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2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S808-S809, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564089

ABSTRACT

Background Interventions to reduce mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are a crucial unmet medical need. Baricitinib (BARI) is an oral, selective Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor with efficacy in hospitalized adults with COVID-19. Treatment with BARI 4-mg was evaluated in critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 with baseline need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Methods COV-BARRIER (NCT04421027) was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and elevation of ≥ 1 serum inflammatory marker. In this newly completed substudy, enrolled participants (not previously reported) from 4 countries on IMV or ECMO at study entry were randomly assigned 1:1 to once-daily BARI 4-mg or placebo (PBO) for up to 14 days plus standard of care (SOC), which included baseline systemic corticosteroid use in 86% of patients. The prespecified exploratory endpoints included all-cause mortality and number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) through Day 28. Results Characteristics for 101 participants are shown in Table 1. Treatment with BARI significantly reduced all-cause mortality by Day 28 compared to PBO [39.2% vs 58.0%, respectively;hazard ratio (HR) = 0.54 (95%CI 0.31, 0.96), p=0.030, relative risk (RR) = 0.68 (95%CI 0.45, 1.02);Figure 1A]. One additional death was prevented for every six BARI-treated patients. Significant reduction in mortality was also observed by Day 60 [45.1% vs 62.0%;HR = 0.56 (95%CI 0.33, 0.97), p=0.027, RR = 0.73 (95%CI 0.50, 1.06);Figure 1B]. Patients treated with BARI showed a numerical reduction in the duration of IMV and duration of hospitalization vs PBO and more BARI treated patients recovered (Table 2). No new safety findings were observed (Table 2). Conclusion Treatment with BARI+SOC (corticosteroids) resulted in an absolute risk reduction in mortality of 19% at Day 28 and 17% at Day 60 in patients with COVID-19 who were on IMV or ECMO at enrollment. These results are consistent with the reduction in mortality observed in the less severely ill hospitalized patients in the primary COV-BARRIER study population. Disclosures E. Wesley Ely, MD, CDC (Grant/Research Support)Eli Lilly (Other Financial or Material Support, Unpaid consultant)NIH (Grant/Research Support)VA (Grant/Research Support) Athimalaipet V. Ramanan, FRCP, AbbVie (Consultant, Speaker’s Bureau)Eli Lilly and Company (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Speaker’s Bureau)Novartis (Consultant, Speaker’s Bureau)Pfizer (Consultant, Speaker’s Bureau)Roche (Consultant, Speaker’s Bureau)Sobi (Consultant, Speaker’s Bureau)UCB (Consultant, Speaker’s Bureau) Cynthia E. Kartman, RN BSN, Eli Lilly and Company (Employee, Shareholder) Stephanie de Bono, MD PhD, Eli Lilly and Company (Employee, Shareholder) Ran Liao, PhD, Eli Lilly and Company (Employee, Shareholder) Maria Lucia B Piruzeli, MD, Eli Lilly and Company (Employee, Shareholder) Sujatro Chakladar, PhD, Eli Lilly and Company (Employee, Shareholder) Vincent Marconi, MD, Bayer (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Eli Lilly (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Gilead Sciences (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)ViiV (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1407-1418, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib is an oral selective Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor with known anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in combination with standard of care for the treatment of hospitalised adults with COVID-19. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, participants were enrolled from 101 centres across 12 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Hospitalised adults with COVID-19 receiving standard of care were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily baricitinib (4 mg) or matched placebo for up to 14 days. Standard of care included systemic corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, and antivirals, including remdesivir. The composite primary endpoint was the proportion who progressed to high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death by day 28, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. All-cause mortality by day 28 was a key secondary endpoint, and all-cause mortality by day 60 was an exploratory endpoint; both were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the safety population defined as all randomly allocated participants who received at least one dose of study drug and who were not lost to follow-up before the first post-baseline visit. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04421027. FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 1525 participants were randomly assigned to the baricitinib group (n=764) or the placebo group (n=761). 