up. RESULTS: Non-hospitalised cases (n=14 304) had increased risk of incident VTE (HR 2.74 (95% CI 1.38 to 5.45), p=0.004) and death (HR 10.23 (95% CI 7.63 to 13.70), p<0.0001). Individuals with primary COVID-19 hospitalisation (n=2701) had increased risk of all outcomes considered. The largest effect sizes were with VTE (HR 27.6 (95% CI 14.5 to 52.3); p<0.0001), heart failure (HR 21.6 (95% CI 10.9 to 42.9); p<0.0001) and stroke (HR 17.5 (95% CI 5.26 to 57.9); p<0.0001). Those hospitalised with COVID-19 as a secondary diagnosis (n=866) had similarly increased cardiovascular risk. The associated risks were greatest in the first 30 days after infection but remained higher than controls even after this period. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals hospitalised with COVID-19 have increased risk of incident cardiovascular events across a range of disease and mortality outcomes. The risk of most events is highest in the early postinfection period. Individuals not requiring hospitalisation have increased risk of VTE, but not of other cardiovascular-specific outcomes.

8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267392, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021694

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There have been more than 425 million COVID-19 infections worldwide. Post-COVID illness has become a common, disabling complication of this infection. Therefore, it presents a significant challenge to global public health and economic activity. METHODS: Comprehensive clinical assessment (symptoms, WHO performance status, cognitive testing, CPET, lung function, high-resolution CT chest, CT pulmonary angiogram and cardiac MRI) of previously well, working-age adults in full-time employment was conducted to identify physical and neurocognitive deficits in those with severe or prolonged COVID-19 illness. RESULTS: 205 consecutive patients, age 39 (IQR30.0-46.7) years, 84% male, were assessed 24 (IQR17.1-34.0) weeks after acute illness. 69% reported ≥3 ongoing symptoms. Shortness of breath (61%), fatigue (54%) and cognitive problems (47%) were the most frequent symptoms, 17% met criteria for anxiety and 24% depression. 67% remained below pre-COVID performance status at 24 weeks. One third of lung function tests were abnormal, (reduced lung volume and transfer factor, and obstructive spirometry). HRCT lung was clinically indicated in <50% of patients, with COVID-associated pathology found in 25% of these. In all but three HRCTs, changes were graded 'mild'. There was an extremely low incidence of pulmonary thromboembolic disease or significant cardiac pathology. A specific, focal cognitive deficit was identified in those with ongoing symptoms of fatigue, poor concentration, poor memory, low mood, and anxiety. This was notably more common in patients managed in the community during their acute illness. CONCLUSION: Despite low rates of residual cardiopulmonary pathology, in this cohort, with low rates of premorbid illness, there is a high burden of symptoms and failure to regain pre-COVID performance 6-months after acute illness. Cognitive assessment identified a specific deficit of the same magnitude as intoxication at the UK drink driving limit or the deterioration expected with 10 years ageing, which appears to contribute significantly to the symptomatology of long-COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Lung , Male
10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 94, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of individuals recovering from severe COVID-19 is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about physical behaviours that make up the 24-h cycle within these individuals. This study aimed to describe physical behaviours following hospital admission for COVID-19 at eight months post-discharge including associations with acute illness severity and ongoing symptoms. METHODS: One thousand seventy-seven patients with COVID-19 discharged from hospital between March and November 2020 were recruited. Using a 14-day wear protocol, wrist-worn accelerometers were sent to participants after a five-month follow-up assessment. Acute illness severity was assessed by the WHO clinical progression scale, and the severity of ongoing symptoms was assessed using four previously reported data-driven clinical recovery clusters. Two existing control populations of office workers and individuals with type 2 diabetes were comparators. RESULTS: Valid accelerometer data from 253 women and 462 men were included. Women engaged in a mean ± SD of 14.9 ± 14.7 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), with 12.1 ± 1.7 h/day spent inactive and 7.2 ± 1.1 h/day asleep. The values for men were 21.0 ± 22.3 and 12.6 ± 1.7 h /day and 6.9 ± 1.1 h/day, respectively. Over 60% of women and men did not have any days containing a 30-min bout of MVPA. Variability in sleep timing was approximately 2 h in men and women. More severe acute illness was associated with lower total activity and MVPA in recovery. The very severe recovery cluster was associated with fewer days/week containing continuous bouts of MVPA, longer total sleep time, and higher variability in sleep timing. Patients post-hospitalisation with COVID-19 had lower levels of physical activity, greater sleep variability, and lower sleep efficiency than a similarly aged cohort of office workers or those with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Those recovering from a hospital admission for COVID-19 have low levels of physical activity and disrupted patterns of sleep several months after discharge. Our comparative cohorts indicate that the long-term impact of COVID-19 on physical behaviours is significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Accelerometry/methods , Aftercare , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Sleep
11.
Eur Heart J ; 43(11): 1157-1172, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853028

