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2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 584-590, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With limited severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) testing capacity in the United States at the start of the epidemic (January-March 2020), testing was focused on symptomatic patients with a travel history throughout February, obscuring the picture of SARS-CoV-2 seeding and community transmission. We sought to identify individuals with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the early weeks of the US epidemic. METHODS: All of Us study participants in all 50 US states provided blood specimens during study visits from 2 January to 18 March 2020. Participants were considered seropositive if they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the EUROIMMUN SARS-CoV-2 ELISA in a sequential testing algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity of these ELISAs and the net sensitivity and specificity of the sequential testing algorithm were estimated, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The estimated sensitivities of the Abbott and EUROIMMUN assays were 100% (107 of 107 [95% CI: 96.6%-100%]) and 90.7% (97 of 107 [83.5%-95.4%]), respectively, and the estimated specificities were 99.5% (995 of 1000 [98.8%-99.8%]) and 99.7% (997 of 1000 [99.1%-99.9%]), respectively. The net sensitivity and specificity of our sequential testing algorithm were 90.7% (97 of 107 [95% CI: 83.5%-95.4%]) and 100.0% (1000 of 1000 [99.6%-100%]), respectively. Of the 24 079 study participants with blood specimens from 2 January to 18 March 2020, 9 were seropositive, 7 before the first confirmed case in the states of Illinois, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Mississippi. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified SARS-CoV-2 infections weeks before the first recognized cases in 5 US states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in Portuguese | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328176

ABSTRACT

La presente investigación analiza cómo el ecosistema mediático favorece la creación y proliferación de fake news, tomando como estudio de caso la fanpage El Mercioco durante el estado de excepción de 2020 en Ecuador. La metodología aplicada responde al enfoque cualitativo a través de entrevistas a expertos en el tema y de análisis de contenido, donde se tomó en cuenta el número de seguidores de la fanpage, la cantidad de publicaciones en el período comprendido entre marzo y junio de 2020, el tipo de fake news difundidas en la plataforma y las reacciones de la audiencia, simbolizadas por la cantidad de likes, número de veces que los post fueron compartidos y los comentarios del público. Como resultado se determinó que los temas más propensos a ser foco de noticias falsas son los de carácter político y de salud, ya que justamente durante el período de análisis de la página estudiada, ocurrió la crisis sanitaria por la COVID-19 y se originaron casos de corrupción, relacionados con insumos médicos, en hospitales públicos del país.

4.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-325818

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple risk factors have been described in HCWs, including lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), workplace setting, and profession. Screening of HCWs aims to reduce the rate of transmission to patients and colleagues. This study aims to determine current and previous SARS-COV-2 infection and describe risk factors associated with seropositivity among HCWs between June and October of 2020. Methodology: We analyzed data from the day of enrollment of a prospective cohort study, to determine point prevalence and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs of a university hospital in Colombia. We collected respiratory samples to perform RT-PCR tests and blood samples to measure SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies. We collected and analyzed data on nosocomial and community risk factors for infection. Findings: 420 hospital staff members were included. The seroprevalence at baseline was 23·2%. Of which 10·7% had only IgM, 0·7% had IgG, and 11·7% had IgM and IgG antibodies. The prevalence of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was 1·9%. Nurse assistants, medical doctors and students, and laboratory workers were more likely to be seropositive than professional nurses (PR 2·21 95% CI [1·10-3·52];PR 2·18, 95% CI [1·06-3·52];PR 2·21, 95% CI [1·02-3·63], respectively). Interpretation: Overall SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was 1·9% and seroprevalence was 23·15%. Nurse assistants, medical doctors or students, or laboratory workers had a higher possibility of being SARS-CoV-2 seropositive.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 584-590, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With limited severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) testing capacity in the United States at the start of the epidemic (January-March 2020), testing was focused on symptomatic patients with a travel history throughout February, obscuring the picture of SARS-CoV-2 seeding and community transmission. We sought to identify individuals with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the early weeks of the US epidemic. METHODS: All of Us study participants in all 50 US states provided blood specimens during study visits from 2 January to 18 March 2020. Participants were considered seropositive if they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the EUROIMMUN SARS-CoV-2 ELISA in a sequential testing algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity of these ELISAs and the net sensitivity and specificity of the sequential testing algorithm were estimated, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The estimated sensitivities of the Abbott and EUROIMMUN assays were 100% (107 of 107 [95% CI: 96.6%-100%]) and 90.7% (97 of 107 [83.5%-95.4%]), respectively, and the estimated specificities were 99.5% (995 of 1000 [98.8%-99.8%]) and 99.7% (997 of 1000 [99.1%-99.9%]), respectively. The net sensitivity and specificity of our sequential testing algorithm were 90.7% (97 of 107 [95% CI: 83.5%-95.4%]) and 100.0% (1000 of 1000 [99.6%-100%]), respectively. Of the 24 079 study participants with blood specimens from 2 January to 18 March 2020, 9 were seropositive, 7 before the first confirmed case in the states of Illinois, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Mississippi. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified SARS-CoV-2 infections weeks before the first recognized cases in 5 US states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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