1204 (79·3%) of 1518 participants with available data were receiving systemic corticosteroids at baseline, of whom 1099 (91·3%) were on dexamethasone; 287 (18·9%) participants were receiving remdesivir. Overall, 27·8% of participants receiving baricitinib and 30·5% receiving placebo progressed to meet the primary endpoint (odds ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·67 to 1·08], p=0·18), with an absolute risk difference of -2·7 percentage points (95% CI -7·3 to 1·9). The 28-day all-cause mortality was 8% (n=62) for baricitinib and 13% (n=100) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [95% CI 0·41-0·78]; nominal p=0·0018), a 38·2% relative reduction in mortality; one additional death was prevented per 20 baricitinib-treated participants. The 60-day all-cause mortality was 10% (n=79) for baricitinib and 15% (n=116) for placebo (HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·47-0·83]; p=0·0050). The frequencies of serious adverse events (110 [15%] of 750 in the baricitinib group vs 135 [18%] of 752 in the placebo group), serious infections (64 [9%] vs 74 [10%]), and venous thromboembolic events (20 [3%] vs 19 [3%]) were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: Although there was no significant reduction in the frequency of disease progression overall, treatment with baricitinib in addition to standard of care (including dexamethasone) had a similar safety profile to that of standard of care alone, and was associated with reduced mortality in hospitalised adults with COVID-19. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 511-521, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global randomised controlled trials of the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have shown conflicting results but potential decreases in time to discharge and burden on intensive care. Tocilizumab reduced progression to mechanical ventilation and death in a trial population enriched for racial and ethnic minorities. We aimed to investigate whether tocilizumab treatment could prevent COVID-19 progression in the first multicentre randomised controlled trial of tocilizumab done entirely in a lower-middle-income country. METHODS: COVINTOC is an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 12 public and private hospitals across India. Adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 (Indian Ministry of Health grading) confirmed by positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result were randomly assigned (1:1 block randomisation) to receive tocilizumab 6 mg/kg plus standard care (the tocilizumab group) or standard care alone (the standard care group). The primary endpoint was progression of COVID-19 (from moderate to severe or from severe to death) up to day 14 in the modified intention-to-treat population of all participants who had at least one post-baseline assessment for the primary endpoint. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients. The trial is completed and registered with the Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI/2020/05/025369). FINDINGS: 180 patients were recruited between May 30, 2020, and Aug 31, 2020, and randomly assigned to the tocilizumab group (n=90) or the standard care group (n=90). One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group inadvertently received tocilizumab at baseline and was included in the tocilizumab group for all analyses. One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group withdrew consent after the baseline visit and did not receive any study medication and was not included in the modified intention-to-treat population but was still included in safety analyses. 75 (82%) of 91 in the tocilizumab group and 68 (76%) of 89 in the standard care group completed 28 days of follow-up. Progression of COVID-19 up to day 14 occurred in eight (9%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 11 (13%) of 88 in the standard care group (difference -3·71 [95% CI -18·23 to 11·19]; p=0·42). 33 (36%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 22 (25%) of 89 patients in the standard care group had adverse events; 18 (20%) and 15 (17%) had serious adverse events. The most common adverse event was acute respiratory distress syndrome, reported in seven (8%) patients in each group. Grade 3 adverse events were reported in two (2%) patients in the tocilizumab group and five (6%) patients in the standard care group. There were no grade 4 adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in 18 (20%) patients in the tocilizumab group and 15 (17%) in the standard care group; 13 (14%) and 15 (17%) patients died during the study. INTERPRETATION: Routine use of tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 is not supported. However, post-hoc evidence from this study suggests tocilizumab might still be effective in patients with severe COVID-19 and so should be investigated further in future studies. FUNDING: Medanta Institute of Education and Research, Roche India, Cipla India, and Action COVID-19 India.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , India , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
JAMA ; 326(6): 499-518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413703