ABSTRACT

Emerging as a new epidemic, long COVID or post-acute sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a condition characterized by the persistence of COVID-19 symptoms beyond 3 months, is anticipated to substantially alter the lives of millions of people globally. Cardiopulmonary symptoms including chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and autonomic manifestations such as postural orthostatic tachycardia are common and associated with significant disability, heightened anxiety, and public awareness. A range of cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities has been reported among patients beyond the acute phase and include myocardial inflammation, myocardial infarction, right ventricular dysfunction, and arrhythmias. Pathophysiological mechanisms for delayed complications are still poorly understood, with a dissociation seen between ongoing symptoms and objective measures of cardiopulmonary health. COVID-19 is anticipated to alter the long-term trajectory of many chronic cardiac diseases which are abundant in those at risk of severe disease. In this review, we discuss the definition of long COVID and its epidemiology, with an emphasis on cardiopulmonary symptoms. We further review the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying acute and chronic CV injury, the range of post-acute CV sequelae, and impact of COVID-19 on multiorgan health. We propose a possible model for referral of post-COVID-19 patients to cardiac services and discuss future directions including research priorities and clinical trials that are currently underway to evaluate the efficacy of treatment strategies for long COVID and associated CV sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Thorax ; 77(7): 717-720, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769953

ABSTRACT

Given the large numbers of people infected and high rates of ongoing morbidity, research is clearly required to address the needs of adult survivors of COVID-19 living with ongoing symptoms (long COVID). To help direct resource and research efforts, we completed a research prioritisation process incorporating views from adults with ongoing symptoms of COVID-19, carers, clinicians and clinical researchers. The final top 10 research questions were agreed at an independently mediated workshop and included: identifying underlying mechanisms of long COVID, establishing diagnostic tools, understanding trajectory of recovery and evaluating the role of interventions both during the acute and persistent phases of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Caregivers , Disease Progression , Health Priorities , Humans , Research Personnel
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e051180, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752871

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New-onset hypertension affects approximately 10% of pregnancies and is associated with a significant increase in risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, with blood pressure measured 6 weeks postpartum predictive of blood pressure 5-10 years later. A pilot trial has demonstrated that improved blood pressure control, achevied via self-management during the puerperium, was associated with lower blood pressure 3-4 years postpartum. Physician Optimised Post-partum Hypertension Treatment (POP-HT) will formally evaluate whether improved blood pressure control in the puerperium results in lower blood pressure at 6 months post partum, and improvements in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular phenotypes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: POP-HT is an open-label, parallel arm, randomised controlled trial involving 200 women aged 18 years or over, with a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension, and requiring antihypertensive medication at discharge. Women are recruited by open recruitment and direct invitation around time of delivery and randomised 1:1 to, either an intervention comprising physician-optimised self-management of postpartum blood pressure or, usual care. Women in the intervention group upload blood pressure readings to a 'smartphone' app that provides algorithm-driven individualised medication-titration. Medication changes are approved by physicians, who review blood pressure readings remotely. Women in the control arm follow assessment and medication adjustment by their usual healthcare team. The primary outcome is 24-hour average ambulatory diastolic blood pressure at 6-9 months post partum. Secondary outcomes include: additional blood pressure parameters at baseline, week 1 and week 6; multimodal cardiovascular assessments (CMR and echocardiography); parameters derived from multiorgan MRI including brain and kidneys; peripheral macrovascular and microvascular measures; angiogenic profile measures taken from blood samples and levels of endothelial circulating and cellular biomarkers; and objective physical activity monitoring and exercise assessment. An additional 20 women will be recruited after a normotensive pregnancy as a comparator group for endothelial cellular biomarkers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: IRAS PROJECT ID 273353. This trial has received a favourable opinion from the London-Surrey Research Ethics Committee and HRA (REC Reference 19/LO/1901). The investigator will ensure that this trial is conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and follow good clinical practice guidelines. The investigators will be involved in reviewing drafts of the manuscripts, abstracts, press releases and any other publications arising from the study. Authors will acknowledge that the study was funded by the British Heart Foundation Clinical Research Training Fellowship (BHF Grant number FS/19/7/34148). Authorship will be determined in accordance with the ICMJE guidelines and other contributors will be acknowledged. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04273854.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Physicians , Self-Management , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
14.
Front Neurol ; 12: 753284, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518509

