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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305470

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : The reports of neurological symptoms are increasing in cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multi-center prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of neurological manifestations in hospitalized cases with COVID-19 and assess these symptoms as the predictors of severity and death. Methods: : Hospitalized males and females with COVID-19 who aged over 18 years were included in the study. They were examined by two neurologists at the time of admission. All survived cases were followed for eight weeks after discharge and 16 weeks if their symptoms had no improvements. Results: : We included 873 participants. Of eligible cases, 122 individuals (13.97%) died during hospitalization. The most common non-neurological manifestations were fever (81.1%), cough (76.1%), fatigue (36.1%), and shortness of breath (27.6%). Aging, male gender, co-morbidity, smoking, hemoptysis, chest tightness, and shortness of breath were associated with increased odds of severe cases and/or mortality. There were 561 (64.3%) cases with smell and taste dysfunctions (hyposmia: 58.6%;anosmia: 41.4%;dysguesia: 100%). They were more common among females (69.7%) and non-smokers (66.7%). Hyposmia/anosmia and dysgeusia were found to be associated with reduced odds of severe cases and mortality. Myalgia (24.8%), headaches (12.6%), and dizziness (11.9%) were other common neurological symptoms. Headaches had negative correlation with severity and death due to COVID-19 but myalgia and dizziness were not associated. The cerebrovascular events (n=10) and status epilepticus (n=1) were other neurological findings. The partial or full recovery of smell and taste dysfunctions was found in 95.2% after eight weeks and 97.3% after 16 weeks. The parosmia (30.9%) and phantosmia (9.0%) were also reported during 8 weeks of follow-up. Five cases with mild headaches and 5 cases with myalgia were reported after 16 weeks of discharge. The demyelinating myelitis (n=1) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (n=1) were also found during follow-up. Conclusion: Neurological symptoms were found to be prevalent among individuals with COVID-19 disease and should not be under-estimated during the current pandemic outbreak.

2.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences ; 429:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1461529
3.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
4.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 116, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: The reports of neurological symptoms are increasing in cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multi-center prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of neurological manifestations in hospitalized cases with COVID-19 and assess these symptoms as the predictors of severity and death. METHODS: Hospitalized males and females with COVID-19 who aged over 18 years were included in the study. They were examined by two neurologists at the time of admission. All survived cases were followed for 8 weeks after discharge and 16 weeks if their symptoms had no improvements. RESULTS: We included 873 participants. Of eligible cases, 122 individuals (13.97%) died during hospitalization. The most common non-neurological manifestations were fever (81.1%), cough (76.1%), fatigue (36.1%), and shortness of breath (27.6%). Aging, male gender, co-morbidity, smoking, hemoptysis, chest tightness, and shortness of breath were associated with increased odds of severe cases and/or mortality. There were 561 (64.3%) cases with smell and taste dysfunctions (hyposmia: 58.6%; anosmia: 41.4%; dysguesia: 100%). They were more common among females (69.7%) and non-smokers (66.7%). Hyposmia/anosmia and dysgeusia were found to be associated with reduced odds of severe cases and mortality. Myalgia (24.8%), headaches (12.6%), and dizziness (11.9%) were other common neurological symptoms. Headaches had negative correlation with severity and death due to COVID-19 but myalgia and dizziness were not associated. The cerebrovascular events (n = 10) and status epilepticus (n = 1) were other neurological findings. The partial or full recovery of smell and taste dysfunctions was found in 95.2% after 8 weeks and 97.3% after 16 weeks. The parosmia (30.9%) and phantosmia (9.0%) were also reported during 8 weeks of follow-up. Five cases with mild headaches and 5 cases with myalgia were reported after 16 weeks of discharge. The demyelinating myelitis (n = 1) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1) were also found during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Neurological symptoms were found to be prevalent among individuals with COVID-19 disease and should not be under-estimated during the current pandemic outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 154-159, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059492

ABSTRACT

As the SARS-COV-2 becomes a global pandemic, many researchers have a concern about the long COVID-19 complications. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a persistent, debilitating, and unexplained fatigue disorder. We investigated psychological morbidities such as CFS and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors of COVID-19 over 6 months. All COVID-19 survivors from the university-affiliated hospital of Tehran, Iran, were assessed 6 months after infection onset by a previously validated questionnaire based on the Fukuda guidelines for CFS/EM and DSM-5 Checklist for PTSD (The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 or PCL-5) to determine the presence of stress disorder and chronic fatigue problems. A total of 120 patients were enrolled. The prevalence rate of fatigue symptoms was 17.5%. Twelve (10%) screened positive for chronic idiopathic fatigue (CIF), 6 (5%) for CFS-like with insufficient fatigue syndrome (CFSWIFS), and 3 (2.5%) for CFS. The mean total scores in PCL-5 were 9.27 ± 10.76 (range:0-44), and the prevalence rate of PTSD was 5.8%. There was no significant association after adjusting between CFS and PTSD, gender, comorbidities, and chloroquine phosphate administration. The obtained data revealed the prevalence of CFS among patients with COVID-19, which is almost similar to CFS prevalence in the general population. Moreover, PTSD in patients with COVID-19 is not associated with the increased risk of CFS. Our study suggested that medical institutions should pay attention to the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cough/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Dyspnea/psychology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/psychology , Fever/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cough/complications , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Dementia/complications , Dementia/drug therapy , Dementia/virology , Drug Combinations , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/complications , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/drug therapy , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/virology , Female , Fever/complications , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Research Design , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/drug therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors/psychology
6.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-4, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917568