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of IL-6 antagonists in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have variously reported benefit, no effect, and harm. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of IL-6 antagonists compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality and other outcomes. Data Sources: Trials were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases between October 2020 and January 2021. Searches were not restricted by trial status or language. Additional trials were identified through contact with experts. Study Selection: Eligible trials randomly assigned patients hospitalized for COVID-19 to a group in whom IL-6 antagonists were administered and to a group in whom neither IL-6 antagonists nor any other immunomodulators except corticosteroids were administered. Among 72 potentially eligible trials, 27 (37.5%) met study selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: In this prospective meta-analysis, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs) for 28-day all-cause mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. There were 9 secondary outcomes including progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death and risk of secondary infection by 28 days. Results: A total of 10 930 patients (median age, 61 years [range of medians, 52-68 years]; 3560 [33%] were women) participating in 27 trials were included. By 28 days, there were 1407 deaths among 6449 patients randomized to IL-6 antagonists and 1158 deaths among 4481 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]; P = .003 based on a fixed-effects meta-analysis). This corresponds to an absolute mortality risk of 22% for IL-6 antagonists compared with an assumed mortality risk of 25% for usual care or placebo. The corresponding summary ORs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92; P < .001) for tocilizumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86-1.36; P = .52) for sarilumab. The summary ORs for the association with mortality compared with usual care or placebo in those receiving corticosteroids were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87) for tocilizumab and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38) for sarilumab. The ORs for the association with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death, compared with usual care or placebo, were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for all IL-6 antagonists, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for tocilizumab, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74-1.34) for sarilumab. Secondary infections by 28 days occurred in 21.9% of patients treated with IL-6 antagonists vs 17.6% of patients treated with usual care or placebo (OR accounting for trial sample sizes, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, administration of IL-6 antagonists, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021230155.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial
6.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(9): e615-e616, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321531
7.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on multiple aspects of healthcare, but has also triggered new ways of working, stimulated novel approaches in clinical research and reinforced the value of previous innovations. Conect4children (c4c, www.conect4children.org ) is a large collaborative European network to facilitate the development of new medicines for paediatric populations, and is made up of 35 academic and 10 industry partners from 20 European countries, more than 50 third parties, and around 500 affiliated partners. METHODS: We summarise aspects of clinical research in paediatrics stimulated and reinforced by COVID-19 that the Conect4children group recommends regulators, sponsors, and investigators retain for the future, to enhance the efficiency, reduce the cost and burden of medicines and non-interventional studies, and deliver research-equity. FINDINGS: We summarise aspects of clinical research in paediatrics stimulated and reinforced by COVID-19 that the Conect4children group recommends regulators, sponsors, and investigators retain for the future, to enhance the efficiency, reduce the cost and burden of medicines and non-interventional studies, and deliver research-equityWe provide examples of research innovation, and follow this with recommendations to improve the efficiency of future trials, drawing on industry perspectives, regulatory considerations, infrastructure requirements and parent-patient-public involvement. We end with a comment on progress made towards greater international harmonisation of paediatric research and how lessons learned from COVID-19 studies might assist in further improvements in this important area.

10.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 3: 100075, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144857

ABSTRACT

Background: Paediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), first identified in April 2020, shares features of both Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). The surveillance describes the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of PIMS-TS in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Methods: Public Health England initiated prospective national surveillance of PIMS-TS through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Paediatricians were contacted monthly to report PIMS-TS, KD and TSS cases electronically and complete a detailed clinical questionnaire. Cases with symptom onset between 01 March and 15 June 2020 were included. Findings: There were 216 cases with features of PIMS-TS alone, 13 with features of both PIMS-TS and KD, 28 with features of PIMS-TS and TSS and 11 with features of PIMS-TS, KD and TSS, with differences in age, ethnicity, clinical presentation and disease severity between the phenotypic groups. There was a strong geographical and temporal association between SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and PIMS-TS cases. Of those tested, 14.8% (39/264) children had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, and 63.6% (75/118) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In total 44·0% (118/268) required intensive care, which was more common in cases with a TSS phenotype. Three of five children with cardiac arrest had TSS phenotype. Three children (1·1%) died. Interpretation: The strong association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and PIMS-TS emphasises the importance of maintaining low community infection rates to reduce the risk of this rare but severe complication in children and adolescents. Close follow-up will be important to monitor long-term complications in children with PIMS-TS. Funding: PHE.