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to damage multiple organs, including the brain. Multiorgan MRI can provide further insight on the repercussions of COVID-19 on organ health but requires a balance between richness and quality of data acquisition and total scan duration. We adapted the UK Biobank brain MRI protocol to produce high-quality images while being suitable as part of a post-COVID-19 multiorgan MRI exam. The analysis pipeline, also adapted from UK Biobank, includes new imaging-derived phenotypes (IDPs) designed to assess the possible effects of COVID-19. A first application of the protocol and pipeline was performed in 51 COVID-19 patients post-hospital discharge and 25 controls participating in the Oxford C-MORE study. The protocol acquires high resolution T1, T2-FLAIR, diffusion weighted images, susceptibility weighted images, and arterial spin labelling data in 17 min. The automated imaging pipeline derives 1,575 IDPs, assessing brain anatomy (including olfactory bulb volume and intensity) and tissue perfusion, hyperintensities, diffusivity, and susceptibility. In the C-MORE data, IDPs related to atrophy, small vessel disease and olfactory bulbs were consistent with clinical radiology reports. Our exploratory analysis tentatively revealed some group differences between recovered COVID-19 patients and controls, across severity groups, but not across anosmia groups. Follow-up imaging in the C-MORE study is currently ongoing, and this protocol is now being used in other large-scale studies. The protocol, pipeline code and data are openly available and will further contribute to the understanding of the medium to long-term effects of COVID-19.