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, methanol-containing beverages' consumption has risen because people mistakenly believed that alcohol might protect them against the virus. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predisposing factors of brain lesions in patients with methanol toxicity and its outcome. A total of 516 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning were enrolled in this retrospective study, of which 40 patients underwent spiral brain computed tomography (CT) scan. The presence of unilateral or bilateral brain necrosis was significantly higher in the non-survival group (p = 0.001). Also, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and brain edema were prevalent among patients that subsequently died (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively). Lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was related to a higher mortality rate (p = 0.001). The mortality rate in chronic alcohol consumption was lower than the patients who drank alcohol for the first time (p = 0.014). In conclusion, increasing the number of methanol poisoning and its associated mortality and morbidity should be considered a threat during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Basic Clin Neurosci ; 11(2): 179-184, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730175

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is n global public health emergency and challenges psychological resilience. The central nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system are complex interacting systems. Cortisol has been implicated as the cause of a wide range of mental and physical health disorders; however, the impact of cortisol on outcomes in patients with COVID-19 is not clear. METHODS: The current study enrolled patients with COVID-19 (onset of disease within 7 days of the first symptom) to evaluate the serum concentration of cortisol and levels of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to investigate a possible relationship between cortisol, depression, and anxiety levels and outcomes of patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients with COVID-19 were studied. The levels of cortisol and HADS score in patients who died of Covid-19 were significantly higher in comparison with surviving patients (P<0.017 and P<0.001 respectively). We also found that the HADS score was positively correlated with serum cortisol levels (r= 0.842, P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that stress and anxiety are associated with patients' outcomes. Psychological interventions can improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.

9.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102939, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an increased attention to stroke following SARS-CoV-2. The goal of this study was to better depict the short-term risk of stroke and its associated factors among SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. METHODS: This multicentre, multinational observational study includes hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from North and South America (United States, Canada, and Brazil), Europe (Greece, Italy, Finland, and Turkey), Asia (Lebanon, Iran, and India), and Oceania (New Zealand). The outcome was the risk of subsequent stroke. Centres were included by non-probability sampling. The counts and clinical characteristics including laboratory findings and imaging of the patients with and without a subsequent stroke were recorded according to a predefined protocol. Quality, risk of bias, and heterogeneity assessments were conducted according to ROBINS-E and Cochrane Q-test. The risk of subsequent stroke was estimated through meta-analyses with random effect models. Bivariate logistic regression was used to determine the parameters with predictive outcome value. The study was reported according to the STROBE, MOOSE, and EQUATOR guidelines. FINDINGS: We received data from 26,175 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from 99 tertiary centres in 65 regions of 11 countries until May 1st, 2020. A total of 17,799 patients were included in meta-analyses. Among them, 156(0.9%) patients had a stroke-123(79%) ischaemic stroke, 27(17%) intracerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 6(4%) cerebral sinus thrombosis. Subsequent stroke risks calculated with meta-analyses, under low to moderate heterogeneity, were 0.5% among all centres in all countries, and 0.7% among countries with higher health expenditures. The need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.9, 95% CI:1.1-3.5, p = 0.03) and the presence of ischaemic heart disease (OR: 2.5, 95% CI:1.4-4.7, p = 0.006) were predictive of stroke. INTERPRETATION: The results of this multi-national study on hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection indicated an overall stroke risk of 0.5%(pooled risk: 0.9%). The need for mechanical ventilation and the history of ischaemic heart disease are the independent predictors of stroke among SARS-CoV-2 patients. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 44: 102324, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613379

ABSTRACT

After the novel coronavirus disease outbreak first began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the viral epidemic has quickly spread across the world, and it is now a major public health concern. Here we present a 21-year-old male with encephalomyelitis following intermittent vomiting and malaise for 4 days. He reported upper respiratory signs and symptoms 2 weeks before this presentation. Two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses were notable for mononuclear pleocytosis, elevated protein (more than 100 mg/dl), and hypoglycorrhachia. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed bilateral posterior internal capsule lesions extending to the ventral portion of the pons and a marbled splenium hyperintensity pattern. Cervical and thoracic MRI showed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), none of which were enhanced with gadolinium. Both the AQP4 and MOG antibodies were negative. Spiral chest computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed to COVID-19 as did the high IgG level against coronavirus, but the oropharyngeal swabs were negative. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have not been adequately studied. Some COVID-19 patients, especially those suffering from a severe disease, are highly likely to have central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. Our case is a post-COVID-19 demyelinating event in the CNS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Adult , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Young Adult
11.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(13): 1909-1913, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595643

ABSTRACT

Studies have found increased rates of dysosmia in patients with Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the mechanism that causes olfactory loss is unknown. The primary objective of this study was to explore local proinflammatory cytokine levels in the olfactory epithelium in patients with COVID-19. Biopsies of the olfactory epithelium were taken from patients with confirmed COVID-19 as well as uninfected controls. Levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1ß) were assessed using ELISA and compared between groups. Average TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the olfactory epithelium of the COVID-19 group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, no differences in IL-1ß were seen between groups. Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α were seen in the olfactory epithelium in patients with COVID-19. This suggests that direct inflammation of the olfactory epithelium could play a role in the acute olfactory loss described in many patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Olfaction Disorders/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytokines/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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