11.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 17(3): 145-157, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065891

ABSTRACT

A hyperinflammatory 'cytokine storm' state termed macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), culminating from a complex interplay of genetics, immunodeficiency, infectious triggers and dominant innate immune effector responses, can develop across disparate entities including systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and its counterpart adult-onset Still disease (AOSD), connective tissue diseases, sepsis, infection, cancers and cancer immunotherapy. Classifying MAS using the immunological disease continuum model, with strict boundaries that define the limits of innate and adaptive immunity, at one boundary is MAS with loss of immune function, as occurs in the 'perforinopathies' and some cases of sJIA-AOSD. Conversely, at the other boundary, immune hypersensitivity with gain of immune function in MHC class II-associated sJIA-AOSD and with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy also triggers MAS. This provides a benchmark for evaluating severe inflammation in some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, which cripples primary type I interferon immunity and usually culminates in a lung-centric 'second wave' cytokine-driven alveolitis with associated immunothrombosis; this phenomenon is generally distinct from MAS but can share features with the proposed 'loss of immune function' MAS variant. This loss and gain of function MAS model offers immune cartography for a novel mechanistic classification of MAS with therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology
12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe systemic inflammation associated with some stages of COVID-19 and in fatal cases led therapeutic agents developed or used frequently in Rheumatology being at the vanguard of experimental therapeutics strategies. The aim of this project was to elaborate EULAR Points to consider (PtCs) on COVID-19 pathophysiology and immunomodulatory therapies. METHODS: PtCs were developed in accordance with EULAR standard operating procedures for endorsed recommendations, led by an international multidisciplinary Task Force, including rheumatologists, translational immunologists, haematologists, paediatricians, patients and health professionals, based on a systemic literature review up to 15 December 2020. Overarching principles (OPs) and PtCs were formulated and consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: Two OPs and fourteen PtCs were developed. OPs highlight the heterogeneous clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need of a multifaceted approach to target the different pathophysiological mechanisms. PtCs 1-6 encompass the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 including immune response, endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers. PtCs 7-14 focus on the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection with immunomodulators. There was evidence supporting the use of glucocorticoids, especially dexamethasone, in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy. No other immunomodulator demonstrated efficacy on mortality to date, with however inconsistent results for tocilizumab. Immunomodulatory therapy was not associated with higher infection rates. CONCLUSIONS: Multifactorial pathophysiological mechanisms, including immune abnormalities, play a key role in COVID-19. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in cases requiring oxygen therapy suggests that immunomodulatory treatment might be effective in COVID-19 subsets. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should continue in ongoing clinical trials delineating optimal immunomodulatory therapy utilisation in COVID-19.

14.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(3): e224-e233, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053909

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been occasionally linked to histologically confirmed cutaneous vasculitis and a Kawasaki-like vasculitis, with these entities generally having minimal or no lung involvement and a good prognosis. Unlike these vasculitis types, patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia can develop cutaneous vasculitis-like lesions and systemic arterial and venous thromboemboli, including cryptogenic strokes and other vasculopathy features. Proposed underlying mechanisms for these severe manifestations have encompassed immune dysregulation, including an anti-phospholipid syndrome-like state, complement activation, viral dissemination with direct systemic endothelial infection, viral RNAaemia with immunothrombosis, clotting pathway activation mediated by hypoxaemia, and immobility. In this Viewpoint, we highlight how imaging and post-mortem findings from patients with COVID-19 indicate a novel thrombosis in the pulmonary venous territory distal to the alveolar capillary bed, a territory that normally acts as a clot filtration system, which might represent an unappreciated nidus for systemic microembolism. Additionally, we suggest that this mechanism represents a novel vasculitis mimic related to COVID-19 that might lead to cryptogenic strokes across multivessel territories, acute kidney injury with haematuria, a skin vasculitis mimic, intestinal ischaemia, and other organ ischaemic manifestations. This finding is supported by pathological reports of extensive pulmonary venular thrombosis and peripheral organ thrombosis with pauci-immune cellular infiltrates. Therefore, severe COVID-19 pneumonia with extensive pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy might help to explain the numerous systemic complications of COVID-19, in which the demonstration of direct organ infection has not adequately explained the pathology.