15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1275-1287, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. METHODS: The Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID) is a multicentre, long-term follow-up study of adults (aged ≥18 years) discharged from hospital in the UK with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, involving an assessment between 2 and 7 months after discharge, including detailed recording of symptoms, and physiological and biochemical testing. Multivariable logistic regression was done for the primary outcome of patient-perceived recovery, with age, sex, ethnicity, body-mass index, comorbidities, and severity of acute illness as covariates. A post-hoc cluster analysis of outcomes for breathlessness, fatigue, mental health, cognitive impairment, and physical performance was done using the clustering large applications k-medoids approach. The study is registered on the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN10980107). FINDINGS: We report findings for 1077 patients discharged from hospital between March 5 and Nov 30, 2020, who underwent assessment at a median of 5·9 months (IQR 4·9-6·5) after discharge. Participants had a mean age of 58 years (SD 13); 384 (36%) were female, 710 (69%) were of white ethnicity, 288 (27%) had received mechanical ventilation, and 540 (50%) had at least two comorbidities. At follow-up, only 239 (29%) of 830 participants felt fully recovered, 158 (20%) of 806 had a new disability (assessed by the Washington Group Short Set on Functioning), and 124 (19%) of 641 experienced a health-related change in occupation. Factors associated with not recovering were female sex, middle age (40-59 years), two or more comorbidities, and more severe acute illness. The magnitude of the persistent health burden was substantial but only weakly associated with the severity of acute illness. Four clusters were identified with different severities of mental and physical health impairment (n=767): very severe (131 patients, 17%), severe (159, 21%), moderate along with cognitive impairment (127, 17%), and mild (350, 46%). Of the outcomes used in the cluster analysis, all were closely related except for cognitive impairment. Three (3%) of 113 patients in the very severe cluster, nine (7%) of 129 in the severe cluster, 36 (36%) of 99 in the moderate cluster, and 114 (43%) of 267 in the mild cluster reported feeling fully recovered. Persistently elevated serum C-reactive protein was positively associated with cluster severity. INTERPRETATION: We identified factors related to not recovering after hospital admission with COVID-19 at 6 months after discharge (eg, female sex, middle age, two or more comorbidities, and more acute severe illness), and four different recovery phenotypes. The severity of physical and mental health impairments were closely related, whereas cognitive health impairments were independent. In clinical care, a proactive approach is needed across the acute severity spectrum, with interdisciplinary working, wide access to COVID-19 holistic clinical services, and the potential to stratify care. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation and National Institute for Health Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Mental Health , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101159, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal trajectories of cardiopulmonary abnormalities and symptoms following infection with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are unclear. We sought to describe their natural history in previously hospitalised patients, compare this with controls, and assess the relationship between symptoms and cardiopulmonary impairment at 6 months post-COVID-19. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients and thirty matched controls (single visit), recruited between 14th March - 25th May 2020, underwent symptom-questionnaires, cardiac and lung magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), and spirometry at 3 months following COVID-19. Of them, forty-six patients returned for follow-up assessments at 6 months. FINDINGS: At 2-3 months, 83% of patients had at least one cardiopulmonary symptom versus 33% of controls. Patients and controls had comparable biventricular volumes and function. Native cardiac T1 (marker of fibroinflammation) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, marker of focal fibrosis) were increased in patients at 2-3 months. Sixty percent of patients had lung parenchymal abnormalities on CMR and 55% had reduced peak oxygen consumption (pV̇O2) on CPET. By 6 months, 52% of patients remained symptomatic. On CMR, indexed right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (-4·3 mls/m2, P=0·005) decreased and RV ejection fraction (+3·2%, P=0·0003) increased. Native T1 and LGE improved and was comparable to controls. Lung parenchymal abnormalities and peak V̇O2, although better, were abnormal in patients versus controls. 31% had reduced pV̇O2 secondary to symptomatic limitation and muscular impairment. Cardiopulmonary symptoms in patients did not associate with CMR, lung function, or CPET measures. INTERPRETATION: In patients, cardiopulmonary abnormalities improve over time, though some measures remain abnormal relative to controls. Persistent symptoms at 6 months post-COVID-19 did not associate with objective measures of cardiopulmonary health. FUNDING: The authors' work was supported by the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford British Heart Foundation (BHF) Centre of Research Excellence (RE/18/3/34214), United Kingdom Research Innovation and Wellcome Trust. This project is part of a tier 3 study (C-MORE) within the collaborative research programme entitled PHOSP-COVID Post-hospitalization COVID-19 study: a national consortium to understand and improve long-term health outcomes, funded by the Medical Research Council and Department of Health and Social Care/National Institute for Health Research Grant (MR/V027859/1) ISRCTN number 10980107.

17.
Radiology ; 301(1): E353-E360, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430241

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 targets angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-expressing cells in the respiratory tract. There are reports of breathlessness in patients many months after infection. Purpose To determine whether hyperpolarized xenon 129 MRI (XeMRI) imaging could be used to identify the possible cause of breathlessness in patients at 3 months after hospital discharge following COVID-19 infection. Materials and Methods This prospective study was undertaken between August and December of 2020, with patients and healthy control volunteers being enrolled. All patients underwent lung function tests; ventilation and dissolved-phase XeMRI, with the mean red blood cell (RBC) to tissue or plasma (TP) ratio being calculated; and a low-dose chest CT, with scans being scored for the degree of abnormalities after COVID-19. Healthy control volunteers underwent XeMRI. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for volunteer and patient scans to assess repeatability. A Wilcoxon rank sum test and Cohen effect size calculation were performed to assess differences in the RBC/TP ratio between patients and control volunteers. Results Nine patients (mean age, 57 years ± 7 [standard deviation]; six male patients) and five volunteers (mean age, 29 years ± 3; five female volunteers) were enrolled. The mean time from hospital discharge for patients was 169 days (range, 116-254 days). There was a difference in the RBC/TP ratio between patients and control volunteers (0.3 ± 0.1 vs 0.5 ± 0.1, respectively; P = .001; effect size, 1.36). There was significant difference between the RBC and gas phase spectral full width at half maximum between volunteers and patients (median ± range, 567 ± 1 vs 507 ± 81 [P = .002] and 104 ± 2 vs 122 ± 17 [P = .004], respectively). Results were reproducible, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.82 and 0.88 being demonstrated for patients and volunteers, respectively. Participants had normal or nearly normal CT scans (mean, seven of 25; range, zero of 25 to 10 of 25). Conclusion Hyperpolarized xenon 129 MRI results showed alveolar capillary diffusion limitation in all nine patients after COVID-19 pneumonia, despite normal or nearly normal results at CT. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Dietrich in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Xenon Isotopes , Adult , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 31: 100683, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medium-term effects of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on organ health, exercise capacity, cognition, quality of life and mental health are poorly understood. METHODS: Fifty-eight COVID-19 patients post-hospital discharge and 30 age, sex, body mass index comorbidity-matched controls were enrolled for multiorgan (brain, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spirometry, six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), quality of life, cognitive and mental health assessments. FINDINGS: At 2-3 months from disease-onset, 64% of patients experienced breathlessness and 55% reported fatigue. On MRI, abnormalities were seen in lungs (60%), heart (26%), liver (10%) and kidneys (29%). Patients exhibited changes in the thalamus, posterior thalamic radiations and sagittal stratum on brain MRI and demonstrated impaired cognitive performance, specifically in the executive and visuospatial domains. Exercise tolerance (maximal oxygen consumption and ventilatory efficiency on CPET) and six-minute walk distance were significantly reduced. The extent of extra-pulmonary MRI abnormalities and exercise intolerance correlated with serum markers of inflammation and acute illness severity. Patients had a higher burden of self-reported symptoms of depression and experienced significant impairment in all domains of quality of life compared to controls (p<0.0001 to 0.044). INTERPRETATION: A significant proportion of patients discharged from hospital reported symptoms of breathlessness, fatigue, depression and had limited exercise capacity. Persistent lung and extra-pulmonary organ MRI findings are common in patients and linked to inflammation and severity of acute illness. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford and Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centres, British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence, UKRI, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation.

19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(4): 1133-1144, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disproportionately affects older people. Observational studies suggest indolent cardiovascular involvement after recovery from acute COVID-19. However, these findings may reflect pre-existing cardiac phenotypes. AIMS: We tested the association of baseline cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phenotypes with incident COVID-19. METHODS: We studied UK Biobank participants with CMR imaging and COVID-19 testing. We considered left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes, ejection fractions, and stroke volumes, LV mass, LV strain, native T1, aortic distensibility, and arterial stiffness index. COVID-19 test results were obtained from Public Health England. Co-morbidities were ascertained from self-report and hospital episode statistics (HES). Critical care admission and death were from HES and death register records. We investigated the association of each cardiovascular measure with COVID-19 test result in multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: We studied 310 participants (n = 70 positive). Median age was 63.8 [57.5, 72.1] years; 51.0% (n = 158) were male. 78.7% (n = 244) were tested in hospital, 3.5% (n = 11) required critical care admission, and 6.1% (n = 19) died. In fully adjusted models, smaller LV/RV end-diastolic volumes, smaller LV stroke volume, and poorer global longitudinal strain were associated with significantly higher odds of COVID-19 positivity. DISCUSSION: We demonstrate association of pre-existing adverse CMR phenotypes with greater odds of COVID-19 positivity independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Observational reports of cardiovascular involvement after COVID-19 may, at least partly, reflect pre-existing cardiac status rather than COVID-19 induced alterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
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