15.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 133-141, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779849

ABSTRACT

Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) is a novel condition that was first reported in April, 2020. We aimed to develop a national consensus management pathway for the UK to provide guidance for clinicians caring for children with PIMS-TS. A three-phase online Delphi process and virtual consensus meeting sought consensus over the investigation, management, and research priorities from multidisciplinary clinicians caring for children with PIMS-TS. We used 140 consensus statements to derive a consensus management pathway that describes the initial investigation of children with suspected PIMS-TS, including blood markers to help determine the severity of disease, an echocardiogram, and a viral and septic screen to exclude other infectious causes of illness. The importance of a multidisciplinary team in decision making for children with PIMS-TS is highlighted throughout the guidance, along with the recommended treatment options, including supportive care, intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone, and biological therapies. These include IL-1 antagonists (eg, anakinra), IL-6 receptor blockers (eg, tocilizumab), and anti-TNF agents (eg, infliximab) for children with Kawasaki disease-like phenotype and non-specific presentations. Use of a rapid online Delphi process has made it possible to generate a national consensus pathway in a timely and cost-efficient manner in the middle of a global pandemic. The consensus statements represent the views of UK clinicians and are applicable to children in the UK suspected of having PIMS-TS. Future evidence will inform updates to this guidance, which in the interim provides a solid framework to support clinicians caring for children with PIMS-TS. This process has directly informed new PIMS-TS specific treatment groups as part of the adaptive UK RECOVERY trial protocol, which is the first formal randomised controlled trial of therapies for PIMS-TS globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Pathways/standards , Disease Management , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Consensus , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United Kingdom
16.
Indian Pediatr ; 57(10): 929-935, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656489

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 initially appeared to cause only a mild illness in children. However, it is now apparent that a small percentage of children can develop a hyperinflammatory syndrome labeled as Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome - temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). Features of this newly recognized condition may include persistent fever, evidence of inflammation, and single or multi-organ dysfunction in the absence of other known infections. Some of these children may share features of Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome or cytokine storm syndrome. They can deteriorate rapidly and may need intensive care support as well. The PCR test is more often negative; although, most of the children have antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Although the pathogenesis is not clearly known, immune-mediated injury has been implicated. We herein provide current information on this condition, in order to raise awareness amongst pediatricians.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Indian pediatrics ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-47886

ABSTRACT

Pediatric coronavirus disease - 19 (COVID-19) infection is relatively mild when compared to adults, and children are reported to have a better prognosis. Mortality in children appears rare. Clinical features of COVID-19 in children include fever and cough, but a large proportion of infected children appears to be asymptomatic and may contribute to transmission. It remains unclear why children and young adults are less severely affected than older individuals, but this might involve differences in immune system function in the elderly and/or differences in the expression/function of the cellular receptor for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Laboratory findings and chest imaging may not be specific in children with COVID-19. Diagnosis is by Reverse transcriptase-Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of upper or lower respiratory tract secretions. This review additionally considers COVID-19 in immunosuppressed children, and also suggests a management algorithm for the few children who appear to present with life threatening infection, including the potential use of antiviral and immunomodulatory treatment. The most significant threat to global child health from SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely to be related to COVID 19 in children, but rather the socio-economic consequences of a prolonged pandemic.

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